Natural Hazards

, Volume 77, Issue 3, pp 2049–2079 | Cite as

Vulnerability and adaptive capacity of community food systems in the Peruvian Amazon: a case study from Panaillo

  • Mya Sherman
  • James Ford
  • Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas
  • María José Valdivia
  • Alejandra Bussalleu
  • Indigenous Health Adaptation to Climate Change (IHACC) Research Group
Original Paper

Abstract

Rainfall variability and related hydrological disasters are serious threats to agricultural production in developing countries. Since projections of climate change indicate an increase in the frequency and intensity of climatic hazards such as flooding and droughts, it is important to understand communities’ adaptive capacity to extreme hydrological events. This research uses a case study approach to characterize the current vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the food system to hydrological hazards in Panaillo, a flood-prone indigenous community in the Peruvian Amazon. Participatory methods were utilized to examine how biophysical and socioeconomic factors constrain or enable local adaptive capacity to climatic hazards over time. Seasonal flooding was shown to strongly influence agriculture and fishing cycles. Panaillo residents have developed several adaptive strategies to adjust to hydrological extremes, such as food-sharing and the cultivation of fast-growing crops on riverbeds. However, Panaillo residents generally lack the necessary human, physical, social, and natural resources to effectively employ their adaptive mechanisms as a result of major social and environmental changes in the area. Economic development, low institutional capacity, climate variability, and the assimilation social model in Peru all have profound effects on the food system and health by affecting the ways in which adaptive strategies and traditional livelihoods are practiced. Climate change has the potential to exacerbate these socioeconomic and biophysical drivers and further compromise community food systems in the Peruvian Amazon in the future.

Keywords

Climate change Adaptation Vulnerability, flood Food security Peru Amazon Food system Indigenous 

Supplementary material

11069_2015_1690_MOESM1_ESM.docx (101 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 100 kb)
11069_2015_1690_MOESM2_ESM.docx (132 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 131 kb)
11069_2015_1690_MOESM3_ESM.docx (130 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 129 kb)

