Natural Hazards

, Volume 95, Issue 1–2, pp 193–206 | Cite as

Factors affecting heating energy-saving behavior of residents in hot summer and cold winter regions

  • Z. H. Ding
  • Y. Q. LiEmail author
  • C. Zhao
  • Y. Liu
  • R. Li
Original Paper


The heating energy-saving behavior of residents in the hot summer and cold winter area is crucial to reduce heating energy consumption and carbon emissions. In this paper, the theory of planned behavior is used to explore the influence of social psychological factors on residents’ energy-saving intention and behavior. Data are collected using a questionnaire survey method and analyzed using a structural equation model. The results show: (1) Personal energy-saving attitude and subjective norm have positive effects on individual’s intention to save heating energy; (2) personal energy-saving attitude and subjective norm have positive effects on purchase-related heating energy-saving behavior and habitual-related heating energy-saving behavior through the mediating effect of heating energy-saving intention; (3) perceived behavioral control and descriptive norm have no significant effects on intention and behavior; (4) subjective norm is the most sensitive variables in predicting individual’s intention to save heating energy.


Hot summer and cold winter Heating energy-saving behavior Theory of planned behavior Subjective norm 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the respected editors and the anonymous referees for their suggestions in this article. Special thanks are given to financial supports provided by the Major Special Fund for China University of Mining and Technology (2018WHCC05).


