Skip to main content

Visuoperceptive Impairments in Severe Alcohol Use Disorder: A Critical Review of Behavioral Studies

Abstract

The present literature review is aimed at offering a comprehensive and critical view of behavioral data collected during the past seventy years concerning visuoperception in severe alcohol use disorders (AUD). To pave the way for a renewal of research and clinical approaches in this very little understood field, this paper (1) provides a critical review of previous behavioral studies exploring visuoperceptive processing in severe AUD, (2) identifies the alcohol-related parameters and demographic factors that influence the deficits, and (3) addresses the limitations of this literature and their implications for current clinical strategies. By doing so, this review highlights the presence of visuoperceptive deficits but also shows how the lack of in-depth studies exploring the visual system in this clinical population results in the current absence of integration of these deficits in the dominant models of vision. Given the predominance of vision in everyday life, we stress the need to better delineate the extent, the specificity, and the actual implications of the deficits for severe AUD.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Notes

  1. 1.

    This paper will focus on both visuoperceptive and visuospatial processes, to address both (1) visual recognition processes based on the analysis of basic features such as form, pattern, and color, mostly linked to the ventral visual pathway and temporal cortex, also known as the "what" system, (2) visual-spatial analysis, generally associated with the dorsal visual pathway and parietal cortex, and often called the "where" system (Kreutzer et al., 2017). The term "visuoperception" will be used to refer to visual perception in general, and not specifically to ventral visual processes as little distinction has been made so far between the two visual streams in the severe AUD literature.

References

  1. Acker, C. (1985). Performance of female alcoholics on neuropsychological testing. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 20(4), 379–386. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.alcalc.a044560.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Acker, C. (1986). Neuropsychological deficits in alcoholics: the relative contributions of gender and drinking history. British Journal of Addiction, 81(3), 395–403. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1986.tb00346.x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Acker, C., Acker, W., & Shaw, G. K. (1984). Assessment of cognitive function in alcoholics by computer: a control study. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 19(3), 223–233. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.alcalc.a044439.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Adams, K. M., Grant, I., & Reed, R. (1980). Neuropsychology in alcoholic men in their late thirties: one-year follow-up. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 137(8), 928–931. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.137.8.928.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Ahmadi, K., Pouretemad, H. R., Esfandiari, J., Yoonessi, A., & Yoonessi, A. (2015). Psychophysical Evidence for Impaired Magno, Parvo, and Konio-cellular Pathways in Dyslexic Children. Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research, 10(4), 433–440. https://doi.org/10.4103/2008-322X.176911.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ahuja, S., Kumar, P. S., Kumar, V. P., Kattimani, S., & Akkilagunta, S. (2016). Effect of chronic alcohol and tobacco use on retinal nerve fibre layer thickness: a case–control study. BMJ Open Ophthalmology, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2016-00000.

  7. Alterman, A. I., Tarter, R. E., Petrarulo, E. W., & Baughman, T. G. (1984). Evidence for impersistence in young male alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 8(5), 448–450. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1984.tb05699.x.

  8. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.).

  9. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.).

  10. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.).

  11. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.).

  12. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.

  13. Andre, J. T., Tyrrell, R. A., Leibowitz, H. W., Nicholson, M. E., & Wang, M. (1994). Measuring and predicting the effects of alcohol consumption on contrast sensitivity for stationary and moving gratings. Perception & Psychophysics, 56(3), 261–267. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03209760.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Aviñó, J., Díaz-Llopis, M., España, E., Johnsen-Soriano, S., Romero, B., Marín, N., Muriach, M., Bosch-Morell, F., & Romero, F. J. (2002). Estrés oxidativo en el nervio óptico de la rata inducido por la administración crónica de etanol. [Chronic ethanol feeding induces oxidative stress in the optic nerve of rats]. Archivos De La Sociedad Espanola De Oftalmologia, 77(5), 263–268.

  15. Bagga, D., Khushu, S., Modi, S., Kaur, P., Bhattacharya, D., Garg, M. L., & Singh, N. (2014a). Impaired visual information processing in alcohol-dependent subjects: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the primary visual cortex. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 75(5), 817–826. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2014.75.817.

  16. Bagga, D., Sharma, A., Kumari, A., Kaur, P., Bhattacharya, D., & Garg, M. L. (2014b). Decreased white matter integrity in fronto-occipital fasciculus bundles: relation to visual information processing in alcohol-dependent subjects. Alcohol, 48(1), 43–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2013.10.009.

  17. Bar, M. (2004). Visual objects in context. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5(8), 617–629. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn1476.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Bar, M., Kassam, K. S., Ghuman, A. S., Boshyan, J., Schmid, A. M., & Dale, A. M. (2006). Top-down facilitation of visual recognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(2), 449–454. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0507062103.

  19. Barrett, L. F., & Bar, M. (2009). See it with feeling: affective predictions during object perception. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1521), 1325–1334. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0312.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Bates, M. E., Buckman, J. F., & Nguyen, T. T. (2013). A Role for Cognitive Rehabilitation in Increasing the Effectiveness of Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders. Neuropsychology Review, 23(1), 27–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-013-9228-3.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. Beatty, W. W., Blanco, C. R., Hames, K. A., & Nixon, S. J. (1997). Spatial cognition in alcoholics: influence of concurrent abuse of other drugs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 44(2–3), 167–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(97)01334-3.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Beatty, W. W., Hames, K. A., Blanco, C. R., Nixon, S. J., & Tivis, L. J. (1996). Visuospatial perception, construction and memory in alcoholism. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57(2), 136–143. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1996.57.136.

