This study investigates the disaster-induced population displacement scenario at individual household level in Bangladesh. ‘Population displacement’ is seen here as an alternative adaptation option to natural hazard for the survivors after cyclone Aila. The changes both in origin and destination community due to population displacement are described here on the basis of social ‘inclusion’ and ‘exclusion’ concept. The field survey was conducted during March–July 2010, and a sample of 280 respondents from 12 villages in southwest coastal Bangladesh was interviewed. Findings show that at the end of emergency aid, male members of the family started moving towards nearer cities to find an income. Based on the income and asset distribution at the community level, this study developed a societal cluster of displacement and demonstrates the societal changes because of cyclone-induced population displacement.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
For details about cyclone Aila, readers are referred to UNDP (2010) report on “Cyclone Aila: Joint UN Multi-Sector Assessment and Response Framework”.
Upazila is the second lowest official administrative unit of the local government in Bangladesh.
District is the top-tier official administrative unit of local government in Bangladesh.
A term used in Bangladesh and West Bengal of India for lowland rice grown in the wet season during June–November.
Union is the third lowest official administrative unit of the local government in Bangladesh.
Sundarbans is the world largest mangrove forest and declared as world heritage by UNESCO.
Principle component analysis (PCA) is a way of identifying the patterns in data, and expressing the similarities and differences in data.
A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments.
Aid C (2007) Human tide: the real migration crisis. London
Adger W (2006) Vulnerability. Glob Environ Change 16(3):268–281. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.02.006
Afsar R (2000) Rural urban migration in Bangladesh: causes, consequences and challenges. University Press Ltd., Dhaka
Afsar R (2003) Internal migration and the development nexus: the case of Bangladesh. Development, Dhaka
Ahsan R, Karuppannan S, Kellett J (2011) Climate migration and urban planning system: a study of Bangladesh. Environ Justice 4(3):163–170. doi:10.1089/env.2011.0005
Azam M (2011) Factors driving environmentally induced migration in the coastal regions of Bangladesh: an exploratory study. Masters Thesis, Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Freiburg
Bates DC (2002) Environmental refugees? classifying human migrations caused by environmental change. Popul Environ 23(5):465–477
Biermann F, Boas I (2010) Preparing for a warmer world: towards a global governance system to protect climate refugees. Glob Environ Politics 10(1):60–88
Black R (1994) Forced migration and environmental change: the impact of refugee on host environments. J Environ Manag 42:261–277
Black R (2001) Environmental refugees: myth or reality? Working paper 34, UNHCR, Geneva
Black R, Adger WN, Arnell NW, Dercon S, Geddes A, Thomas D (2011a) The effect of environmental change on human migration. Glob Environ Change 21:S3–S11. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.10.001
Black R, Kniveton D, Schmidt-Verkerk K (2011b) Migration and climate change: towards an integrated assessment of sensitivity. Environ Plann A 43:431–450
Brown O (2008) The Numbers Game. Forced Migr Rev 31:8–9
Carr ER (2005) Placing the environment in migration: environment, economy and power in Ghana’s central Region. Environ Plann A 37:925–946
Dessai S, Wilby R (2011) How can developing country decision makers incorporate uncertainty about climate risks into existing planning and policymaking processes? World Resources Report. Washington, DC. Available online at http://www.worldresourcesreport.org
DMB (2010) National plan for disaster management 2010–2015. Management (p 114). Dhaka. Retrieved from http://www.dmb.gov.bd/reports/Nataional Plan for Disaster (2010–2015) Final Version.pdf
El-Hinnawi E (1985) Environmental Refugees. Nairobi
Findlay AM (2011) Migrant destinations in an era of environmental change. Glob Environ Change 21:S50–S58. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.09.004
Gemenne F (2011) Why the numbers don’t add up: a review of estimates and predictions of people displaced by environmental changes. Glob Environ Change 21:S41–S49. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.09.005
