Natural Hazards

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 25–51

Failure process of masonry buildings during earthquake and associated casualty risk evaluation

Original Paper

Abstract

Collapse of masonry structures during an earthquake is analyzed using the three-dimensional distinct element method (3D-DEM) code developed by the first author. The DEM is a numerical analysis technique, in which positions of elements are calculated by solving equations of motion step by step. Both individual and group behavior can be simulated. The structure is modeled as an assembly of distinct elements connected by virtual springs and dashpots, where elements come into contact. First, the validity of the developed 3D-DEM code is confirmed by comparing analytical results with static experimental results of masonry walls. Second, failure process of masonry buildings due to earthquake is investigated using DEM. Effects of reinforcing methods are also examined. Finally, injury to human bodies in the collapsing masonry buildings is also calculated. Assuming that occupants lie down on the floor, two types of casualty criteria are introduced and assessed.

Keywords

Masonry building Collapse simulation Casualty estimation Earthquake DEM 

References

  1. Bierawski LG, Maeno S (2006) DEM-FEM model of highly saturated soil motion due to seepage force. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 132(5):401–409. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(2006)132:5(401) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Coburn AW (1987) Seismic vulnerability and risk reduction strategies for housing in eastern Turkey. PhD Thesis, The Martin Centre for Architectural and Urban Studies, University of Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  3. Cundall PA (1974) Rational design of tunnel supports: a computer model for rock mass behavior using interactive graphics for the input and output of geometrical data. Technical Report MRD-2-74, Missouri River Division, US Army Corps of EngineersGoogle Scholar
  4. Glass RI, Urrutia JJ, Sibony S, Smith H, Garcia B, Rizzo L (1977) Earthquake injuries related to housing in a Guatemalan village. Science 197:638–643. doi:10.1126/science.197.4304.638 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ikuta E, Miyano M, Nagashima F, Tanaka H, Nakamori Y (2004) Study on casualty due to earthquake by thoracic compression simulation. Jpn J Physiol Anthropol 24(2):92–93 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  6. Kawasumi H (1954) Intensity and magnitude of shallow earthquakes. Bur Cent Seism Intern 19:99–114Google Scholar
  7. Kiyono J, Kalantari A (2004) Collapse mechanism of adobe and masonry structures during the 2003 Iran Bam earthquake. Bull Earthq Res Inst Univ Tokyo 79:157–161Google Scholar
  8. Kume M (1961) Study on chest compression based on pathological physiology. J Jpn Assoc Thorac Surg 9(10):811–827 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  9. Lourenco PB (1994) Analysis of masonry structures with interface elements, theory and applications. Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, TU-DELFT Report No. 03-21-22-0-01, TNO-BOUW Report No. 94-NW-R0762Google Scholar
  10. Meguro K, Yoshimura M, Mayorca P, Takashima M (2004) Characteristics of adobe structure damage observed in Iran/Bam earthquake (Dec. 26, 2003). Mon J Ins Indus Sci Univ Tokyo 56(6):496–499Google Scholar
  11. Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport (2001) National organization for automotive Safety & victims’ aid new car assessment Japan. Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  12. Miyakoshi J, Hayashi Y, Tamura K, Fukuwa N (1998) Damage ratio of buildings using damage data of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. In: Proceedings of 7th international conference on structural safety and reliability, vol 1, pp 349–354Google Scholar
  13. Molas GL, Yamazaki F (1995) Neural networks for quick earthquake damage estimation. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 24:505–516. doi:10.1002/eqe.4290240404 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ohta Y, Goto N, Ohashi H (1983) An empirical construction of equations for estimating the number of victims in an earthquake. Jishin II 36:463–464 (in Japanese with English title)Google Scholar
  15. Ohta Y, Murakami H, Watoh Y, Koyama M (2004) A model for evaluating life span characteristics of entrapped occupants by an earthquake. In: Proceedings of the 13th world conference on earthquake engineering, vol 1–9, Paper No. 232Google Scholar
  16. Okada S, Kagami H (1991) Inventory vulnerability functions for earthquake damage evaluation in terms of the intensity scale of the Japan Meteorological Agency. Jishin II 44:93–108 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  17. Okada S, Takai N (1999) The basic framework for casualty modeling of victims of earthquake. (1) Classification of structural types and damage patterns of buildings, and damage index function. Rep Tono Res Inst Earthq Sci 2:12–23 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  18. Sakai S (1991) Survival modelling of victims trapped in collapsed buildings in an earthquake. J Nat Disaster Sci 13:69–95Google Scholar
  19. Sathiparan N, Mayorca P, Nesheli KN, Guragain R, Meguro K (2005) Experimental study on in-plane and out-of-plane behavior of masonry wallettes retrofitted by PP-band meshes. Mon J Ins Indus Sci Univ Tokyo 57(6):26–29Google Scholar
  20. Seligan HA, Shoaf KI (2002) Human impacts of earthquakes. In: Chen WF, Scawthorn C (eds) Earthquake engineering handbook. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  21. Spence R, Bayulke N, Coburn A, Hibbs A (1987) Impulse table tests on stone masonry houses. The Martin Center for Architectural and Urban Studies Department of Architecture, Cambridge University, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  22. Von Glerke HE, Brammer AJ (2002) Effects of shock and vibration on humans. In: Harris CM, Piersol AG (eds) Shock and vibration handbook, 5th edn. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Structural EngineeringKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Tono Research Institute of Earthquake ScienceGifuJapan

Personalised recommendations