  23. Beatty, W. W., Katzung, V. M., Moreland, V. J., & Nixon, S. J. (1995). Neuropsychological performance of recently abstinent alcoholics and cocaine abusers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 37(3), 247–253. https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-8716(94)01072-S.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Bertera, J. H., & Parsons, O. A. (1978). Impaired visual search in alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 2(1), 9–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1978.tb04685.x.

  25. Blusewicz, M. J., Dustman, R. E., Schenkenberg, T., & Beck, E. C. (1977a). Neuropsychological correlates of chronic alcoholism and aging. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 165(5), 348–355. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-197711000-00006.

  26. Blusewicz, M. J., Schenkenberg, T., & Dustman, R. E. (1977b). WAIS performance in young normal, young alcoholic, and elderly normal groups: an evaluation of organicity and mental aging indices. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33(4), 1149–1153. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(197710)33:4%3c1149::aid-jclp2270330451%3e3.0.co;2-c.

  27. Boothe, R. G. (2002). Perception of the visual environment. Springer.

  28. Bowden, S. C. (1988). Learning in young alcoholics. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 10(2), 157–168. https://doi.org/10.1080/01688638808408232.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Bowden, S. C., Benedikt, R., & Ritter, A. J. (1992). Delayed matching to sample and concurrent learning in nonamnesic humans with alcohol dependence. Neuropsychologia, 30(5), 427–435. https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(92)90090-9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Brandt, J., Butters, N., Ryan, C., & Bayog, R. (1983). Cognitive loss and recovery in long-term alcohol abusers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40(4), 435–442. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790040089012.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Braun, C. M., & Richer, M. (1993). A comparison of functional indexes, derived from screening tests, of chronic alcoholic neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex, retina and peripheral nervous system. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 54(1), 11–16. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1993.54.11.

  32. Brion, M., Pitel, A.-L., Beaunieux, H., & Maurage, P. (2014). Revisiting the Continuum Hypothesis: Toward an In-Depth Exploration of Executive Functions in Korsakoff Syndrome. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 498. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00498.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. Bubl, E., Kern, E., Ebert, D., Bach, M., & Tebartz van Elst, L. (2010). Seeing Gray When Feeling Blue? Depression Can Be Measured in the Eye of the Diseased. Biological Psychiatry, 68(2), 205–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.02.009.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Bühler, M., & Mann, K. (2011). Alcohol and the Human Brain: A Systematic Review of Different Neuroimaging Methods. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35(10), 1771–1793. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01540.x.

  35. Burnett, L. J., Marshall, P. H., & Bell, R. W. (1996). Reality monitoring in recovering alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57(2), 210–216. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1996.57.210.

  36. Butters, N., Cermak, L. S., Montgomery, K., & Adinolfi, A. (1977). Some comparisons of the memory and visuoperceptive deficits of chronic alcoholics and patients with Korsakoff’s disease. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1(1), 73–80. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1977.tb05771.x.

  37. Butters, N., Lewis, R., Cermak, L. S., & Goodglass, H. (1973). Material-specific memory deficits in alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Neuropsychologia, 11(3), 291–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(73)90040-7.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Campbell, H., Doughty, M. J., Heron, G., & Ackerley, R. G. (2001). Influence of chronic alcohol abuse and ensuing forced abstinence on static subjective accommodation function in humans. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 21(3), 197–205. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1475-1313.2001.00567.x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Campbell, T. D., Sampliner, R. E., Russell, R. M., & Garrett, M. S. (1981). Night driving (mesopic) visual acuity in sober male alcoholics with and without liver disease. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 5(1), 34–37. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1981.tb04861.x.

  40. Cavalcanti-Galdino, M. K., da Silva, J. A., Mendes, L. C., dos Santos, N. A., & Simas, M. L. B. (2014). Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 47(4), 321–327. https://doi.org/10.1590/1414-431X20143209.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  41. Ceballos, N. A., Tivis, R., Lawton-Craddock, A., & Nixon, S. J. (2005). Visual-spatial attention in alcoholics and illicit stimulant abusers: effects of nicotine replacement. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 29(1), 97–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2004.10.011.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Ceballos, N. A., Tivis, R., Lawton-Craddock, A., & Nixon, S. J. (2006). Nicotine and cognitive efficiency in alcoholics and illicit stimulant abusers: implications of smoking cessation for substance users in treatment. Substance Use & Misuse, 41(3), 265–281. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826080500409076.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Ceccanti, M., Hamilton, D., Coriale, G., Carito, V., Aloe, L., & Chaldakov, G. (2015). Spatial learning in men undergoing alcohol detoxification. Physiology & Behavior, 149, 324–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.06.034.

  44. Chambers, J. L., & Wilson, W. T. (1968). Perception of apparent motion and degree of mental pathology. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 26(3), 855–861. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1968.26.3.855.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Chkonia, E., Roinishvili, M., Reichard, L., Wurch, W., Puhlmann, H., & Grimsen, C. (2012). Patients with functional psychoses show similar visual backward masking deficits. Psychiatry Research, 198(2), 235–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2012.02.020.

  46. Chong, E.W.-T., Kreis, A. J., Wong, T. Y., Simpson, J. A., & Guymer, R. H. (2008). Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 145(4), 707–715. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2007.12.005.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Ciesielski, K. T., Waldorf, A. V., & Jung, R. E. (1995). Anterior brain deficits in chronic alcoholism. Cause or effect? The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183(12), 756–761. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199512000-00005.

