Land subsidence of Jakarta (Indonesia) and its relation with urban development


Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia with a population of about 9.6 million people, inhabiting an area of about 660 square-km. In the last three decades, urban development of Jakarta has grown very rapidly in the sectors of industry, trade, transportation, real estate, and many others. This exponentially increased urban development introduces several environmental problems. Land subsidence is one of them. The resulted land subsidence will also then affect the urban development plan and process. It has been reported for many years that several places in Jakarta are subsiding at different rates. The leveling surveys, GPS survey methods, and InSAR measurements have been used to study land subsidence in Jakarta, over the period of 1982–2010. In general, it was found that the land subsidence exhibits spatial and temporal variations, with the rates of about 1–15 cm/year. A few locations can have the subsidence rates up to about 20–28 cm/year. There are four different types of land subsidence that can be expected to occur in the Jakarta basin, namely: subsidence due to groundwater extraction, subsidence induced by the load of constructions (i.e., settlement of high compressibility soil), subsidence caused by natural consolidation of alluvial soil, and tectonic subsidence. It was found that the spatial and temporal variations of land subsidence depend on the corresponding variations of groundwater extraction, coupled with the characteristics of sedimentary layers and building loads above it. In general, there is strong relation between land subsidence and urban development activities in Jakarta.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16


  1. Abidin HZ (2005) Suitability of levelling, GPS and INSAR for monitoring land subsidence in urban areas of Indonesia. GIM Int 19(7):12–15

    Google Scholar 

  2. Abidin HZ, Djaja R, Darmawan D, Hadi S, Akbar A, Rajiyowiryono H, Sudibyo Y, Meilano I, Kusuma MA, Kahar MA, Subarya C (2001) Land subsidence of Jakarta (Indonesia) and its geodetic-based monitoring system. Natural Hazards. J Int Soc Prev Mitig Nat Hazards 23(2/3):365–387

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Abidin HZ, Djaja R, Andreas H, Gamal M, Hirose K, Indonesia, Maruyama Y (2004) Capabilities and constraints of geodetic techniques for monitoring land subsidence in the urban areas of Indonesia. Geomat Res Aust 81:45–58

    Google Scholar 

  4. Abidin HZ, Andreas H, Gamal M, Wirakusumah AD, Darmawan D, Deguchi T, Maruyama Y (2008a) Land subsidence characteristics of the bandung basin, Indonesia, as estimated from GPS and InSAR. J Appl Geodesy 2(3):167–177. doi:10.1515/JAG.2008.019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Abidin HZ, Andreas H, Djaja R, Darmawan D, Gamal M (2008b) Land subsidence characteristics of Jakarta between 1997 and 2005, as estimated using GPS surveys. GPS Solut 2(1):23–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Abidin HZ, Andreas H, Gamal M, Gumilar I, Napitupulu M, Fukuda Y, Deguchi T, Maruyama Y, Riawan E (2010a) Land subsidence characteristics of the Jakarta basin (Indonesia) and its Relation with groundwater extraction and sea level rise. In: Taniguchi M, Holman IP (eds) Groundwater response to changing climate, IAH selected papers on hydrogeology no 16, CRC Press, London, ISBN: 978-0-415-54493-1, chapter 10, pp 113–130

  7. Abidin HZ, Andreas H, Gumilar I, Sidiq TP, Gamal M, Murdohardono D Supriyadi Fukuda Y (2010b) Studying land subsidence in semarang (Indonesia) using geodetic methods. In: Proceedings of the FIG congress 2010, FS 4D—Landslide and subsidence monitoring II, Sydney, Australia, pp 11–16 April 2010

  8. Ali F (2011) Personal communication. Technical board member of Jakarta Water Supply Regulatory Body, Tuesday, 22 Feb

  9. Beutler G, Bock H, Brockmann E, Dach R, Fridez P, Gurtner W, Hugentobler U, Ineichen D, Johnson J, Meindl M, Mervant L, Rothacher M, Schaer S, Springer T, Weber R (2001) Bernese GPS software version 4.2. In: Hugentobler U, Schaer S, Fridez P (eds) Astronomical Institute, University of Berne, p 515

  10. Beutler G, Bock H, Dach R, Fridez P, Gade A, Hugentobler U, Jaggi A, Meindl M, Mervant L, Prange L, Schaer S, Springer T, Urschl C, Walser P (2007) Bernese GPS Software version 5.0. In: Dach R, Hugentobler U, Fridez P, Meindl M (eds.) Astronomical Institute, University of Berne, p 612

  11. BPS (2011). Website of the Indonesian Central Agency for Statistics (Badan Pusat Statistik). Address:, Accessed: 27 Jan 2011

  12. Colbran N (2009) Will Jakarta be the next atlantis? excessive groundwater use resulting from a failing piped water network Law, Environment and Development Journal, 5/1, p 18, available at

  13. Deguchi T (2005) Automatic InSAR processing and introduction of its application studies. In: Proceedings the 26th Asian conference on remote sensing, Hanoi, Vietnam

  14. Deguchi T, Kato M, Akcin H, Kutoglu HS (2006) Automatic processing of Interferometric SAR and accuracy of surface deformation measurement. SPIE Europe Remote Sensing, Sweden

    Google Scholar 

  15. Djakapermana RD (2008) Kebijakan Penataan Ruang Jabodetabekjur, Paper dipresentasikan pada Seminar Sehari Memperingati Hari Air Sedunia, Kelompok Keahlian Teknologi Pengelolaan Lingkungan, FTSL ITB, Bandung, 31 Maret 2008

  16. Firman T (1999) From global city to city of crisis: jakarta metropolitan region under economic turmoil. Habitat Int 23(4):447–466

