Advertisement

Natural Hazards

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 575–591 | Cite as

Seasonal variations in soil radon emanation: long-term continuous monitoring in light of seismicity

  • Sedat İnanEmail author
  • Alican Kop
  • Hasan Çetin
  • Furkan Kulak
  • Zümer Pabuçcu
  • Cemil Seyis
  • Semih Ergintav
  • Onur Tan
  • Ruhi Saatçılar
  • M. Nuri Bodur
Original Paper

Abstract

Soil gas radon release patterns have been monitored continuously for more than 3 years in the Eastern Mediterranean Province (EMP) (Southern Turkey), alongside regional seismic events, providing a multidisciplinary approach. In the period from January 2008 to January 2011, 14 earthquakes M L ≥4 occurred in the study area. By monitoring the sites for more than 3 years, the site-characteristic patterns of soil radon emanation of each site have become evident. Radon emanation data show seasonal (semi-annual) variation characteristics; high soil radon values are between May and October and low soil radon values are between November and April. With available rainfall data, the soil gas radon data can be more reliably evaluated. It is shown in this paper that if radon emanation data are available over sufficiently long periods of time and baseline data (and their seasonal variations) are known with certainty for each monitoring site, then the observation of positive anomalies might provide a correlation or connection to seismic activity.

Keywords

Southern Turkey East Anatolian Fault system Dead Sea Fault system East Mediterranean Province Continuous monitoring Soil radon Meteorological effects Semi-annual variations Earthquake precursor 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the financial support received from the TUBITAK TARAL 1007 Program for the TÜRDEP Project (Project No: 105G019). We appreciate all the technical help and support we have received from our colleagues at the TUBITAK Marmara Research Center Earth and Marine Sciences Institute. Special thanks go to Bora Erkan for the production of the figures. Finally, we thank three anonymous reviewers for their constructive reviews and suggestions that improved the manuscript. We acknowledge the promptness and the high quality of the work of the editorial office of the NHAZ.