References

  1. Acosta AM (2011) Analysing success in the fight against malnutrition in Peru. In: IDS working papers no. 367, pp 2–49Google Scholar
  2. Adger WN (1999) Social vulnerability to climate change and extremes in coastal Vietnam. World Dev 27(2):249–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Afifi T, Liwenga E, Kwezi L (2014) Rainfall-induced crop failure, food insecurity and out-migration in Same-Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Clim Dev 6(1):53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aguiar C, Rosenfeld J, Stevens B, Thanasombat S, Masud H (2007) An analysis of malnutrition programming and policies in Peru. Document prepared for the International Economic Development Program, University of MichiganGoogle Scholar
  5. Aikman S (2012) Interrogating discourses of intercultural education: from indigenous Amazon community to global policy forum. Compare J Comp Int Educ 42(2):235–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Behrens CA (1986) Shipibo food categorization and preference: relationships between indigenous and Western dietary concepts. Am Anthropol 88(3):647–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Behrens CA (1989) The scientific basis for Shipibo-Konibo soil classification and land use: changes in soil-plant associations with cash cropping. Am Anthropol 91(1):83–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Behrens CA (1992) Labor specialization and the formation of markets for food in a Shipibo-Konibo subsistence economy. Human Ecol 20(4):435–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergman RW (1980) Amazon economics: the simplicity of Shipibo-Konibo indian wealth. University Microfilms, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  10. Black R, Adger WN, Arnell NW et al (2011) The effect of environmental change on human migration. Glob Environ Change 21(S1):S3–S11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bohle HG, Downing TE, Watts MJ (1994) Climate change and social vulnerability: toward a sociology and geography of food insecurity. Glob Environ Change 4(1):37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brondizio ES, Moran EF (2008) Human dimensions of climate change: the vulnerability of small farmers in the Amazon. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 363(1498):1803–1809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cai W, Borlace S, Lengaigne M et al (2014) Increasing frequency of extreme El Nino events due to greenhouse warming. Nat Clim Change 4:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Campbell D, Beckford C (2009) Negotiating uncertainty: Jamaican small farmers’ adaptation and coping strategies, before and after hurricanes: a case study of hurricane dean. Sustainability 1(4):1366–1387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carmona C, Cristóbal G (2009) Pueblos indígenas y la tolerancia occidental: Los derechos humanos como forma sublimada de asimilación. Polis 8(23):301–321Google Scholar
  16. Carranza J (2013). Boletin extraordinario de la evaluación hidrológica y pluviométrica en la Cuenca amazónica peruana. (Hydrological Bulletins-August 2013). Senamhi, Lima. Retrieved on November 11, 2013 from http://www.senamhi.gob.pe/?p=0701
  17. Chambers R (1994) The origins and practice of participatory rural appraisal. World Dev 22:953–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cochrane MA, Barber CP (2009) Climate change, human land use and future fires in the Amazon. Glob Change Biol 15(3):601–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Comisión de alto nivel anticorrupción (2013) Estudios a nivel nacional. Estadísticas de la corrupción. Plan Nacional de Lucha Contra la Corupción 2012–2016. http://can.pcm.gob.pe/category/estadisticas-de-la-corrupcion/. Accessed 3 Nov 2013
  20. Cook B, Zeng N, Yoon JH (2012) Will Amazonia dry out? Magnitude and causes of change from IPCC climate model projections. Earth Interact 16(3):1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coronel Cáceres JC, Zavala Soto JL, Estrada Vitorino MA (2008, June, 3) Educación intercultural bilingüe: Meta para el desarrollo [Powerpoint slides]. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Fundamentos y enfoques de la educación y de la apredizaje course lecture. http://www.slideshare.net/guest176cf5/interculturalidad-467930. Accessed 3 Dec 2013
  22. Cossío R, Menton M, Cronkleton P et al (2014) Community forest management in the Peruvian Amazon: a literature review. In: Center for International Forestry Research, Working Paper 136. http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/WPapers/WP136Menton.pdf. Accessed 27 Mar 2014
  23. Cueto, S, Escobal, J, Penny, M et al (2011) ¿Quién se queda atrás?: resultados iniciales del estudio Niños del Milenio. Tercera ronda de encuestas en el Perú. Niños del Milenio: Información para el desarrollo, Young Lives, Instituto de Invesetigación Nutricional, Grupo de analisis para el desarrollo (GRADE). http://dide.minedu.gob.pe/xmlui/handle/123456789/82. Accessed 18 Nov 2013
  24. Cueto S, Guerrero G, León J et al (2012) Explaining and overcoming marginalization in education: Ethnic and language minorities in Peru. In: Boyden J, Bourdillon M (eds) Childhood poverty: multidisciplinary approaches. Macmillan Publishers, London, pp 261–282Google Scholar
  25. Davidson EA, de Araújo AC, Artaxo P et al (2012) The Amazon basin in transition. Nature 481(7381):321–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davis SC (2001) La evaluación rural participativa. Base de conocimientos de transporte rural. Transport Research Laboratory Limited. http://www.transport-links.org/rtkb/Spanish/Module%205%5C56a%20PRA%20-%20Spanish.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2011
