Natural Hazards

, Volume 94, Issue 1, pp 241–260 | Cite as

Numerical modelling of hydro-mechanical behaviour of ground settlement due to rising water table in loess

  • Yanrong Xu
  • C. F. Leung
  • Jian Yu
  • Wenwu Chen
Original Paper


The numerical simulation of collapsible settlement in loess soil subjected to rising ground water table is presented in this paper. A coupled hydro-mechanical model is proposed. Comparisons between the results of numerical simulations and those of oedometer and in situ water immersion field test in Lanzhou, northwest China, reveal good agreement, which validates the proposed model formulation. Factors that influence the ground settlement of loess including initial elevation of ground water table, rising water height and velocity are then evaluated. The results of the analyses reveal that the most critical situation of largest possible ground settlement due to ground water rising in loess involves initial water table elevation of 10 m and rising water velocity of 0.5 m/year. Two upper bound lines of predicted maximum possible ground settlement are proposed to facilitate a preliminary quick evaluation of ground settlement due to rising water under different water table scenarios in loess.


Loess soil Hydro-mechanical formulation Collapsible settlement Water table rising 



This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China, Project No. 2014CB744701.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yanrong Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. F. Leung
    • 2
  • Jian Yu
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wenwu Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Civil Engineering and MechanicsLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Department of Geotechnical EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

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