Skip to main content
Log in

A review of multiple natural hazards and risks in Germany

Natural Hazards Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Cite this article

Abstract

Although Germany is not among the most hazard-prone regions of the world, it does experience various natural hazards that have caused considerable economic and human losses in the past. Moreover, risk due to natural hazards is expected to increase in several regions of Germany if efficient risk management is not able to accommodate global changes. The most important natural hazards, in terms of past human and economic damage they caused, are storms, floods, extreme temperatures and earthquakes. They all show a pronounced spatial and temporal variability. In the present article, a review of these natural hazards, associated risks and their management in Germany is provided. This review reveals that event and risk analyses, as well as risk management, predominantly focus on one single hazard, generally not considering the cascading and conjoint effects in a full multi-hazard and risks approach. However, risk management would need integrated multi-risk analyses to identify, understand, quantify and compare different natural hazards and their impacts, as well as their interactions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Allmann A, Rauch E, Smolka A (1998) New paleoseismological findings on major earthquakes in Central Europe. Possible consequences for the earthquake loss potential in Germany. In: Proceedings 11th ECEE Paris/France, Rotterdam

  • American Meteorological Society (2012) Glossary of metrology. http://glossary.ametsoc.org. Accessed May 2013

  • Apel H, Thieken AH, Merz B, Blöschl G (2006) A probabilistic modelling system for assessing flood risks. Nat Hazards 38(1–2):79–100. doi:10.1007/s11069-005-8603-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Apel H, Aronica GT, Kreibich H, Thieken AH (2009) Flood risk analyses—how detailed do we need to be? Nat Hazards 49(1):79–98. doi:10.1007/s11069-008-9277-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Banks JC, Camp JV, Abkowitz MD (2014) Adaptation planning for floods: a review of available tools. Nat Hazards 70:1327–1337. doi:10.1007/s11069-013-0876-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barnett AG, Hajat S, Gasparrini A, Rocklöv J (2012) Cold and heat waves in the United States. Environ Res 1(112):218–224. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2011.12.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barredo JI (2007) Major flood disasters in Europe: 1950–2005. Nat Hazards 42(1):125–148. doi:10.1007/s11069-006-9065-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barredo JI (2010) No upward trend in normalised windstorm losses in Europe. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10:97–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • BayWG (2010) Bayerisches Wassergesetz http://www.gesetze-bayern.de/jportal/portal/page/bsbayprod.psml?showdoccase=1&doc.id=jlr-WasGBY2010rahmen&doc.part=X. Accessed 18 May 2014

  • BBK (2010) Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe (2010) Neue Strategie zum Schutz der Bevölkerung in Deutschland. http://www.bbk.bund.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/BBK/DE/Publikationen/Wissenschaftsforum/Band-4_NeueStrategie.pdf?__blob=publicationFile. Accessed 15 March 2014

  • Bedka KM (2011) Overshooting cloud top detections using MSG SEVIRI Infrared brightness temperatures and their relationship to severe weather over Europe. Atmos Res 99:175–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beurton S, Thieken A (2009) Seasonality of floods in Germany. Hydrol Sci J 54(1):62–76. doi:10.1623/hysj.54.1.62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bittner R, Günther K, Merz B (2009) Naturkatastrophen in Deutschland. Hochwasserschutz und Katastrophenmanagement 6:7–10

    Google Scholar 

  • BMU (2009) Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (2009) Dem Klimawandel begegnen—Die Deutsche Anpassungsstrategie. BMU, Berlin

  • Bogenrieder O (2004) Vortrag auf dem Dresdner Forum zur Versicherungsmathematik 2004. http://www.math.tudresden.de/sto/schmidt/verein/2004_Dresdner_Forum/bogenrieder.pdf. Accessed 24 Oct 2012

  • Bovolo CI, Abele SJ, Bathurst JC, Caballero D, Ciglan M, Eftichidis G, Simo B (2009) A distributed framework for multi-risk assessment of natural hazards used to model the effects of forest fire on hydrology and sediment yield. Comput Geosci 35(5):924–945. doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2007.10.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brasseur G (2001) Development and application of a physical approach to estimating wind gusts. Mon Wea Rev 129:5–25. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2001)1292.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brombach J (2012) Modifikation der Strömung über Mittelgebirgen und die Auswirkungen auf das Auftreten hochreichender Konvektion. Diploma Thesis, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruher Institute of Technology (KIT)