Gray CL, Mueller V (2012) Natural disasters and population mobility in Bangladesh. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(16):6000–6005. doi:10.1073/pnas.1115944109
Harris J, Todaro M (1970) Migration, unemployment and development: a two-sector analysis. Am Econ Rev 60(1):126–142
Hatton TJ, Williamson JG (2002) What fundamentals drive world migration? Helsinki, Finland
Hunter LM (1998) The association between environmental risk and internal migration flows. Popul Environ J Interdiscip Stud 19(3):247–277
Hunter LM (2005) Migration and environmental hazards. Popul Environ 26(4):273–302. doi:10.1007/s11111-005-3343-x
IOM (2007) Discussion note: migration and the environment (MC/INF/288-1 November 2007–94th session). International Organisation for Migration (IOM), Geneva
IOM (2008) Expert seminar: migration and the environment. IOM-Migration Policy, Research and Communication, Geneva
IOM (2009) Migration, climate change and the environment. International Organization for Migration, Geneva, p 309
Kartiki K (2011) Climate change and migration: a case study from rural Bangladesh. Gend Dev 19(1):23–38. doi:10.1080/13552074.2011.554017
Khandker SR (2012) Seasonality of income and poverty in Bangladesh. J Dev Econ 97(2):244–256. doi:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2011.05.001
Kontuly T, Smith KENR, Heaton TB (1995) Culture as a determinant of reasons for migration. Soc Sci J 32(2):179–193
Letouzé E, Purser M, Rodríguez F,Cummins M (2009) Revisiting the migration-development nexus: a gravity model approach
Luhmann N (1995) Inklusion und Exklusion. In: Luhmann N (ed) Soziologische Aufklärung 6: Die Soziologie und der Mensch. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen, pp 237–265
Mahmud T, Prowse M (2012) Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh: lessons for climate adaptation? Glob Environ Change. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.07.003
Mallick B, Vogt J (2011) Social supremacy and its role in local level disaster mitigation planning in Bangladesh. Disaster Prev Manag 20(5):543–556
Mallick B, Vogt J (2012) Cyclone, coastal society and migration: empirical evidence from Bangladesh. Int Dev Plann Rev 34:217–240. doi:10.3828/idpr.2012.16
Mallick B, Rahaman KR, Vogt J (2011) Coastal livelihood and physical infrastructure in Bangladesh after cyclone Aila. Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Change. doi:10.1007/s11027-011-9285-y
McLeman R (2009) Impacts of population change on vulnerability and the capacity to adapt to climate change and variability: a typology based on lessons from “a hard country”. Popul Environ 31(5):286–316. doi:10.1007/s11111-009-0087-z
Mehedi H, Nag AK, Farhana S (2010) Climate induced displacement—Case study of cyclone Aila in the Southwest coastal research of Bangladesh (pp 1–26). Khulna
Myers N (1997) Environmental refugees. Popul Enviro J Interdiscip Stud 19(2):167–183. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0953
Myers N (2002) Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 357(1420):609–613. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0953
Naik A, Stigter E, Laczko F (2007) Migration, development and natural disasters: Insights from the Indian Ocean Tsunami. Geneva
Najam A (1996) A developing countries’ perspective on population, environment, and development. Popul Res Policy Rev 15(1):1–19. doi:10.1007/BF00156740
Nicholls RJ, Marinova N, Lowe Ja, Brown S, Vellinga P, De Gusmão D, Hinkel J, et al. (2011). Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a “beyond 4 °C world” in the twenty-first century. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1934):161–181. doi:10.1098/rsta.2010.0291
Oliver-smith A (2009) Sea level rise and the vulnerability of coastal peoples: responding to the local challenges of global climate change in the 21 st century. Security. Bonn
Özden C, Schiff M (2006) International migration, remittances and the brain drain. Library (p 292). Washington DC: A Copublication of the World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
PDO-ICZMP (2004) Living in the Coast—People and livelihoods. Islam Zeitschrift Für Geschichte Und Kultur Des Islamischen Orients. Dhaka: WARPO, GoB
Pender J (2007) Community-led adaptation in Bangladesh. Forced Migr Rev 31: 54–55. Retrieved from http://www.fmreview.org/sites/fmr/files/FMRdownloads/en/FMRpdfs/FMR31/54-55.pdf