  48. Clarke, J., & Haughton, H. (1975). A study of intellectual impairment and recovery rates in heavy drinkers in Ireland. The British Journal of Psychiatry : The Journal of Mental Science, 126, 178–184. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.126.2.178.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Corballis, M. C. (2002). Hemispheric interactions in simple reaction time. Neuropsychologia, 40(4), 423–434. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0028-3932(01)00097-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Creupelandt, C., D’Hondt, F., & Maurage, P. (2019). Towards a Dynamic Exploration of Vision, Cognition and Emotion in Alcohol-Use Disorders. Current Neuropharmacology, 17(6), 492–506. https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X16666180828100441.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. Crowe, S. F., Cammisuli, D. M., & Stranks, E. K. (2019). Widespread Cognitive Deficits in Alcoholism Persistent Following Prolonged Abstinence: An Updated Meta-analysis of Studies That Used Standardised Neuropsychological Assessment Tools. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 35(1), 31–35. https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acy106.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Cruz-Coke, R. (1972). Defective color vision and alcoholism. Modern Problems in Ophthalmology, 11, 174–177.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Cutting, J. (1978). Patterns of performance in amnesic subjects. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 41(3), 278–282. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.41.3.278.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  54. Cutting, J. (1979). Differential impairment of memory in Korsakoff’s syndrome. Cortex, 15(3), 501–506. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0010-9452(79)80074-x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Czapla, M., Simon, J. J., Richter, B., Kluge, M., Friederich, H.-C., Herpertz, S., et al. (2016). The impact of cognitive impairment and impulsivity on relapse of alcohol-dependent patients: Implications for psychotherapeutic treatment. Addiction Biology, 21(4), 873–884. https://doi.org/10.1111/adb.12229.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Daig, I., Mahlberg, R., Schroeder, F., Gudlowski, Y., Wrase, J., Wertenauer, F., Bschor, T., Esser, G., Heinz, A., & Kienast, T. (2010). Low effective organizational strategies in visual memory performance of unmedicated alcoholics during early abstinence. Psycho-Social Medicine, 7. https://doi.org/10.3205/psm000069.

  57. Davies, S. J. C., Pandit, S. A., Feeney, A., Stevenson, B. J., Kerwin, R. W., Nutt, D. J., et al. (2005). Is there cognitive impairment in clinically ‘healthy’ abstinent alcohol dependence? Alcohol and Alcoholism, 40(6), 498–503. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agh203.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Dawson, L. K., & Grant, I. (2000). Alcoholics’ initial organizational and problem-solving skills predict learning and memory performance on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 6(1), 12–19. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1355617700611025.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. de Oliveira Castro, A. J., Rodrigues, A. R., Côrtes, M. I. T., & de Lima Silveira, L. C. (2009). Impairment of color spatial vision in chronic alcoholism measured by psychophysical methods. Psychology & Neuroscience, 2(2), 179–187. https://doi.org/10.3922/j.psns.2009.2.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Desfosses, M., Meadows, H., Jackson, M., & Crowe, S. F. (2014). The Relationship Between Neuropsychological Functioning and Mental Health Outcomes of Chronic Alcohol Users Involved in Counselling: Prediction of Treatment Outcome. Australian Psychologist, 49(5), 287–296. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12071.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. D’Hondt, F., Kornreich, C., Philippot, P., Campanella, S., & Maurage, P. (2014a). Below and beyond the recognition of emotional facial expressions in alcohol dependence: from basic perception to social cognition. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 2177–2182. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S74963.

  62. D’Hondt, F., Lepore, F., & Maurage, P. (2014b). Are visual impairments responsible for emotion decoding deficits in alcohol-dependence? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 128. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00128.

  63. D’Hondt, F., Lescut, C., Maurage, P., Menard, O., Gibour, B., & Cottencin, O. (2018). Psychiatric comorbidities associated with a positive screening using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test in subjects with severe alcohol use disorder. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 191, 266–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.07.009.

  64. Di Sclafani, V., Ezekiel, F., Meyerhoff, D. J., MacKay, S., Dillon, W. P., Weiner, M. W., & Fein, G. (1995). Brain Atrophy and Cognitive Function in Older Abstinent Alcoholic Men. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 19(5), 1121–1126. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1995.tb01589.x.

  65. Drake, A. I., Hannay, H. J., & Gam, J. (1990). Effects of chronic alcoholism on hemispheric functioning: an examination of gender differences for cognitive and dichotic listening tasks. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 12(5), 781–797. https://doi.org/10.1080/01688639008401019.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Durazzo, T. C., Mon, A., Gazdzinski, S., & Meyerhoff, D. J. (2017). Regional brain volume changes in alcohol-dependent individuals during early abstinence: associations with relapse following treatment: Brain volumes. Addiction Biology, 22(5), 1416–1425. https://doi.org/10.1111/adb.12420.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Durazzo, T. C., Mon, A., Gazdzinski, S., Yeh, P.-H., & Meyerhoff, D. J. (2015). Serial longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging data indicate non-linear regional gray matter volume recovery in abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals. Addiction Biology, 20(5), 956–967. https://doi.org/10.1111/adb.12180.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Durazzo, T. C., Pennington, D. L., Schmidt, T. P., Mon, A., Abé, C., & Meyerhoff, D. J. (2013). Neurocognition in 1-Month-Abstinent Treatment-Seeking Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: Interactive Effects of Age and Chronic Cigarette Smoking. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37(10), 1794–1803. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.12140.