References

  1. Abbad S, Robe MC, Bernat M, Labed V (1995) Influence of meteorological and geological parameter variables on the concentration of radon in soil gases: application to seismic forecasting in the Provence-Alpes-Cote d’Azur region. In: Dubois C (ed) Gas geochemistry. Sci Rev-Northwood pp 35–48, ISBN 0-905927-79-6Google Scholar
  2. Altunel E, Hancock PL (1993) Active fissuring and faulting in Quaternary travertines at Pamukkale, western Turkey, Z. Geomorph N.F. 94:285–302Google Scholar
  3. Areshidze G, Bella F, Biagi PF, Caputo M, Della Monica G, Ermini A, Manjgaladze P, Melikadze G, Sgrigna V, Zilpimiani D (1992) No preseismic evidence from hydrogeochemical parameters on the occasion of the April 29, 1991, Georgian earthquake, Caucasus. Tectonophysics 213(3–4):353–358. doi: 10.1016/0040-1951(92)90463-G CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baykut S, Akgül T, İnan S, Seyis C (2010) Observation and removal of daily quasi-periodic components in soil radon data. Radiat Meas 45:872–879. doi: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2010.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baykut S, Akgul T, İnan S (2011) Seismic activity-related anomaly detection in soil radon emanation. In: 19th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2011), Barcelona, Spain, August 29-September 2, 2011, pp 908–912. ISSN 2076-1465Google Scholar
  6. Bella F, Biagi PF, Caputo M, Cozzi E, Della Monica G, Ermini A, Gordeez EI, Khatkevich YM, Martinelli G, Plastino W, Scandone R, Sgrigna V, Zilpimiani D (1998) Hydrogeochemical anomalies in Kamchatka (Russia). Phys Chem Earth 23(9–10):921–925. doi: 10.1016/S0079-1946(98)00120-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birchard GF, Libby WF (1978) Earthquake radon anomalies-possible mechanisms. EOS 57:957Google Scholar
  8. Bozkurt E (2001) Neotectonics of Turkey—a synthesis. Geodinamica Acta 14:3–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bozkurt E (2003) Origin of NE-trending basins in western Turkey. Geodinamica Acta 16:61–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chyi LL, Chou CY, Yang TF, Chen CH (2001) Continuous radon measurements in faults and earthquake precursor pattern recognition. Western Pac Earth Sci 1:43–72Google Scholar
  11. Dobrovolsky P, Zubkov SI, Miachkin VI (1979) Estimation of the size of earthquake preparation zones. Pure Appl Geophys 117:1025–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Etiope G, Calcara M, Quattrocchi F (1997) Seismogeochemical algorithms for earthquake prediction: an overview. Ann Geofis 15(6):1483–1492Google Scholar
  13. Evans JR, Foulger GR, Julian BR, Miller AD (1996) Crustal shear-wave splitting from local earthquakes in the Hengill Triple Junction, southwest Iceland. Geophys Res Lett 23(5):455–458. doi: 10.1029/96GL00261 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fleischer RL (1981) Dislocation model for radon response to distant earthquakes. Geophys Res Lett 8(5):477–480. doi: 10.1029/GL008i005p00477 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hancock PL, Barka AA (1987) Kinematic indicators on active normal faults in western Turkey. J Struct Geol 9:573–584. doi: 10.1016/0191-8141(87)90142-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hempton MR (1985) Structure and deformation history of the Bitlis Suture near Lake Hazar, southeastern Turkey. Geol Soc Am Bull 96:233–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hempton MR, Dewey JF, Şaroğlu F (1981) The East Anatolian transform fault: along strike variations in geometry and behaviour. EOS Trans 62:393Google Scholar
  18. İnan S, Ergintav S, Saatçılar R, Tüzel B, İravul Y (2007) Turkey makes major investments in earthquake research. EOS Trans 88:333–334Google Scholar
  19. İnan S, Akgül T, Seyis C, Saatçılar R, Baykut S, Ergintav S, Baş M (2008) Geochemical monitoring in the Marmara region (NW Turkey): a search for precursors of seismic activity. J Geophys Res 113:B03401. doi: 10.1029/2007JB005206 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. İnan S, Ertekin K, Seyis C, Şimşek Ş, Kulak F, Dikbaş A, Tan O, Ergintav S, Çakmak R, Yörük A, Çergel M, Yakan H, Karakuş H, Saatçılar R, Akçiğ Z, İravul Y, Tüzel B (2010) Multi-disciplinary earthquake researches in Western Turkey: hints to select sites to study geochemical transients associated to seismicity. Acta Geophysica 58:767–813. doi: 10.2478/s11600-010-0016-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. İnan S, Pabuçcu Z, Kulak F, Ergintav S, Tatar O, Altunel E, Akyüz S, Tan O, Seyis C, Çakmak R, Saatçılar R, Eyidoğan H (2012) Microplate boundaries as obstacles to pre-earthquake strain transfer (Western Turkey): inferences from continuous geochemical monitoring. J Asian Earth Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.jseaes.2011.12.016 Google Scholar