  • Bundesregierung (2013)—Bericht zur Flutkatastrophe 2013—Katastrophenhilfe, Entschädigung, Wiederaufbau. Deutscher Bundestag. Drucksache 17/14743, available at: http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/147/1714743.pdf. Accessed 12 Nov 2013

  • Camelbeeck T, Meghraoui M (1998) Geological and geophysical evidence for large paleoearthquakes with surface faulting in the Roer Grabe (northwest Europe). Geophys J Int 132:347–362

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Camelbeeck T, Martin H, Vanneste K, Meghraoui M, Verbeeck K, Brondeel M (2000a) Geomorphic evidence of active faulting in slow deformation areas: the example of the Lower Rhine Embayment. In: Proceedings of evaluation of the potential for large earthquakes in regions of present day low seismic activity in Europe. Han-sur-Lesse, Belgium, pp 31–34

  • Camelbeeck T, Vanneste K, Verbeeck K, Meghraoui M, Pelzing R, Hinzen K, Dost B, van der Berg M (2000b) Long term seismic activity in the Lower Rhine Embayment. European Centre for Geodynamics and seismology workshop. Evaluation of the Potential for large Earthquakes in regions of present day low seismic activity in Europe. Han-sur-Lesse, Belgium, pp 35–38

  • Changnon SA (1970) Hailstreaks. J Atmos Sci 27:109–125

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Changnon SA (2003) Shifting economic impacts from weather extremes in the United States: a result of societal changes, not global warming. Nat Hazards 29:273–290. doi:10.1023/A:1023642131794

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Damian T (2011) Blitzdichte im Zusammenhang mit Hagelereignissen in Deutschland und Baden-Württemberg. Seminar Thesis, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruher Institute of Technology (KIT)

  • Danard M, Munro A, Murty T (2003) Storm surge hazard in Canada. Nat Hazards 28(2–3):407–431. doi:10.1023/A:1022990310410

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Daniell JE (2010) Deterministic Earthquake Scenarios for the Northern Rhine Region (Deterministische Erdbeben Szenarien für die nördliche Rhein-Region), CEDIM Earthquake Loss Estimation Series. Research Report No. 10-02, CEDIM, Karlsruhe, Germany

  • de Moel H, van Alphen J, Aerts JCJH (2009) Flood maps in Europe—methods, availability and use. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9:1–13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Della-Marta PM, Mathis H, Frei C, Liniger MA, Kleinn J, Appenzeller C (2009) The return period of wind storms over Europe. Int J Climatol 29:437–459. doi:10.1002/joc.1794

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • DIN1055-4 (2005) Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke—Teil 4: Windlasten. Deutsches Institut für Normung, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  • DIN4149 (1981) Bauten in deutschen Erdbebengebieten. Lastannahmen, Bemessung Ausführung üblicher Hochbauten. Deutsches Institut für Normung/Normenausschuß, Berlin

  • DIN4149 (2005) Bauten in deutschen Erdbebengebieten. Lastannahmen, Bemessung Ausführung üblicher Hochbauten. Vorgesehen als Ersatz für DIN 4149-1:1981-04 4149-1/A1:1992-12. Normenausschuß im Bauwesen (NABau) im DIN Deutsches Normung e. V., April 2005, Berlin [also includes information on DIN 4149 (1957)]

  • DKKV (2003) Deutsches Komitee für Katastrophenvorsorge (2003) Hochwasservorsorge in Deutschland—Lernen aus der Katastrophe 2002 im Elbegebiet. Schriftenreihe des DKKV 29, lessons learned. DKKV, Bonn

  • Dotzek N (2001) Tornadoes in Germany. Atmos Res 56:233–251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dyke G, Gill S, Davies R, Betorz F, Andalsvik Y, Cackler J, Dos Santos W, Dunlop K, Ferreira I, Kebe F, Lamboglia E, Matsubara Y, Nikolaidis V, Ostoja-Starzewski S, Sakita M, Verstappen N (2011) Dream project: applications of earth observations to disaster risk management. Acta Astronaut 68(1–2):301–315. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2010.06.018