  27. Defensoría del Pueblo (2008) Salud de las comunidades nativas: un reto para el estado. In: Serie informe defensoriales, vol 134, Lima, pp 251Google Scholar
  28. Ellis F (2000) Rural livelihoods and diversity in developing countries. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  29. Eriksen S (2008) What is the vulnerability of a food system to global environmental change? Ecol Soc 13(2):14Google Scholar
  30. Eriksen S, Silva JA (2009) The vulnerability context of a savanna area in Mozambique: household drought coping strategies and responses to economic change. Environ Sci Policy 12(1):33–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eriksen SH, Brown K, Kelly PM (2005) The dynamics of vulnerability: locating coping strategies in Kenya and Tanzania. Geogr J 171(4):287–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Espinoza JC, Guyot JL, Ronchail J et al (2009) Contrasting regional discharge evolutions in the Amazon basin (1974–2004). J Hydrol 375(3):297–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Espinoza JC, Ronchail J, Frappart F et al (2012) The major floods in the Amazonas River and Tributaries (Western Amazon Basin) during the 1970–2012 period: a focus on the 2012 flood. J Hydrometeorol 14(3):1000–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Etzold B, Ahmed AU, Hassan SR, Neelormi S (2014) Clouds gather in the sky, but no rain falls. Vulnerability to rainfall variability and food insecurity in Northern Bangladesh and its effects on migration. Clim Dev 6(1):18–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. FAO (2008) Climate change and food security: a framework document. FAO Corporate Document Repository. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/k2595e/k2595e00.htm. Accessed 13 Mar 2013
  36. FAO (2011) Training guide: gender and climate change research in agriculture and food security for development. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/md280e/md280e00.htm. Accessed 10 Jan 2013
  37. Finer M, Jenkins CN, Pimm SL et al (2008) Oil and gas projects in the western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples. PloSone 3(8):e2932.Google Scholar
  38. Finer M, Orta-Martínez M (2010) A second hydrocarbon boom threatens the Peruvian Amazon: trends, projections, and policy implications. Environ Res Lett 5(1):014012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ford JD (2012) Indigenous health and climate change. Am J Public Health 102(7):1260-1266.Google Scholar
  40. Ford JD, Smit B (2004) A framework for assessing the vulnerability of communities in the Canadian Arctic to risks associated with climate change. Arctic 57(4):389–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ford JD, Smit B, Wandel J et al (2006) Vulnerability to climate change in Igloolik, Nunavut: what we can learn from the past and present. Polar Record 42(02):127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L, King M et al (2010) Vulnerability of Aboriginal health systems in Canada to climate change. Glob Environ Change 20(4):668–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Francke P (2013) UNICO series 11 Peru’s comprehensive health insurance and new challenges for universal coverage. World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  44. Futemma C, Brondízio ES (2003) Land reform and land-use changes in the lower Amazon: implications for agricultural intensification. Hum Ecol 31(3):369–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Goulding M (1980) The fishes and the forest: explorations in Amazonian natural history. University of California Press, BerkleyGoogle Scholar
  46. Goy J, Waltner-Toews D (2005) Improving health in Ucayali, Peru: a multisector and multilevel analysis. EcoHealth 2(1):47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gray CL, Bilsborrow RE, Bremner JL et al (2008) Indigenous land use in the Ecuadorian Amazon: a cross-cultural and multilevel analysis. Hum Ecol 36(1):97–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Green D, King U, Morrison J (2009) Disproportionate burdens: the multidimensional impacts of climate change on the health of Indigenous Australians. Med J Aust 190(1):4Google Scholar
  49. Heise M (1999) Relaciones de género en la amazonia peruana. Centro Amazónica de Antropología y Aplicación, LimaGoogle Scholar
  50. Hofmeijer I, Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L et al (2013) Community vulnerability to the health effects of climate change among indigenous populations in the Peruvian Amazon: a case study from Panaillo and Nuevo Progreso. Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Change 18(7):957–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ingram JSI, Ericksen PJ, Liverman DM (2010) Food security and global environmental change. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Junk WJ, Bayley PB, Sparks RE (1989) The flood pulse concept in river-floodplain systems. Can Spec Publ Fish Aquat Sci 106(1):110–127Google Scholar
  53. Kelly PM, Adger WN (2000) Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climate change and Facilitating adaptation. Clim Change 47(4):325–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kesby M (2000) Participatory diagramming: deploying qualitative methods through an action research epistemology. Area 32(4):423–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kronik J, Verner D (2010) Indigenous peoples and climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kvist LP, Nebel G (2001) A review of Peruvian flood plain forests: ecosystems, inhabitants and resource use. For Ecol Manage 150(1):3–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Langerwisch F, Rost S, Gerten D et al (2013) Potential effects of climate change on inundation patterns in the Amazon Basin. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 17(6):2247–2262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ley que establece medidas tributarias, simplificación de procedimientos y permisos para la promoción y dinamización de la inversión en el país (President of the Republic) Law 30230 (Peru, July 2014)Google Scholar