  69. Eckardt, M. J., Ryback, R. S., & Pautler, C. P. (1980). Neuropsychological deficits in alcoholic men in their mid thirties. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 137(8), 932–936. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.137.8.932.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Ellenberg, L., Rosenbaum, C., Goldman, M. S., & Whitman, R. D. (1980). Recoverability of psychological functioning following alcohol abuse: lateralization effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48(4), 503–510. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006x.48.4.503.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Ellis, R. J., & Oscar-Berman, M. (1989). Alcoholism, Aging, and Functional Cerebral Asymmetries. Psychological Bulletin, 106(1), 128–147. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.106.1.128.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Emmerson, R. Y., Dustman, R. E., Shearer, D. E., & Chamberlin, H. M. (1987). EEG, visually evoked and event related potentials in young abstinent alcoholics. Alcohol, 4(4), 241–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/0741-8329(87)90018-8.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Errico, A. L., King, A. C., Lovallo, W. R., & Parsons, O. A. (2002). Cortisol dysregulation and cognitive impairment in abstinent male alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26(8), 1198–1204. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ALC.0000025885.23192.FF.

  74. Errico, A. L., Parsons, O. A., Kling, O. R., & King, A. C. (1992). Investigation of the role of sex hormones in alcoholics’ visuospatial deficits. Neuropsychologia, 30(5), 417–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(92)90089-5.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Evert, D. L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2001). Selective attentional processing and the right hemisphere: effects of aging and alcoholism. Neuropsychology, 15(4), 452–461. https://doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.15.4.452.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Fabian, M. S., Parsons, O. A., & Sheldon, M. D. (1984). Effects of gender and alcoholism on verbal and visual-spatial learning. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172(1), 16–20. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198401000-00005.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. Fabian, M. S., Parsons, O. A., & Silberstein, J. A. (1981). Impaired perceptual-cognitive functioning in women alcoholics. Cross-validated findings. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 42(3), 217–229. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1981.42.217.

  78. Fakunle, P. B., Ajibade, A. J., Ehigie, L. O., Alamu, O. A., & Ashamu, E. A. (2012). Chronic Ethanol Administration Reduces Neuronal Cells Population in the Lateral Geniculate Body and the Superior Colliculus of Adult Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus). Research Journal of Medical Sciences, 6(2), 56–60. https://doi.org/10.3923/rjmsci.2012.56.60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Fama, R., Pfefferbaum, A., & Sullivan, E. V. (2004). Perceptual Learning in Detoxified Alcoholic Men: Contributions From Explicit Memory. Executive Function, and Age: Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 28(11), 1657–1665. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ALC.0000145690.48510.DA.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Fama, R., Pfefferbaum, A., & Sullivan, E. V. (2006). Visuoperceptual learning in alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 30(4), 680–687. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00085.x.

  81. Fein, G., & McGillivray, S. (2007). Cognitive Performance in Long-Term Abstinent Elderly Alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(11), 1788–1799. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00481.x.

  82. Fein, G., Shimotsu, R., Chu, R., & Barakos, J. (2009). Parietal Gray Matter Volume Loss Is Related to Spatial Processing Deficits in Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholic Men. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 33(10), 1806–1814. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01019.x.

  83. Fein, G., Torres, J., Price, L. J., & Di Sclafani, V. (2006). Cognitive performance in long-term abstinent alcoholic individuals. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 30(9), 1538–1544. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00185.x.

  84. Ffytche, D. H., Guy, C. N., & Zeki, S. (1995). The parallel visual motion inputs into areas V1 and V5 of human cerebral cortex. Brain, 118(6), 1375–1394. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/118.6.1375.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. Fitzhugh, L. C., Fitzhugh, K. B., & Reitan, R. M. (1960). Adaptive abilities and intellectual functioning in hospitalized alcoholics. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 21, 414–423.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Fitzhugh, L. C., Fitzhugh, K. B., & Reitan, R. M. (1965). Adaptive abilities and intellectual functioning of hospitalized alcoholics: further considerations. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 26(3), 402–411.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Fitzpatrick, L. E., & Crowe, S. F. (2013). Cognitive and Emotional Deficits in Chronic Alcoholics: a Role for the Cerebellum? The Cerebellum, 12(4), 520–533. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12311-013-0461-3.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. Flannery, B., Fishbein, D., Krupitsky, E., Langevin, D., Verbitskaya, E., Bland, C., Bolla, K., Egorova, V., Bushara, N., Tsoy, M., & Zvartau, E. (2007). Gender differences in neurocognitive functioning among alcohol-dependent Russian patients. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(5), 745–754. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00372.x.