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Firman T (2004) New town development in Jakarta Metropolitan Region: a perspective of spatial segregation. Habitat Int 28:349–368

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Firman T (2009) The continuity and change inmega-urbanization in Indonesia: A survey of Jakarta–Bandung Region (JBR) development. Habitat Int 33:327–339

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Firman T, Dharmapatni IAI (1994) The challenges to sustainable development in Jakarta metropolitan region. Habitat Int 18(3):79–94

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Hadipurwo S (1999) Groundwater. In: COASTPLAN JAKARTA BAY PROJECT, Coastal Environmental Geology of the Jakarta Reclamation Project and Adjacent Areas, CCOP COASTPLAN case study Report No. 2, Jakarta/Bangkok, pp 39–49

  21. Harsolumakso AH (2001) Struktur geologi dan daerah genangan. Buletin Geol 33(1):29–45

    Google Scholar 

  22. Hutasoit LM (2001) Kemungkinan hubungan antara kompaksi alamiah dengan daerah genangan air di DKI Jakarta. Buletin Geol 33(1):21–28

    Google Scholar 

  23. Kompas (2010) Article in the Indonesian national newspaper of kompas, internet address:

  24. Leick A (2003) GPS satellite surveying, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, ISBN 0471059307, p 435

  25. Lo Fu-chen, Yue-man Yeung [Eds] (1995) Emerging world cities in pacific Asia. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, ISBN 92-808-0907-5,

  26. Lubis RF, Sakura Y, Delinom R (2008) Groundwater recharge and discharge processes in the Jakarta groundwater basin, Indonesia. Hydrogeol J doi: 10.1007/s10040-008-0278-1

  27. Marfai MA, King L (2007) Monitoring land subsidence in Semarang, Indonesia. Environ Geol 53:651–659

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Massonnet D, Feigl KL (1998) Radar Interferometry and its Application to Changes in the Earth’s Surface. Rev Geophys 36(4):441–500

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Murdohardono D, Tirtomihardjo H (1993) Penurunan tananh di Jakarta dan rencana pemantauannya. In: Proceedings of the 22nd annual convention of the indonesian association of geologists, Bandung, 6–9 December, pp 346–354

  30. Murdohardono D, Sudarsono U (1998) Land subsidence monitoring system in Jakarta. In: Proceedings of symposium on Japan-Indonesia IDNDR Project : Volcanology, tectonics, flood and sediment hazards, Bandung, 21–23 September, pp 243–256

  31. NGS (2011) Website of the national geodetic survey geodetic leveling, Address:, Accessed: 7 Feb 2011

  32. Nurmaulia SL, Fenoglio-Marc L, Becker M (2010) Long term sea level change from satellite altimetry and tide gauges in the indonesian region, paper presented at the EGU General Assembly 2010, 2–7 May. Vienna, Austria

    Google Scholar 

  33. Purnomo H, Murdohardono D, Pindratno H (1999) Land Subsidence Study in Jakarta. In: Proceedings of indonesian association of geologists, vol IV : Development in engineering, environment, and numerical geology, Jakarta, 30 Nov.-1 Dec., pp 53–72

  34. Rajiyowiryono H (1999) Groundwater and Landsubsidence Monitoring along the North Coastal Plain of Java Island. CCOP Newsl 24(3):19 July-September

    Google Scholar 

  35. Rimbaman, Suparan P (1999) Geomorphology. In: Proceeding of COASTPLAN JAKARTA BAY PROJECT, coastal environmental geology of the Jakarta reclamation project and adjacent areas, CCOP COASTPLAN case study Report No. 2, Jakarta/Bangkok, pp 21–25

  36. Rismianto D, Mak W (1993) Environmental aspects of groundwater extraction in DKI Jakarta: Changing views. In: Proceedings of the 22nd annual convention of the indonesian association of geologists, bandung, 6–9 December, pp 327–345

  37. Rukmana D (2008) Decreasing green areas in Jakarta, The Jakarta Post, March 17, 2008,

  38. Sampurno (2001) Geomorfologi dan Daerah Genangan DKI Jakarta. Buletin Geol 33(1):1–12

    Google Scholar 

  39. Schreier G (Ed.) (1993) SAR geocoding: data and systems. Wichmaann Verlag, Karlsruhe, ISBN 3-87907-247-7, p 435

  40. Soetrisno S, Satrio H, Haryadi T (1997) To anticipate impacts of reclamation of jakarta bay, a groundwater conservation’s perspective. Paper presented at workshop on coastal and nearshore geological/oceanographical assessment of Jakarta bay : A Basis for Coastal Zone Management and Development, Jakarta, pp 25–28 June

  41. Steinberg F (2007) Jakarta: environmental problems and sustainability. Habitat Int 31:354–365

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Texier P (2008) Floods in Jakarta: when the extreme reveals daily structural constraints and mismanagement. Disaster Prev Manag 17(3):358–372

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Wirakusumah AD (2008) Pemanfaatan Air Tanah di Perkotaan Paper dipresentasikan pada Seminar Sehari Memperingati Hari Air Sedunia, Kelompok Keahlian Teknologi Pengelolaan Lingkungan, FTSL ITB, Bandung, 31 Maret 2008

  44. Yong RN, Turcott E, Maathuis H (1995) Groundwater extraction-induced land subsidence prediction: bangkok and jakarta case studies. In: Proceedings of the Fifth international symposium on land subsidence, IAHS Publication no. 234, October, pp 89–97

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hasanuddin Z. Abidin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Abidin, H.Z., Andreas, H., Gumilar, I. et al. Land subsidence of Jakarta (Indonesia) and its relation with urban development. Nat Hazards 59, 1753 (2011).

Download citation


  • Jakarta
  • Land subsidence
  • Urban development
  • Leveling
  • GPS
  • InSAR