Pender J (2010) Climate change, its impact and possible community based responses in Bangladesh. Change (2nd ed., pp 1–97). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Church of Bangladesh. Retrieved from http://uploads.ecocongregationscotland.org/uploads/Climate Change in Bangladesh_Sept 2010.pdf
Penning-Rowsell EC, Sultana P, Thompson PM (2012) The “last resort”? Population movement in response to climate-related hazards in Bangladesh. Environ Sci Policy, 1–16. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2012.03.009
Poncelet A (2009) Environmental change and forced migration scenarios—Bangladesh case study report. Framework (pp 1–37)
Poncelet A, Gemenne F, Martiniello M, Bousetta H (2010) A country made for disasters: environmental vulnerability and forced migration in Bangladesh. In: Afifi T, Äger J (eds), Environment, Forced Migration and Social Vulnerability (1st ed., pp 211–222). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-12416-7_16
Portesa A (2010) Migration and social change: some conceptual reflections. J Ethn Migr Stud 36(10):1537–1563. doi:10.1080/1369183X.2010.489370
Qin H (2010) Rural-to-urban labor migration, household livelihoods, and the rural environment in Chongqing municipality, Southwest China. Hum Ecol 38(5):675–690. doi:10.1007/s10745-010-9353-z
Rawal N (2007) Social inclusion and exclusion: a review introduction abstract. Dhaulguri J Sociol Anthropol 2:161–180
Renaud F, Bogardi JJ, Dun O, Warner K (2007) Control, adapt or flee how to face environmental migration?
Renaud FG, Dun O, Warner K, Bogardi J (2011) A Decision framework for environmentally induced migration. Int Migr 49:e5–e29. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00678.x
Small C, Series P (2010) Resource-dependent livelihoods in the Sundarbans, (18)
Tacoli C (2009) Crisis or Adaptation? Migration and Climate Change in a Context of High Mobility. In: Guzman JM, Martine G, McGranahan G, Schensul D, Tacoli C (eds), Popul Dyn Clim Change (pp 104–118). New York: UNFPA; London:IIED
Taylor JE (1999) The new economics of labour migration and the role of remittances in the migration process. International migration (Geneva, Switzerland), 37 (1), 63–88. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12322077
UNDP (2010) Cyclone Aila—Joint UN Multi-Sector Assessment and Response Framework (pp 0–43). Dhaka, Bangladesh
Vogt J, Mallick B, Mahboob AS (2009) Social supremacy and location of cyclone center: a determinant of social vulnerability analysis in a coastal union of Bangladesh. In: Khan MSA, Mondol MS, Rahman MA, Shoaib SA, Sarker MH (eds) 2nd International Conference on Water and Flood Management. Institute of Water and Flood Management, BUET, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp 395–402
Warner K (2010) Global environmental change and migration: governance challenges. Glob Environ Change 20(3):402–413. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.12.001
Warner K, Hamza M, Oliver-Smith A, Renaud F, Julca A (2009) Climate change, environmental degradation and migration. Nat Hazards 55(3):689–715. doi:10.1007/s11069-009-9419-7
Wisner B, Luce HR (1993) Disaster vulnerability: scale power and daily life. GeoJournal 30(2):127–140
Zelman J (2011) 50 Million Environmental Refugees by 2020. Experts Predict. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/22/environmental-refugees-50_n_826488.html
This research was supported by a Doctoral Dissertation Research Grants from Catholic Academic Exchange Services (KAAD), Germany and Field Research Grant from Karlsruhe House of Young Scientists (KHYS) of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Authors are very grateful to Dr. R. Mcleman from Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada and Dr. Leah Vanwey of Brown University, USA for their insightful guidance through out the final paper preparation. Special thanks are given to Tommasina Miller for her supports in linguistic and grammatical edits. Thoughtful comments from the anonymous reviewers and the journal editor are also sincerely appreciated.
About this article
Cite this article
Mallick, B., Vogt, J. Population displacement after cyclone and its consequences: empirical evidence from coastal Bangladesh. Nat Hazards 73, 191–212 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-0803-y
- Population displacement
- Societal cluster
- Cyclone Aila
- Social change
- Coastal Bangladesh