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • EM-DAT (2014) EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED international disaster database. Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. www.emdat.be. Data download 16 May 2014

  • European Commission (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the community action in the field of water policy. Off J L 327

  • European Commission (2001) Directive 2001/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 June 2001 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment

  • European Commission (2007) Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks. Off J EU 6, L 288/27–34

  • European Commission (2011a) Directive 2011/92/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment

  • European Commission (2011b) Risk assessment and mapping guidelines for disaster management. Commission staff working paper, European Union. http://ec.europa.eu/echo/civil_protection/civil/pdfdocs/prevention/COMM_PDF_SEC_2010_1626_F_staff_working_document_en.pdf. Accessed 15 March 2014

  • European Commission (2014) Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2011/92/EU on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment

  • Falter D, Dung VN, Vorogushyn S, Schröter K, Hundecha Y, Kreibich H, Apel H, Theisselmann F, Merz B (2014) Continuous, large-scale simulation model for flood risk assessments: proof-of-concept. J Flood Risk Manage. doi:10.1111/jfr3.12105

  • Fischer EM, Schär C (2009) Future changes in daily summer temperature variability: driving processes and role for temperature extremes. Clim Dyn 33:917–935. doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0473-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fitch Ratings (2013) German Flood Claims May Hit EUR3bn. http://www.fitchratings.com/gws/en/fitchwire/fitchwirearticle/German-Flood-Claims?pr_id=793326&cm_sp=homepage_FitchWire_%20German%20Flood%20Claims%20May%20Hit%20EUR3bn;%20Credit%20Impact%20Limited. Accessed 12 Nov 2013

  • Förster S, Kuhlmann B, Lindenschmidt KE, Bronstert A (2008) Assessing flood risk for a rural detention area. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 8:311–322. doi:10.5194/nhess-8-311-2008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gabriel K, Endlicher W (2011) Urban and rural mortality during heat waves in Berlin and Brandenburg, Germany. Environ Pollut 159(8–9):2044–2050. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.01.016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gall M, Borden KA, Cutter SL (2009) When do losses count? Six fallacies of natural hazards loss data. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 90(6):799–809. doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2721.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gaume E, Bain V, Bernardara P, Newinger O, Barbuc M, Bateman A, Blaškovičová L, Blöschl G, Borga M, Dumitrescu A, Daliakopoulos I, Garcia J, Irimescu A, Kohnova S, Koutroulis A, Marchi L, Matreata S, Medina V, Preciso E, Sempere-Torres D, Stancalie G, Szolgay J, Tsanis I, Velasco D, Viglione A (2009) A compilation of data on European flash floods. J Hydrol 367(1–2):70–78. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.12.028

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • GDV (2003) 2003 Yearbook—The German Insurance Industry. Verlag Versicherungswirtschaft, Karlsruhe, German Insurance Association (GDV). https://secure.gdv.de/gdv-veroeffentlichungen/upload_img/67_dwl.pdf. Accessed 8 Oct 2010

  • GDV (2008) Geo-Informationssystem ZÜRS Geo: Zonierungssystem für Überschwemmungsrisiko und Einschätzung von Umweltrisiken. German Insurance Association (GDV). http://www.gdv.de/2008/08/geo-informationssystem-zuers-geo-zonierungssystem-fuer-ueberschwemmungsrisiko-und-einschaetzung-von-umweltrisiken/. Accessed 24 Oct 2012

  • GDV (2013) Erste Schadenbilanz: Hochwasser 2013 verursacht 180.000 versicherte Schäden in Höhe von fast 2 Milliarden Euro. Pressemitteilung der Versicherungswirtschaft 2.7.2013. http://www.gdv.de/2013/07/hochwasser-2013-verursacht-180-000-versicherte-schaeden-in-hoehe-von-fast-2-milliarden-euro/. Accessed 12 Nov 2013

  • German Water (2005) Act to improve preventive flood control 2005. Federal Law Gazette I of 9 May 2005, p 1224