  59. Lilleør HB, Van den Broeck K (2011) Economic drivers of migration and climate change in LDCs. Glob Environ Change 21(S1):S70–S81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Magrin GO, Marengo JA, Boulanger J-P et al (2014) Central and South America. In: Barros VR, Field CB, Dokken DJ et al (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part B: regional aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1499–1566Google Scholar
  61. Malhi Y, Roberts JT, Betts RA et al (2008) Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon. Science 319(5860):169–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marengo JA, Tomasella J, Soares WR et al (2012) Extreme climatic events in the Amazon basin. Theoret Appl Climatol 107(1–2):73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Marengo JA, Borma LS, Rodriguez DA et al (2013) Recent extremes of drought and flooding in Amazonia: vulnerabilities and human adaptation. Am J Clim Change 2(2):87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Maurial M, Suxo M (2011) Does intercultural bilingual education open spaces for inclusion at higher education? In: Hawkins MR (ed) Social justice language teacher education. Multilingual Matters, Bristol, pp 23–48Google Scholar
  65. Mayoux L (2005) PALS enterprise training, trickle-up. Participatory action learning system network. Kabarole Research and Resource Centre, UgandaGoogle Scholar
  66. Mayring P (2004) Qualitative content analysis. In: A companion to qualitative research, SAGE publications, Glasgow UK, pp 266–269Google Scholar
  67. McLeman RA, Hunter LM (2010) Migration in the context of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change: insights from analogues. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change 1(3):450–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McLeman R, Smit B (2006) Migration as an adaptation to climate change. Clim Change 76(1–2):31–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Milan A, Ho R (2014) Livelihood and migration patterns at different altitudes in the Central Highlands of Peru. Clim Dev 6(1):69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Milan A, Ruano S (2014) Rainfall variability, food insecurity and migration in Cabricán, Guatemala. Clim Dev 6(1):61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nebel G (2001) Sustainable land-use in Peruvian flood plain forests: options, planning and implementation. For Ecol Manage 150(1):187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. O’Brien K, Eriksen S, Nygaard LP et al (2007) Why different interpretations of vulnerability matter in climate change discourses. Clim Policy 7(1):73–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Padoch C, Brondizio E, Costa S et al (2008) Urban forest and rural cities: multi-sited households, consumption patterns, and forest resources in Amazonia. Ecol Soc 13(2):2Google Scholar
  74. Padoch C, Steward A, Pinedo-Vasquez M et al (2014) Urban residence, rural employment, and the future of Amazonian forests. In: Hecht SB, Morrison KD, Padoch C (eds) The social lives of forests: past, present, and future of woodland resurgence. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 322–335Google Scholar
  75. Pantigoso P (2014) Peru’s mining and metals investment 2014–2015. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Peru, Lima. http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY-Peru-mining-metals-investment-guide-14-15/$FILE/EY-Peru-mining-and-metals-investment-guide-2014-2015.pdf. Accessed 11 Mar 2014
  76. Pérez-Escamilla R, Melgar-Quiñonez H, Nord M et al (2007) Escala latinoamericana y caribeña de seguridad alimentaria (ELCSA). In: Memorias de la 1ª Conferencia en América Latina y el Caribe sobre la medición de la seguridad alimentaria en el hogar. Perspectivas en Nutrición Humana, pp 117–134Google Scholar
  77. Perreault T (2005) Why chacras (swidden gardens) persist: agrobiodiversity, food security, and cultural identity in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Hum Organ 64(4):327–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pinho PF, Marengo JA, Smith MS (2014) Complex socio-ecological dynamics driven by extreme events in the Amazon. Reg Environ Change. doi:10.1007/s10113-014-0659-z Google Scholar
  79. Renaud FG, Dun O, Warner K et al (2011) A decision framework for environmentally induced migration. Int Migr 49(S1):E5–E29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ribot JC, Magalhães AR, Panagides S (eds) (2005) Climate variability, climate change and social vulnerability in the semi-arid tropics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  81. Santa Cruz F, Mujica ME, Álvarez J, et al (2013) Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano Perú 2013. Cambio climático y territorio: Desafíos y respuestas para un futuro sostenible. UNDP, Lima http://www.undp.org/content/peru/es/home/library/poverty/Informesobredesarrollohumano2013/IDHPeru2013/. Accessed 2 Jan 2014
  82. Scheffran J, Marmer E, Sow P (2012) Migration as a contribution to resilience and innovation in climate adaptation: social networks and co-development in Northwest Africa. Appl Geogr 33:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Peru (SENAMHI) (2014). Avisos Meteorológicos. Ministry of Environment. http://www.senamhi.gob.pe/?p=0140. Accessed 15 Nov 2014
  84. Sherman, M (2014) Vulnerability and adaptive capacity of community food systems in the Peruvian Amazon: A case study from Panaillo. Master’s thesis, McGill UniversityGoogle Scholar