  22. Iskandar D, Yamazawa H, Iida T (2004) Quantification of the dependency of radon emanation power on soil temperature. Appl Radiat Isot 60:971–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kiratzi AA (1993) A study on the active crustal deformation of the North and East Anatolian Fault Zones. Tectonophysics 225:191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Koçyiğit A (2005) The Denizli graben-horst system and the eastern limit of western Anatolian continental extension: basin fill, structure, deformational mode, throw mount and episodic evolutionary history, SW Turkey. Geo-din Acta 18(3–4):167–208. doi: 10.3166/ga.18.167-208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lybéris N, Yürür T, Chorowicz J, Kasapoğlu E, Gündoğdu N (1992) The East Anatolian fault: an oblique collisional belt. Tectonophysics 204:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McClusky S, Balassanian S, Barka A, Demir C, Ergintav S, Georgiev I, Gürkan O, Hamburger M, Hurst K, Kahle K, Kastens K, Kekelidze G, King R, Kotzev V, Lenk O, Mahmoud S, Mishin M, Nadariya M, Ouzounis A, Paradissis D, Peter Y, Prilepin M, Reilinger R, Sanli I, Seeger H, Tealeb A, Toksöz MN, Veis G (2000) Global positioning system constrains on Plate Kinematics and dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus. J Geophys Res 105:5695–5719Google Scholar
  27. McKenzie DP (1972) Active tectonics of the Mediterranean region. Geophys J R Astron Soc 30:109–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Montgomery DR, Manga M (2003) Streamflow and water well responses to earthquakes. Science 300(5628):2047–2049. doi: 10.1126/science.1082980 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Muehlberger RW, Gordon MB (1987) Observations on the complexity of the East Anatolian Fault, Turkey. J Struct Geol 9:899–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Papastefanou C, Manolopoulou M, Savvides E, Charalambous S (1989) Radon monitoring at the Stivos Fault following the M L = 6.5 earthquake which occurred at Thessaloniki, Greece on 20 June 1978. Nucl Geophys 3:49–56Google Scholar
  31. Perinçek D, Çemen İ (1990) The structural relationship between the East Anatolian and Dead Sea fault zones in southeastern Turkey. Tectonophysics 172:331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Piper JDA, Gürsoy H, Tatar O, Beck ME, Rao A, Koçbulut F, Mesci BL (2010) Distributed neotectonic deformation in the Anatolides of Turkey: a palaeomagnetic analysis. Tectonophysics 488:31–50. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2009.05.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Quattrocchi F, Buttinelli M, Cantucci B, Cinti D, Galli G, Gasparini A, Magno L, Pizzino L, Sciarra A, Voltattorni N (2009) Geochemical anomalies during the 2009 l’Aquila seismic sequence (Central Italy): transverse lineaments inside the activated segments? International Workshop on “Active Tectonic Studies and earthquake Hazard Assessment in Syria and Neighboring Countries” at ASST Conference, Damascus, Syria, 17–19 November, 2009, 69–71Google Scholar
  34. Ramola RC, Singh M, Sandhu AS, Singh S, Virk HS (1990) The use of radon as an earthquake precursor. Nucl Geophys 4:275–287Google Scholar
  35. Reilinger R, McClusky S, Vernant P, Lawrence S, Ergintav S, Cakmak R, Özener H, Kadirov F, Guliev I, Stepanyan R, Nadariya M, Hahubia G, Mahmoud S, Sakr K, ArRajehi A, Paradissis D, Al-Aydrus A, Prilepin M, Guseva T, Evren E, Dmitrotsa A, Filikov SV, Gomez F, Al-Ghazzi R, Karam G (2006) GPS constraints on continental deformation in the Africa-Arabia-Eurasia continental collision zone and implications for the dynamics of plate interactions. J Geophys Res 111 B05411, 26. doi: 10.1029/2005JB004051
  36. Rikitake T (1975) Earthquake precursors. Bull Seism Soc Am 65(5):1133–1162Google Scholar