  1. Ajzen I (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 50(2):179–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alzahrani AI, Mahmud I, Ramayah T et al (2016) Extending the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain online game playing among Malaysian undergraduate students. Telemat Inf 34:239–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen MF (2016) Extending the theory of planned behavior model to explain people’s energy savings and carbon reduction behavioral intentions to mitigate climate change in Taiwan—moral obligation matters. J Clean Prod 112(3):1746–1753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen H, Xue T (2010) The model of elaborated social identity as the latest development of the collective behavior theories. Nankai J (Philos Lit Soc Sci Edn) (6):77–83 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  5. Chen CF, Xu X, Frey S (2016) Who wants solar water heaters and alternative fuel vehicles? Assessing social–psychological predictors of adoption intention and policy support in China. Energy Res Soc Sci 15:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Claudy MC, Michelsen C, O’Driscoll A (2011) The diffusion of microgeneration technologies—assessing the influence of perceived product characteristics on home owners’ willingness to pay. Energy Policy 39(3):1459–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cui Y, Yan D, Chen CF (2017) Exploring the factors and motivations influencing heating behavioral patterns and future energy use intentions in the hot summer and cold winter climate zone of China. Energy Build 153:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Delzendeh E, Wu S, Lee A et al (2017) The impact of occupants’ behaviours on building energy analysis: a research review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 80:1061–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ding YX (2017) Analysis of spatiotemporal variations of household energy consumption in China. Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  10. Donald IJ, Cooper SR, Conchie SM (2014) An extended theory of planned behaviour model of the psychological factors affecting commuters’ transport mode use. J Environ Psychol 40:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duan WT, Jiang GR (2008) A review of the theory of planned behavior. Prog Psychol Sci 2:315–320 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  12. Fishbein M, Ajzen I (1975) Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour: an introduction to theory and research. Philos Rhetor 41(4):842–844Google Scholar
  13. Gao L, Wang S et al (2017) Application of the extended theory of planned behavior to understand individual’s energy saving behavior in workplaces. Resour Conserv Recycl 127:107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guo S, Yan D, Peng C et al (2015) Investigation and analyses of residential heating in the HSCW climate zone of China: status quo and key features. Build Environ 94:532–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Horne C, Kennedy EH (2017) The power of social norms for reducing and shifting electricity use. Energy Policy 107:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu S, Yan D, Cui Y et al (2016) Urban residential heating in hot summer and cold winter zones of China—status, modeling, and scenarios to 2030. Energy Policy 92:158–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jun J, Arendt SW (2016) Understanding healthy eating behaviors at casual dining restaurants using the extended theory of planned behavior. Int J Hosp Manag 53:106–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim J, Hong T, Jeong J et al (2017) Establishment of an optimal occupant behavior considering the energy consumption and indoor environmental quality by region. Appl Energy 204:1431–1443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lafrance M, Jiang Y, Yan D, Dulac J, Guo S, Hu S et al (2015) Iea–Tsinghua joint paper: building energy use in China.
  20. Leeuw AD, Valois P, Ajzen I et al (2015) Using the theory of planned behavior to identify key beliefs underlying pro-environmental behavior in high-school students: implications for educational interventions. J Environ Psychol 42:128–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lin B, Wang Z, Liu Y et al (2016) Investigation of winter indoor thermal environment and heating demand of urban residential buildings in China’s hot summer—cold winter climate region. Build Environ 101:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Littleford C, Ryley TJ, Firth SK (2014) Context, control and the spillover of energy use behaviours between office and home settings. J Environ Psychol 40:157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ma J, Hipel KW, Hanson ML et al (2018) An analysis of influencing factors on municipal solid waste source-separated collection behavior in Guilin, China by using the theory of planned behavior. Sustain Cities Soc 37:336–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mi LY, Gu M, Yang J et al (2016) Empirical research on the psychological motivation factors of urban residents, low carbon oriented energy consumption behavior in Xuzhou City. Resour Sci 38(4):609–621 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  25. Ouyang J, Hokao K (2009) Energy-saving potential by improving occupants’ behavior in urban residential sector in Hangzhou City, China. Energy Build 41(7):711–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Park E, Sang JK (2017) What motivations drive sustainable energy-saving behavior?: an examination in South Korea. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 79:494–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Prete MI, Piper L, Rizzo C et al (2017) Determinants of Southern Italian households’ intention to adopt energy efficiency measures in residential buildings. J Clean Prod 153:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ru X, Wang S, Yan S (2018) Exploring the effects of normative factors and perceived behavioral control on individual’s energy-saving intention: an empirical study in eastern China. Resour Conserv Recycl 134:91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sapci O, Considine T (2014) The link between environmental attitudes and energy consumption behavior. J Behav Exp Econ 52:29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sheeran P, Orbell S (1999) Augmenting the theory of planned behavior: roles for anticipated regret and descriptive norms. J Appl Soc Psychol 29(10):2107–2142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shi X (2015) Application of best practice for setting minimum energy efficiency standards in technically disadvantaged countries: case study of air conditioners in brunei darussalam. Appl Energy 157(12):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sovacool BK (2014) What are we doing here? Analyzing fifteen years of energy scholarship and proposing a social science research agenda. Energy Res Soc Sci 1:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Trotta G (2018) Factors affecting energy-saving behaviours and energy efficiency investments in British households. Energy Policy 114:529–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang Z, Zhao Z, Lin B et al (2015) Residential heating energy consumption modeling through a bottom-up approach for China’s hot summer–cold winter climatic region. Energy Build 109:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang B, Wang X, Guo D, Zhang B, Wang Z (2018) Analysis of factors influencing residents’ habitual energy-saving behaviour based on nam and tpb models: egoism or altruism? Energy Policy 116:68–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Webb D, Soutar GN, Mazzarol T et al (2013) Self-determination theory and consumer behavioural change: evidence from a household energy-saving behaviour study. J Environ Psychol 35(35):59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wells VK, Taheri B, Gregory-Smith D et al (2016) The role of generativity and attitudes on employees home and workplace water and energy saving behaviours. Tour Manag 56:63–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yu M, Wang CR, Liu Y et al (2018) Water and related electrical energy use in urban households—influence of individual attributes in Beijing, China. Resour Conserv Recycl 130:190–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yun GY (2018) Influences of perceived control on thermal comfort and energy use in buildings. Energy Build 158:822–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zeng L, Yu Y, Li J (2014) China’s promoting energy-efficient products for the benefit of the people program, in 2012: results and analysis of the consumer impact study. Appl Energy 133(C):22–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. H. Ding
    • 1
  • Y. Q. Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. Zhao
    • 1
  • Y. Liu
    • 1
  • R. Li
    • 2
  1. 1.School of ManagementChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  2. 2.Quzhou CityChina

Personalised recommendations