  85. Sherman M, Ford JD (2013) Market engagement and food insecurity after a climatic hazard. Global Food Security 2(3):144–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sherman M, Berrang-Ford L, Ford JD et al (2012) Balancing indigenous principles and institutional research guidelines for informed consent: a case study from the Peruvian Amazon. AJOB Prim Res 3(4):53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sirén AH (2006) Natural resources in indigenous peoples’ land in Amazonia: a tragedy of the commons? Int J Sustain Dev World Ecol 13(5):363–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Smit B, Wandel J (2006) Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Glob Environ Change 16(3):282–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Smit B, Burton I, Klein RJ et al (2000) An anatomy of adaptation to climate change and variability. Clim Change 45(1):223–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Smith N (2001) Are indigenous people conservationists? Preliminary results from the Machiguenga of the Peruvian Amazon. Ration Soc 13(4):429–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stifel D, Alderman H (2006) The “glass of milk” subsidy program and malnutrition in Peru. World Bank Econ Rev 20(3):421–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sumida Huaman E (2014) “You’re trying hard, but it’s still going to die”: indigenous youth and language tensions in Peru and the United States. Anthropol Educ Quart 45(1):71–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Takasaki Y, Barham BL, Coomes OT (2010) Smoothing income against crop flood losses in Amazonia: rain forest or rivers as a safety net? Rev Dev Econ 14(1):48–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tomasella J, Pinho PF, Borma LS et al (2013) The droughts of 1997 and 2005 in Amazonia: floodplain hydrology and its potential ecological and human impacts. Clim Change 116(3–4):723–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tournon J (2002) La merma mágica: Vida e historia de los Shipibo-Konibo-Conibo del Ucayali. Centro Amazónica de Antropología y Aplicación, LimaGoogle Scholar
  96. Tschakert P, Sagoe R, Ofori-Darko G, Codjoe SN (2010) Floods in the Sahel: an analysis of anomalies, memory, and anticipatory learning. Clim Change 103(3–4):471–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. United Nations (2014) World economic situation and prospects. UN, New York. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/wesp2014.pdf. Accessed 5 Jan 2014
  98. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR) (2013) Climate Risk Management for Agriculture in Peru: focus on the regions of Junín and Piura. UNDP BCPR, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. Urke HB, Mittelmark MB, Valdivia M (2014) Trends in stunting and overweight in Peruvian pre-schoolers from 1991 to 2011: findings from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Public Health Nutr 17(11):2407–2418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Valdivia N, Benavides M, Torero M (2007) Exclusión, identidad étnica y políticas de inclusion social en el Perú: El caso de la población indígena y la población afrodescendiente. In: Investigación, políticas y desarrollo en el Perú. (Edition 1). Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE), Capitulos de Libros, Lima, pp 603–655Google Scholar
  101. Vásquez J, Mori R, Zucchelli M et al (2012) Emergency support to the communities most affected by the flood in Ucayali – 2011. INDECI, Ucayali Regional Government, ECHO, OCHA, FAO, UNICEF, COOPI, German Red Cross (Peru), Lima http://bvpad.indeci.gob.pe/doc/pdf/esp/doc2222/doc2222-2.pdf. Accessed 15 June 2013
  102. Vegas de Cáceres I (2010) Cambio climático en el Perú. Amazonía. Fundación M.J. Bustamente de la Fuente, LimaGoogle Scholar
  103. Warner K (2010) Global environmental change and migration: governance challenges. Glob Environ Change 20(3):402–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Warner K, Afifi T (2014) Where the rain falls: evidence from 8 countries on how vulnerable households use migration to manage the risk of rainfall variability and food insecurity. Clim Dev 6(1):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Warner K, Ehrhart C, de Sherbinin A et al (2009) In search of shelter: Mapping the effects of climate change on human migration and displacement. In: In search of shelter: mapping the effects of climate change on human migration and displacement. CARE; United Nations University; Columbia University. CIESIN; The World Bank. Social Dimensions of Climate Change; UN. High Commisiones for RefugeesGoogle Scholar
  106. Watts MJ, Bohle HG (1993) The space of vulnerability: the causal structure of hunger and famine. Prog Hum Geogr 17(1):43–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. World Bank Peru (2013) How corruption affects the development of Peru [Video]. World Bank Peru, Peru. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/video/2013/04/30/how-corruption-affects-the-development-of-Peru. Accessed 3 Nov 2013
  108. Yamada G, Castro J (2007) Poverty, inequality, and social policies in Peru: as poor as it gets (No. 07-06). Universidad del Pacífico Research Center, Lima, PeruGoogle Scholar
  109. Ziervogel G, Bharwani S, Downing TE (2006) Adapting to climate variability: pumpkins, people and policy. In: Natural Resources Forum, vol 30, no 4. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, UK, pp 294–305Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mya Sherman
    • 1
  • James Ford
    • 1
  • Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas
    • 2
  • María José Valdivia
    • 2
  • Alejandra Bussalleu
    • 2
  • Indigenous Health Adaptation to Climate Change (IHACC) Research Group
  1. 1.Department of GeographyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Fundación Cayetano HerediaUniversidad Peruana Cayetano HerediaLimaPeru

Personalised recommendations