  37. Rikitake T (1976) Earthquake prediction. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  38. Rikitake T (1987) Earthquake precursors in Japan: precursor time and detectability. Tectonophysics 136(3–4):265–282. doi: 10.1016/0040-1951(87)90029-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rojay B, Heimann A, Toprak V (2001) Neotectonic and volcanic characteristics of the Karasu fault zone (Anatolia, Turkey): the transition zone between the Dead Sea transform and the East Anatolian fault zone. Geodinamica Acta 14:197–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Şaroğlu F, Emre Ö, Kuşçu İ (1992a) Active Fault map of Turkey (1:2 000 000 scale). General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Ankara, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  41. Şaroğlu F, Emre Ö, Kuşçu İ (1992b) The East Anatolian fault zone of Turkey. Ann Tectonicae (Special issue-supplement to volume VI), 99–125Google Scholar
  42. Şengör AMC (1979) The North Anatolian transform fault; its age, offset and tectonic significance. J Geol Soc Lond 136 Part 3:269–282Google Scholar
  43. Şengör AMC, Yılmaz Y (1981) Tethyan evolution of Turkey: a plate tectonic approach. Tectonophysics 75:181–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Şengör AMC, Görür N, Şaroğlu F (1985) Strike-slip faulting and related basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study, In: Biddle KT, Christie-Blick N (eds) Strike-slip deformation, basin formation, and sedimentation. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Spec Publ 37:227–264Google Scholar
  45. Sol S, Meltzer A, Bürgmann R, van der Hilst RD, King R, Chen Z, Koons PO, Lev E, Liu YP, Zeitler PK, Zhang X, Zhang J, Zurek B (2007) Geodynamics of the southern Tibetan Plateau from seismic anisotropy and geodesy. Geology 35:563–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Song ZP, Xu P, Fan ZY, Zhang HK (2001) Quadrant characteristics of earthquake precursors and its theoretical analysis. Acta Seismol Sin 14(1):58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sultankhodhaev GA (1984) Earthquake prediction. UNESCO, Paris, pp 181–191Google Scholar
  48. Talwani P, Moore WS, Chiang J (1980) Radon anomalies and microearthquakes at Lake Jocassee, South Carolina. J Geophys Res 85, B6:3079–3088, doi: 10.1029/JB085iB06p03079 Google Scholar
  49. Tan O, Pabuçcu Z, Tapırdamaz MC, İnan S, Ergintav S, Eyidoğan H, Aksoy E, Kuluöztürk F (2011) Aftershock study and seismotectonic implications of the 8 March 2010 Kovancılar (Elazığ, Turkey) earthquake (MW = 6.1). Geophys Res Lett 38 L11304. doi: 10.1029/2011GL047702
  50. Tanner AB (1980) Radon migration in the ground: a supplementary review. In: Gesell TF, Lowder WM (eds) Natural Radiation Environment III, U.S. Dept. Energy Rept., CONF-780422, 1:5–56Google Scholar
  51. Thomas DM, Cuff KE, Cox ME (1986) The association between ground gas radon variations and geologic activity in Hawaii. J Geophys Res 91:12186–12198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Thomas DM, Cotter JM, Holford D (1992) Experimental design for soil gas radon monitoring. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 161:313–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wakita H (1996) Geochemical challenge to earthquake prediction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:3781–3786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Washington JW, Rose AW (1990) Regional and temporal relations of radon in soil gas to soil temperature and moisture. Geophys Res Lett 17:829–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Westaway R (1994) Present-day kinematics of the Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean. J Geophys Res 99:12071–12090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Westaway R, Arger J (1996) The Gölbaşı basin, southeastern Turkey: a complex discontinuity in a major strike-slip zone. J Geol Soc Lond 153:729–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhao D, Tani H, Mishra OP (2004) Crustal heterogeneity in the 2000 western Tottori earthquake region: effect of fluids from slab dehydration. Phys Earth Planet Interiors 145:161–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sedat İnan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alican Kop
    • 2
  • Hasan Çetin
    • 3
  • Furkan Kulak
    • 1
  • Zümer Pabuçcu
    • 1
  • Cemil Seyis
    • 1
  • Semih Ergintav
    • 1
  • Onur Tan
    • 1
  • Ruhi Saatçılar
    • 1
  • M. Nuri Bodur
    • 4
  1. 1.TÜBİTAK Marmara Research CenterEarth and Marine Sciences InstituteGebzeTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Geological EngineeringKahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam UniversityKahramanmarasTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Geological EngineeringÇukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey
  4. 4.Faculty of Engineering and ArchitectureHakkari UniversityHakkariTurkey

Personalised recommendations