  89. Forsberg, L. K., & Goldman, M. S. (1985). Experience-dependent recovery of visuospatial functioning in older alcoholic persons. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94(4), 519–529. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.94.4.519.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. Franceschi, M., Truci, G., Comi, G., Lozza, L., Marchettini, P., Galardi, G., & Smirne, S. (1984). Cognitive deficits and their relationship to other neurological complications in chronic alcoholic patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 47(10), 1134–1137. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.47.10.1134.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Friedman, T. W., Robinson, S. R., & Yelland, G. W. (2011). Impaired perceptual judgment at low blood alcohol concentrations. Alcohol, 45(7), 711–718. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2010.10.007.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. Glenn, S. W., & Parsons, O. A. (1991). Impaired efficiency in female alcoholics’ neuropsychological performance. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13(6), 895–908. https://doi.org/10.1080/01688639108405106.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  93. Glosser, G., Butters, N., & Kaplan, E. (1977). Visuoperceptual processes in brain damaged patients on the digit symbol substitution test. The International Journal of Neuroscience, 7(2), 59–66. https://doi.org/10.3109/00207457709147202.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  94. Goldman, M. S., Williams, D. L., & Klisz, D. K. (1983). Recoverability of psychological functioning following alcohol abuse: Prolonged visual–spatial dysfunction in older alcoholics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(3), 370. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006x.51.3.370.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  95. Goldstein, G., & Chotlos, J. W. (1965). Dependency and brain damage in alcoholics. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 21(1), 135–150. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1965.21.1.135.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  96. Goldstein, G., Neuringer, C., & Klappersack, B. (1970). Cognitive, perceptual, and motor aspects of field dependency in alcoholics. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 117(2), 253–266. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1970.10532583.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  97. Grant, I., Adams, K. M., & Reed, R. (1984). Aging, abstinence, and medical risk factors in the prediction of neuropsychologic deficit among long-term alcoholics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41(7), 710–718. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1984.01790180080010.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  98. Grant, I., Adams, K., & Reed, R. (1979). Normal neuropsychological abilities of alcoholic men in their late thirties. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136(7), 1263–1269. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.136.10.1263.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Gudeman, H. E., Craine, J. F., Golden, C. J., & McLaughlin, D. (1977). Higher cortical dysfunction associated with long term alcoholism. The International Journal of Neuroscience, 8(1), 33–40. https://doi.org/10.3109/00207457709150373.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  100. Ham, H. P., & Parsons, O. A. (1997). Organization of psychological functions in alcoholics and nonalcoholics: a test of the compensatory hypothesis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58(1), 67–74. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1997.58.67.

  101. Hamblin, D. K., Hyer, L. A., Harrison, W. R., & Carson, M. F. (1984). Older alcoholics: profile of decline. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40(6), 1510–1516. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(198411)40:61510::aid-jclp22704006423.0.co;2-x.

  102. Harris, C. R., Albaugh, B., Goldman, D., & Enoch, M. A. (2003). Neurocognitive impairment due to chronic alcohol consumption in an American Indian community. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64(4), 458–466. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.2003.64.458.

  103. Harvey, A. J. (2014). Some effects of alcohol and eye movements on cross-race face learning. Memory, 22(8), 1126–1138. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2013.872278.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  104. Harvey, A. J. (2016). When alcohol narrows the field of focal attention. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69(4), 669–677. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2015.1040803.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  105. Haxby, J. V., Lundgren, S. L., & Morley, G. K. (1983). Short-term retention of verbal, visual shape and visuospatial location information in normal and amnesic subjects. Neuropsychologia, 21(1), 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2015.1040803.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  106. Hellige, J. B. (1996). Hemispheric asymmetry for visual information processing. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 56(1), 485–497.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  107. Hill, S. Y. (1980). Comprehensive assessment of brain dysfunction in alcoholic individuals. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica., 62(Suppl. 286), 57–75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1980.tb08055.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Hillbom, M., Muuronen, A., Holm, L., & Hindmarsh, T. (1986). The clinical versus radiological diagnosis of alcoholic cerebellar degeneration. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 73(1), 45–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-510x(86)90062-6.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  109. Hochla, N. A., & Parsons, O. A. (1982). Premature aging in female alcoholics. A neuropsychological study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170(4), 241–245. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198204000-00009.

  110. Hoyer, W. J., Semenec, S. C., & Buchler, N. E. G. (2007). Acute alcohol intoxication impairs controlled search across the visual field. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68(5), 748–758. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2007.68.748.

  111. Ioime, L., Guglielmo, R., Affini, G. F., Quatrale, M., Martinotti, G., Callea, A., Savi, E., & Janiri, L. (2018). Neuropsychological Performance in Alcohol Dependent Patients: A One-Year Longitudinal Study. Psychiatry Investigation, 15(5), 505–513. https://doi.org/10.30773/pi.2017.09.27.1.

  112. Jacobson, G. R., Pisani, V. D., & Berenbaum, H. L. (1970). Temporal stability of field dependence among hospitalized alcoholics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 76(1), 10–12. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0029650.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  113. Jeanblanc, J. (2015). Comorbidity Between Psychiatric Diseases and Alcohol Use Disorders: Impact of Adolescent Alcohol Consumption. Current Addiction Reports, 2(4), 293–301. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-015-0076-5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Jones, B. M. (1971). Verbal and spatial intelligence in short and long term alcoholics. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 153(4), 292–297. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-197110000-00008.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  115. Jones, B. M., Jones, M. K., & Hatcher, E. M. (1980). Cognitive deficits in women alcoholics as a function of gynecological status. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 41(1), 140–146. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1980.41.140.

  116. Jones, B., & Parsons, O. A. (1971). Impaired abstracting ability in chronic alcoholics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 24(1), 71–75. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1971.01750070073010.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  117. Jones, B., & Parsons, O. A. (1972). Specific vs generalized deficits of abstracting ability in chronic alcoholics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26(4), 380–384. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1972.01750220090017.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  118. Kanthan, G. L., Mitchell, P., Burlutsky, G., & Wang, J. J. (2010). Alcohol Consumption and the Long-Term Incidence of Cataract and Cataract Surgery: The Blue Mountains Eye Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 150(3), 434–440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2010.04.020.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  119. Kapitany, T., Dietzel, M., Grunberger, J., Frey, R., Koppensteiner, L., Schleifer, G., & Marx, B. (1993). Color vision deficiencies in the course of acute alcohol withdrawal. Biological Psychiatry, 33(6), 415–422. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(93)90169-E.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  120. Kapur, N., & Butters, N. (1977). Visuoperceptive deficits in long-term alcoholics and alcoholics with Korsakoff’s psychosis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 38(11), 2025–2035. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1977.38.2025.