  • Gosling SN, Lowe JA, McGregor GR, Pelling M, Malamud BD (2009) Associations between elevated atmospheric temperature and human mortality: a critical review of the literature. Clim Change 92(3–4):299–341. doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9441-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graewe U, Burchard H (2012) Storm surges in the Western Baltic Sea: the present and a possible future. Clim Dyn 39(1–2):165–183. doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1185-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greiving S, Fleischhauer M (2006) Spatial planning response towards natural and technological hazards. In: Schmidt-Thome P (ed) Natural and technological hazards and risks affecting the spatial development of European regions. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 42, pp 109–123

  • Grünthal G, Wahlström R (2012) The European mediterranean earthquake catalogue (EMEC) for the last millennium. J Seismol 16:535–570. doi:10.1007/s10950-012-9302-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grünthal G, Mayer-Rosa D, Lenhardt WA (1998) Abschätzung der Erdbebengefährdung für die D-S-CH-Staaten-Deutschland, Österreich, Schweiz. Bautechnik 10:753–767

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grünthal G, Thieken AH, Schwarz J, Radtke KS, Smolka A, Merz B (2006) Comparative risk assessment for the city of Cologne, Germany—storms, floods, earthquakes. Nat Hazards 38(1–2):21–44. doi:10.1007/s11069-005-8598-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Handmer J, Abrahams J, Betts R, Dawson M (2005) Towards a consistent approach to disaster loss assessment across Australia. Aust J Emerg Manage. 20:10–18

    Google Scholar 

  • Harlan SL, Ruddell DM (2011) Climate change and health in cities: impacts of heat and air pollution and potential co-benefits from mitigation and adaption. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 3:126–134. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2011.01.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heneka P, Hofherr T (2011) Probabilistic winter storm risk assessment for residential buildings in Germany. Nat Hazards 56:815–831. doi:10.1007/s11069-010-9593-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heneka P, Hofherr T, Ruck B, Kottmeier C (2006) Winter storm risk of residential structures—model development and application to the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 6:721–733. doi:10.5194/nhess-6-721-2006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hofherr T, Kunz M (2010) Extreme wind climatology of winter storms in Germany. Clim Res 41:105–123. doi:10.3354/cr00844

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ICPR (2001) Atlas of flood danger and potential damage due to extreme floods of the Rhine. International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine, Koblenz

    Google Scholar 

  • IKSE (2003) Internationale Kommission zum Schutz der Elbe (2003) Aktionsplan Hochwasserschutz Elbe. IKSE, Magdeburg, Germany

  • Kaplan S, Garrick BJ (1981) On the quantitative definition of risk. Risk Anal 1(1):11–27. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.1981.tb01350.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kappes MS, Keiler M, von Elverfeldt K, Glade T (2012) Challenges of analyzing multi-hazard risk: a review. Nat Hazards 64:1925–1958. doi:10.1007/s11069-012-0294-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kasperski M (2002) A new wind zone map of Germany. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 90:1271–1287. doi:10.1016/S0167-6105(02)00257-X

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kelman I (2002) Physical flood vulnerability of residential properties in coastal, Eastern England. PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge

  • Klawa M, Ulbrich U (2003) A model for the estimation of storm losses and the identification of severe winter storms in Germany. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 3:725–732. doi:10.5194/nhess-3-725-2003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kleist L, Thieken AH, Köhler P, Müller M, Seifert I, Borst D, Werner U (2006) Estimation of the regional stock of residential buildings as a basis for a comparative risk assessment in Germany. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 6:541–552. doi:10.5194/nhess-6-541-2006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kok M, Huizinga HJ, Vrouwenvelder ACWM, Barendregt A (2005) Standaardmethode 2004—schade en slachtoffers als gevolg van overstromingen. RWS Dienst Weg- en Waterbouwkunde

  • Kreibich H, Thieken AH (2008) Assessment of damage caused by high groundwater inundation. Water Resour Res 44:W09409. doi:10.1029/2007WR006621