  121. Karp, S. A., & Konstadt, N. L. (1965). Alcoholism and psychological differentiation: long-range effect of heavy drinking on field dependence. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 140(6), 412–416. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-196506000-00003.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  122. Konrad, A., Vucurevic, G., Lorscheider, M., Bernow, N., Thummel, M., & Chai, C. (2012). Broad Disruption of Brain White Matter Microstructure and Relationship with Neuropsychological Performance in Male Patients with Severe Alcohol Dependence. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 47(2), 118–126. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agr157.

  123. Kostandov, E. A., Arsumanov, Y. L., Genkina, O. A., Restchikova, T. N., & Shostakovich, G. S. (1982). The effects of alcohol on hemispheric functional asymmetry. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 43(5), 411–426. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1982.43.411.

  124. Kramer, J. H., Blusewicz, M. J., Robertson, L. C., & Preston, K. (1989). Effects of chronic alcoholism on perception of hierarchical visual stimuli. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 13(2), 240–245. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1989.tb00320.x.

  125. Kramer, J. H., Kaplan, E., Blusewicz, M. J., & Preston, K. A. (1991). Visual hierarchical analysis of Block Design configural errors. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13(4), 455–465. https://doi.org/10.1080/01688639108401063.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  126. Kreutzer, J., DeLuca, J., & Caplan, B. (Eds.). (2017). Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2.

  127. Kringelbach, M. (2004). The functional neuroanatomy of the human orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Progress in Neurobiology, 72(5), 341–372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2004.03.006.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  128. Kunchulia, M., Pilz, K. S., & Herzog, M. H. (2012). How alcohol intake affects visual temporal processing. Vision Research, 66, 11–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2012.06.010.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  129. Kveraga, K., Boshyan, J., & Bar, M. (2007). Magnocellular Projections as the Trigger of Top-Down Facilitation in Recognition. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(48), 13232–13240. https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.3481-07.2007.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  130. Laycock, R., Crewther, D., & Crewther, S. (2008). The advantage in being magnocellular: A few more remarks on attention and the magnocellular system. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32(8), 1409–1415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.04.008.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  131. Laycock, R., Crewther, S. G., & Crewther, D. P. (2007). A role for the ‘magnocellular advantage’ in visual impairments in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 31(3), 363–376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2006.10.003.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  132. Leber, W. R., Jenkins, R. L., & Parsons, O. A. (1981). Recovery of visual-spatial learning and memory in chronic alcoholics. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37(1), 192–197. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(198101)37:1%3c192::AID-JCLP2270370140%3e3.0.CO;2-M.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  133. Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P. A., et al. (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: Explanation and elaboration. The BMJ, 339,. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2700.

  134. Livingstone, M., & Hubel, D. (1988). Segregation of form, color, movement, and depth: anatomy, physiology, and perception. Science, 240(4853), 740–749. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.3283936.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  135. Mackey, S., Allgaier, N., Chaarani, B., Spechler, P., Orr, C., Bunn, J., Allen, N. B., Alia-Klein, N., Batalla, A., Blaine, S., Brooks, S., Caparelli, E., Chye, Y. Y., Cousijn, J., Dagher, A., Desrivieres, S., Feldstein-Ewing, S., Foxe, J. J., Goldstein, R. Z., ENIGMA Addiction Working Group. (2019). Mega-Analysis of Gray Matter Volume in Substance Dependence: General and Substance-Specific Regional Effects. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 176(2), 119–128. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.17040415.

  136. Mann, K., Günther, A., Stetter, F., & Ackermann, K. (1999). Rapid recovery from cognitive deficits in abstinent alcoholics: a controlled test-retest study. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 34(4), 567–574. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/34.4.567.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  137. Markowitz, S. N. (2006). Principles of modern low vision rehabilitation. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, 41(3), 289–312. https://doi.org/10.1139/I06-027.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  138. Martins, I. C. V. D. S., Souza, G. D. S., Brasil, A., Herculano, A. M., Lacerda, E. M. D. C. B., Rodrigues, A. R., Rosa, A. A. M., Ventura, D. F., Castro, A. J. D. O., & Silveira, L. C. D. L. (2019). Psychophysical Evaluation of Visual Functions of Ex-Alcoholic Subjects After Prolonged Abstinence. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13, 179. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00179.

  139. Mergler, D., Blain, L., Lemaire, J., & Lalande, F. (1988). Colour vision impairment and alcohol consumption. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 10(3), 255–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/0892-0362(88)90025-6.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  140. Merigan, W. H., & Maunsell, J. H. (1993). How parallel are the primate visual pathways? Annual Review of Neuroscience, 16(1), 369–402. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ne.16.030193.002101.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  141. Miglioli, M., Buchtel, H. A., Campanini, T., & De Risio, C. (1979). Cerebral hemispheric lateralization of cognitive deficits due to alcoholism. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 167(4), 212–217. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-197904000-00003.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  142. Molina, J. A., Bermejo, F., del Ser, T., Jimenez-Jimenez, F. J., Herranz, A., Fernandez-Calle, P., & Sainz, M. J. (1994). Alcoholic cognitive deterioration and nutritional deficiencies. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 89(5), 384–390. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.1994.tb02651.x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  143. Moriyama, Y., Mimura, M., Kato, M., Yoshino, A., Hara, T., Kashima, H., Watanabe, A. (2002). Executive dysfunction and clinical outcome in chronic alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26(8), 1239–1244. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ALC.0000026103.08053.86.

  144. Moselhy, H. F., Georgiou, G., & Kahn, A. (2001). Frontal lobe changes in alcoholism: a review of the literature. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 36(5), 357–368. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/36.5.357.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  145. Mulhauser, K., Weinstock, J., Ruppert, P., & Benwarec, J. (2018). Changes in Neuropsychological Status during the Initial Phase of Abstinence in Alcohol Use Disorder: Neurocognitive Impairment and Implications for Clinical Care. Substance Use & Misuse, 53(6), 881–890. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2017.1408328.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  146. Müller-Oehring, E. M., Jung, Y.-C., Pfefferbaum, A., Sullivan, E. V., & Schulte, T. (2015). The Resting Brain of Alcoholics. Cerebral Cortex, 25(11), 4155–4168. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhu134.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  147. Müller-Oehring, E. M., Schulte, T., Fama, R., Pfefferbaum, A., & Sullivan, E. V. (2009). Global-local interference is related to callosal compromise in alcoholism: a behavior-DTI association study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 33(3), 477–489.

  148. Munro, C. A., Saxton, J., & Butters, M. A. (2000). The neuropsychological consequences of abstinence among older alcoholics: a cross-sectional study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(10), 1510–1516. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2000.tb04569.x.

  149. Navon, D. (1977). Forest before trees: The precedence of global features in visual perception. Cognitive Psychology, 9(3), 353–383. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(77)90012-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  150. Nawrot, M., Nordenstrom, B., & Olson, A. (2004). Disruption of eye movements by ethanol intoxication affects perception of depth from motion parallax. Psychological Science, 15(12), 858–865. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00767.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  151. Nelson, T. M., Sinha, B. K., & Olson, W. M. (1977). Short-term memory for hue in chronic alcoholics. The British Journal of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs, 72(4), 301–307. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1977.tb00695.x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  152. Nelson, T. M., & Swartz, P. (1971). Perceptual conflict and alcoholics. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 33(3), 1023–1028. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1971.33.3f.1023.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  153. Newen, A., & Vetter, P. (2017). Why cognitive penetration of our perceptual experience is still the most plausible account. Consciousness and Cognition, 47, 26–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2016.09.005.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  154. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2000). A Review of the Literature on the Effects of Low Doses of Alcohol on Driving-Related Skills. U.S. Department of Transportation. https://one.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/research/pub/Hs809028/index_.htm.

  155. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2014). Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. U.S. National Institutes of Health. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/guidelines/in-develop/cardiovascular-risk-reduction/tools/cohort.

  156. Nicolás, J. M., Catafau, A. M., Estruch, R., Lomena, F. J., Salamero, M., & Herranz, R. (1993). Regional cerebral blood flow-SPECT in chronic alcoholism: relation to neuropsychological testing. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 34(9), 1452–1459.

  157. Nicolás, J. M., Estruch, R., Salamero, M., Orteu, N., Fernandez-Solà, J., Sacanella, E., & Urbano-Márquez, A. (1997). Brain impairment in well-nourished chronic alcoholics is related to ethanol intake. Annals of Neurology, 41(5), 590–598. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410410507.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  158. Nixon, S. J., Kujawski, A., Parsons, O. A., & Yohman, J. R. (1987). Semantic (verbal) and figural memory impairment in alcoholics. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 9(4), 311–322. https://doi.org/10.1080/01688638708405053.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  159. Noonberg, A., Goldstein, G., & Page, H. A. (1985). Premature aging in male alcoholics: “Accelerated aging” or “increased vulnerability”? Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 9(4), 334–338. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1985.tb05555.x.

  160. Norton, D. J., McBain, R. K., Pizzagalli, D. A., Cronin-Golomb, A., & Chen, Y. (2016). Dysregulation of visual motion inhibition in major depression. Psychiatry Research, 240, 214–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.028.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  161. Obaldia, R. D., Leber, W. R., & Parsons, O. A. (1981). Assessment of neuropsychological functions in chronic alcoholics using a standardized version of Luria’s Neuropsychological Technique. International Journal of Neuroscience, 14(1–2), 85–93. https://doi.org/10.3109/00207458108985819.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  162. O’Callaghan, C., Kveraga, K., Shine, J. M., Adams, R. B., & Bar, M. (2017). Predictions penetrate perception: Converging insights from brain, behaviour and disorder. Consciousness and Cognition, 47, 63–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2016.05.003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  163. Orssaud, C., Roche, O., & Dufier, J. L. (2007). Nutritional optic neuropathies. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 262(1–2), 158–164.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  164. Oscar-Berman, M., & Bonner, R. T. (1985). Matching- and delayed matching-to-sample performance as measures of visual processing, selective attention, and memory in aging and alcoholic individuals. Neuropsychologia, 23(5), 639–651. https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(85)90065-x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  165. Oscar-Berman, M., Goodglass, H., & Cherlow, D. G. (1973). Perceptual laterality and iconic recognition of visual materials by Karsakoff patients and normal adults. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 82(2), 316–321. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0034094.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  166. Oscar-Berman, M., & Schendan, H. E. (2000). Asymmetries of Brain Function in Alcoholism: Relationship to Aging. In L. T. Connor & L. K. Obler (Eds.), Neurobehavior of Langage and Cognition: Studies of Normal Aging and Brain Damage (pp. 213–240). Kluwer Academic Pub. https://pearl.plymouth.ac.uk/handle/10026.1/1203.