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kreibich H, Thieken AH (2009) Coping with floods in the city of Dresden, Germany. Nat Hazards 51(3):423–436. doi:10.1007/s11069-007-9200-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kreibich H, Thieken AH, Petrow T, Müller M, Merz B (2005) Flood loss reduction of private households due to building precautionary measures—lessons learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 5(1):117–126. doi:10.5194/nhess-5-117-2005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kreibich H, Müller M, Thieken AH, Merz B (2007) Flood precaution of companies and their ability to cope with the flood in August 2002 in Saxony, Germany. Water Resour Res 43:W03408. doi:10.1029/2005WR004691

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kreibich H, Piroth K, Seifert I, Maiwald H, Kunert U, Schwarz J, Merz B, Thieken AH (2009) Is flow velocity a significant parameter in flood damage modelling? Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9(5):1679–1692. doi:10.5194/nhess-9-1679-2009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kreibich H, Seifert I, Merz B, Thieken AH (2010) Development of FLEMOcs—a new model for the estimation of flood losses in companies. Hydrol Sci J 55(8):1302–1314. doi:10.1080/02626667.2010.529815

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kreibich H, Meyer S, Diekkrüger B (2011) Weiterentwicklung von FLEMOps zur Modellierung von Grundhochwasserschäden und Wohngebäuden. Hydrol Wasserbewirtsch 55(6):300–309

    Google Scholar 

  • Kreibich H, van den Bergh JCJM, Bouwer LM, Bubeck P, Ciavola P, Green C, Hallegatte S, Logar I, Meyer V, Schwarze R, Thieken AH (2014) Costing natural hazards. Nat Clim Change (in press)

  • Kron W (2004) Zunehmende Überschwemmungsschäden: Eine Gefahr für die Versicherungswirtschaft? ATV-DVWK: Bundestagung 15.-16.09.2004 in Würzburg, DCM, Meckenheim, pp 47–63

  • Kron W, Steuer M, Löw P, Wirtz A (2012) How to deal properly with a natural catastrophe database—analysis of flood losses. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 12:535–550. doi:10.5194/nhess-12-535-2012

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kropp J, Block A, Reusswig F, Zickfeld K, Schellnhuber HJ (2006) Semiquantitative assessment of regional climate vulnerability: the North-Rhine Westphalia study. Clim Change 76(3–4):265–290. doi:10.1007/s10584-005-9037-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kunz M (2007) The skill of convective parameters and indices to predict isolated and severe thunderstorms. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 7:327–334

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kunz M, Puskeiler M (2010) High-resolution assessment of the Hail hazard over complex terrain from radar and insurance data. Met Z 19:427–439. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2010/0452

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kuttler W (2011) Climate change in urban areas. Part 2, measures. Environ Sci Europe 23(21):1–15. doi:10.1186/2190-4715-23-21

    Google Scholar 

  • Lagadec P (2004) Understanding the French 2003 heat wave experience: beyond the heat, a multi-layered challenge. J Conting Crisis Manag 12(4):160–169. doi:10.1111/j.0966-0879.2004.00446.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Landtag Rheinland-Pfalz (2005) Antwort des Ministeriums der Finanzen auf die Große Anfrage der Fraktion der CDU. Hilfe bei Hochwasser- und Elementarschäden. Drucksache 14/4195

  • Lang D, Molina-Palacios S, Lindholm C, Balan S (2012) Deterministic earthquake damage and loss assessment for the city of Bucharest, Romania. J Seismol 16(1):67–88. doi:10.1007/s10950-011-9250-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leichenko R (2011) Climate change and urban resilience. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 3:164–168. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2010.12.014

  • Malcharek A (2010) Gezeiten und Wellen—Die Hydromechanik der Küstengewässer. Vieweg + Teubner, Wiesbaden

    Google Scholar 

  • Marzocchi W, Garcia-Aristizabal A, Gasparini P, Mastellone ML, Di Ruocco A (2012) Basic principles of multi-risk assessment: a case study in Italy. Nat Hazards 62(2):551–573. doi:10.1007/s11069-012-0092-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meehl GA, Tebaldi C (2004) More intense, more frequent, and longer lasting heat waves in the 21st century. Science 305(5686):994–997. doi:10.1126/science.1098704

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Merz R, Blöschl G (2003) A process typology of regional floods. Water Resourc Res 39(12)1340:SWC1-SWC20. doi:10.1029/2002WR001952

  • Merz B, Emmermann R (2006) Zum Umgang mit Naturgefahren in Deutschland: Vom Reagieren zum Risikomanagement. GAIA Ecol Perspect Sci Soc 15(4):265–274

    Google Scholar 

  • Merz B, Thieken AH (2009) Flood risk curves and uncertainty bounds. Nat Hazards 51:437–458. doi:10.1007/s11069-009-9452-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Merz B, Kreibich H, Apel H (2008) Flood risk analysis: uncertainties and validation. Oesterreichische Wasser und Abfallwirtschaft 5–6:89–94. doi:10.1007/s00506-008-0001-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Merz B, Kreibich H, Schwarze R, Thieken A (2010) Review article ‘assessment of economic flood damage’. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10(8):1697–1724. doi:10.5194/nhess-10-1697-2010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Merz B, Kundzewicz ZW, Delgado J, Hundecha Y, Kreibich H (2012) Detection and attribution of changes in flood hazard and risk. In: Kundzewicz ZW (ed) Changes in flood risk in Europe. IAHS Special Publication 10, IAHS Press, Wallingford

  • Merz B, Elmer F, Kunz M, Mühr B, Schröter K, Uhlemann-Elmer S (2014) The extreme flood in June 2013 in Germany. La Houille Blanche 1:5–10. doi:10.1051/lhb/2014001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mudersbach C, Jensen J (2010) Küstenschutz an der Deutschen Ostseeküste. Zur Ermittlung von Eintrittswahrscheinlichkeiten extremer Sturmflutwasserstände. Korrespondenz Wasserwirtschaft 3(3):136–144. doi:10.3243/kwe2010.03.003

  • Munich Re (1993) Winterstürme in Europa. Publication of Munich Re. Ordering Number 2041-E-d

  • Munich Re (1999) Naturkatastrophen in Deutschland. Publication of Munich Re. Ordering Number 2798-E-d

  • Munich Re (2012) NatCatSERVICE, Stand Juli. Münchener Rückversicherungs-Gesellschaft, GeoRisikoForschung. http://www.ergo.com/de/Presse/Overview/Pressemappen/Wetterereignisse/~/media/ERGOcom/PDF/Praesentationen/2012/201207-Naturkatastrophen-Deutschland-1970-2011.ashx. Accessed 15 Nov 2012

  • Nadal N, Zapata R, Pagán I, López R, Agudelo J (2010) Building damage due to Riverine and coastal floods. J Water Resourc Plan Manage 136(3):327–336. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000036

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parolai S, Grünthal G, Wahlström R (2007) Site-specific response spectra from the combination of microzonation with probabilistic seismic hazard assessment—an example for the Cologne (Germany) area. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 27(1):49–59. doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2006.03.007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Penning-Rowsell EC, Green C (2000) New Insights into the appraisal of flood-alleviation benefits: (1) Flood damage and flood loss information. J. Chart Inst Water E 14:347–353. doi:10.1111/j.1747-6593.2000.tb00272.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Penning-Rowsell E, Johnson C, Tunstall S, Tapsell S, Morris J, Chatterton J, Green C (2005) The benefits of flood and coastal risk management: a manual of assessment techniques. Middlesex University Press, UK

    Google Scholar 

  • Petersen M, Rohde H (1991) Sturmflut—Die großen Fluten an den Küsten Schleswig-Holsteins und in der Elbe. Wachholtz, Neumünster

    Google Scholar 

  • Petrow T, Merz B (2009) Trends in flood magnitude, frequency and seasonality in Germany in the period 1951–2002. J Hydrol 371(1–4):129–141. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.03.024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Petrow T, Zimmer J, Merz B (2009) Changes in the flood hazard in Germany through changing frequency and persistence of circulation patterns. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9(4):1409–1423. doi:10.5194/nhess-9-1409-2009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pinto JG (2012) personal communication

  • Pinto JG, Fröhlich EL, Leckebusch GC, Ulbrich U (2007) Changing European storm loss potentials under modified climate conditions according to ensemble simulations of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 GCM. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 7:165–175. doi:10.5194/nhess-7-165-2007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • PLANAT (2004) (National Platform for Natural Hazards) (2004) The cycle of integrated risk management. http://www.planat.ch Risk management. Accessed 28 Oct 2004

  • Ploeger SK, Atkinson GM, Samson C (2010) Applying the HAZUS-MH software tool to assess seismic risk in downtown Ottawa, Canada. Nat Hazards 53(1):1–20. doi:10.1007/s11069-009-9408-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prudhomme C, Parry S, Genevier M, Hannaford J, Kundzewicz ZW (2012) Large scale flooding in Europe 1961–2005. Changes in flood risk in Europe, vol 10. IAHS, Balkema, pp 55–82

  • Punge HJ, Bedka KM, Kunz M, Werner A (2014) A new physically based stochastic event catalogue for hail in Europe. Hazards Online, Nat. doi:10.1007/s11069-014-1161-0

    Google Scholar 

  • Puskeiler M (2013) Radarbasierte analyse der Hagelgefährdung in Deutschland. Wiss. Reports Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology 59. KIT Scientific Publishing, Karlsruhe, Germany

  • Ramirez J, Adamowicz WL, Easter KW, Graham-Tomasi T (1988) Ex post analysis of flood control: benefit-cost analysis and the value of information. Water Resour Res 24:1397–1405. doi:10.1029/WR024i008p01397

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Remo JWF, Pinter N (2012) Hazus-MH earthquake modeling in the central USA. Nat Hazards 63(2):1055–1081. doi:10.1007/s11069-012-0206-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Safecoast (2008) Coastal flood risk and trends for the future in the North Sea region: synthesis report. The Safecoast project team, The Hague

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt J, Matcham I, Reese S, King A, Bell R, Henderson R, Smart G, Cousins J, Smith W, Heron D (2011) Quantitative multi-risk analysis for natural hazards: a framework for multi-risk modelling. Nat Hazards 58(3):1169–1192. doi:10.1007/s11069-011-9721-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt-Thomé P, Greiving S, Kallioa H, Fleischhauer M, Jarva J (2006) Economic risk maps of floods and earthquakes for European regions. Quatern Int 150:103–112. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2006.01.024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schuster SS, Blong RJ, McAneney KJ (2006) Relationship between radar-derived hail kinetic energy and damage to insured buildings for severe hailstorms in Eastern Australia. Atmos Res 81:215–235. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2005.12.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schwarze R, Wagner G (2007) The political economy of natural disaster insurance: lessons from the failure of a proposed compulsory insurance scheme in Germany. Eur Environ 17:403–415. doi:10.1002/eet.456

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Silver ML (2001) International best practices in disaster mitigation and management recommended for Mongolia. In: Paper presented at the national conference strengthening the disaster mitigation and management system in Mongolia, Gov. of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar

  • Sirocko F, Dietrich S, Veres D, Grootes PM, Schaber-Mohr K, Seelos K, Nadeau MJ, Kromer B, Rothacker L, Rohner M, Krbetschek M, Appleby P, Hambach U, Rolf C, Sudo M, Grim S (2013) Multi-proxy dating of Holocene maar lakes and Pleistocene dry maar sediments in the Eifel, Germany. Quatern Sci Rev 62:56–76. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.09.011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith DI (1994) Flood damage estimation—a review of urban stage damage curves and loss functions. Water SA 20(3):231–238

    Google Scholar 

  • Tapia-Silva FO, Itzerott S, Förster S, Kuhlmann B, Kreibich H (2011) Estimation of flood losses to agricultural crops using remote sensing. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 36(7–8):253–265. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2011.03.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • te Linde AH, Bubeck P, Dekkers JEC, de Moel H, Aerts JCJH (2011) Future flood risk estimates along the river Rhine. Nat Hazard Earth Syst Sci 11(2):459–473. doi:10.5194/nhess-11-459-2011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thieken A, Müller M, Kreibich H, Merz B (2005) Flood damage and influencing factors: new insights from the August 2002 flood in Germany. Water Resour Res 41:W12430. doi:10.1029/2005WR004177

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thieken AH, Petrow Th, Kreibich H, Merz B (2006) Insurability and mitigation of flood losses in private households in Germany. Risk Anal 26(2):383–395. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00741.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tyagunov S, Grünthal G, Wahlström R, Stempniewski L, Zschau J (2006) Seismic risk mapping for Germany. Special Issue: methods for risk assessment and mapping in Germany. Nat Hazard Earth Syst Sci 6:573–586

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Uhlemann S, Thieken AH, Merz B (2010) A consistent set of trans-basin floods in Germany between 1952–2002. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 14(7):1277–1295. doi:10.5194/hess-14-1277-2010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vanneste K, Verbeeck K, Camelbeeck T, Paulissen E, Meghraoui M, Renardy F, Jongmans D, Frechen M (2001) Surface-rupturing history of the Bree fault scarp, Roer Valley graben: evidence for six events since the late Pleistocene. J Seismol 5:329–359. doi:10.1023/A:1011419408419

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vanneuville W, Maddens R, Collard C, Bogaert P, de Maeyer P, Antrop M (2006) Impact op mens en economie t.G.V. Overstromingen bekeken in het licht van wijzigende hydraulische condities, omgevingsfactoren en klimatologische omstandigheden, Vakgroep Geografie, Universiteit Gent, Gent, Belgium, pp 3–121

  • Vitolo R, Stephenson DB, Cook IM, Mitchell-Wallace K (2009) Serial clustering of intense European storms. Met Z 18:411–424. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2009/0393

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • von Storch H, Woth K (2008) Storm surges: perspectives and options. Sustain Sci 3:33–43. doi:10.1007/s11625-008-0044-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vorogushyn S, Lindenschmidt KE, Kreibich H, Apel H, Merz B (2012) Analysis of a detention basin impact on dike failure probabilities and flood risk for a channel-dike-floodplain system along the river Elbe, Germany. J Hydrol 436–437:120–131. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.03.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wasserhaushaltsgesetz (2009). Gesetz zur Ordnung des Wasserhaushalts

  • Watkiss P, Downing T, Handley C, Butterfield R (2005) The impacts and costs of climate change. Final report commissioned by European Commission DG Environment, http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/package/docs/final_report2_en.pdf. Accessed 24 May 2013

  • Wieringa J (1986) Roughness-dependent geographical interpolation of surface wind speed averages. Q J R Meteorol Soc 112:867–889. doi:10.1002/qj.49711247316

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilhelmi OV, Hayden MH (2010) Connecting people and place: a new framework for reducing urban vulnerability to extreme heat. Environ Res Lett 5(014021):1–7. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/5/1/014021

    Google Scholar 

  • Wind HG, Nierop TM, de Blois CJ, de Kok JL (1999) Analysis of flood damages from the 1993 and 1995 Meuse floods. Water Resour Res 35(11):3459–3465. doi:10.1029/1999WR900192

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • WMO (1999) Comprehensive risk assessment for natural hazards. Technical document 955. World Meteorological Organisation, http://www.planat.ch/fileadmin/PLANAT/planat_pdf/alle_2012/2006-2010/Melching__Pilon_2006_-_Comprehensive_Risk_Assessment_for_Natural.pdf. Accessed 15 March 2014

  • Woth K, Weisse R, von Storch H (2006) Climate change and North Sea storm surge extremes: an ensemble study of storm surge extremes expected in a changed climate projected by four different regional climate models. Ocean Dyn 56(1):3–15. doi:10.1007/s10236-005-0024-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yeo SW (2002) Flooding in Australia: a review of events in 1998. Nat Hazards 25:177–191. doi:10.1023/A:1013765303567

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerli P (2005) Hagelstürme in Europa. Swiss Re, Zürich

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank Sergey Tyagunov for having provided an updated version of Fig. 5. This work has partly been undertaken under the framework of CEDIM—Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (www.cedim.de), a joint venture between the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) as well as partly been undertaken under the framework of the EU FP7 funded project MATRIX—New Multi-Hazard and Multi-Risk Assessment Methods for Europe.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Heidi Kreibich.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kreibich, H., Bubeck, P., Kunz, M. et al. A review of multiple natural hazards and risks in Germany. Nat Hazards 74, 2279–2304 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-014-1265-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-014-1265-6

Keywords

Navigation