  167. Oscar-Berman, M., Valmas, M. M., Sawyer, K. S., Ruiz, S. M., Luhar, R. B., & Gravitz, Z. R. (2014). Profiles of impaired, spared, and recovered neuropsychologic processes in alcoholism. In E. V. Sullivan & A. Pfefferbaum (Eds.), Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Vol. 125, pp. 183–210). Elsevier B. V. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-62619-6.00012-4.

  168. Oscar-Berman, M., & Weinstein, A. (1985). Visual Processing, Memory, and Lateralization in Alcoholism and Aging. Developmental Neuropsychology, 1(2), 99–112. https://doi.org/10.1080/87565648509540303.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  169. Parsons, O. A., Schaeffer, K. W., & Glenn, S. W. (1990a). Does neuropsychological test performance predict resumption of drinking in posttreatment alcoholics? Addictive Behaviors, 15(3), 297–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603(90)90073-7.

  170. Parsons, O. A., Sinha, R., & Williams, H. L. (1990b). Relationships between neuropsychological test performance and event-related potentials in alcoholic and nonalcoholic samples. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 14(5), 746–755. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1990.tb01239.x.

  171. Pawlosky, R. J., Bacher, J., & Salem, N. J. (2001). Ethanol consumption alters electroretinograms and depletes neural tissues of docosahexaenoic acid in rhesus monkeys: nutritional consequences of a low n-3 fatty acid diet. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 25(12), 1758–1765. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2001.tb02187.x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  172. Pearson, P., & Timney, B. (1998). Effects of moderate blood alcohol concentrations on spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(2), 163–173. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1998.59.163.

  173. Peters, J. C., van den Boomen, C., & Kemner, C. (2017). Spatial Frequency Training Modulates Neural Face Processing: Learning Transfers from Low- to High-Level Visual Features. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, 1. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00001.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  174. Pfefferbaum, A., Sullivan, E. V., Mathalon, D. H., & Lim, K. O. (1997). Frontal lobe volume loss observed with magnetic resonance imaging in older chronic alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 21(3), 521–529. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1997.tb03798.x.

  175. Pillunat, L. E., Christ, T., Luderer, H. J., & Stodtmeister, R. (1985). Flicker fusion frequency and organic syndrome in alcoholics. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 60(2), 487–494. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1985.60.2.487.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  176. Pitel, A.-L., Lannuzel, C., Viader, F., Vabret, F., Eustache, F., & Beaunieux, H. (2013). Alcoolo-dépendance et syndrome de Korsakoff: un continuum? Revue de neuropsychologie, 5(3), 179–186. https://doi.org/10.1684/nrp.2013.0270.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  177. Plant, G. T., & Perry, V. H. (1990). The anatomical basis of the caecocentral scotoma. Brain, 113(5), 1441–1457. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/113.5.1441.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  178. Prakash, J., Ryali, V., Srivastava, K., Bhat, P. S., Shashikumar, R., & Singal, A. (2011). Tobacco-alcohol amblyopia: A rare complication of prolonged alcohol abuse. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 20(1), 66–68. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-6748.98424.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  179. Quaglino, V., De Wever, E., & Maurage, P. (2015). Relations Between Cognitive Abilities, Drinking Characteristics, and Emotional Recognition in Alcohol Dependence: A Preliminary Exploration. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 39(10), 2032–2038. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.12841.

  180. Rando, K., Hong, K.-I., Bhagwagar, Z., Li, C.-S.R., Bergquist, K., Guarnaccia, J., & Sinha, R. (2011). Association of Frontal and Posterior Cortical Gray Matter Volume With Time to Alcohol Relapse: A Prospective Study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(2), 183–192. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10020233.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  181. Reed, R. J., Grant, I., & Rourke, S. B. (1992). Long-term abstinent alcoholics have normal memory. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 16(4), 677–683. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1992.tb00660.x.

  182. Reitan, R. M. (1967). Psychologic changes associated with aging and with cerebral damage. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 42(10), 653–673.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  183. Reshchikova, T. N. (1985). Interhemispheric relations in patients with chronic alcoholism. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 15(2), 161–164. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0118698.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  184. Reynolds, D. C. (1979). A visual profile of the alcoholic driver. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics, 56(4), 241–251. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-197904000-00005.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  185. Riege, W. (1977). Inconstant nonverbal recognition memory in Korsakoff patients and controls. Neuropsychologia, 15(2), 269–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(77)90035-5.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  186. Ritz, L., Segobin, S., Le Berre, A. P., Lannuzel, C., Boudehent, C., & Vabret, F. (2014). Brain structural substrates of cognitive procedural learning in alcoholic patients early in abstinence. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 38(8), 2208–2216. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.12486.

  187. Roberts, L. A., & Bauer, L. O. (1993). Reaction time during cocaine versus alcohol withdrawal: longitudinal measures of visual and auditory suppression. Psychiatry Research, 46(3), 229–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(93)90091-T.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  188. Robertson, C. E., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2017). Sensory perception in autism. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 18(11), 671–684. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2017.112.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  189. Robertson, L. C., Stillman, R., & Delis, D. C. (1985). The effect of alcohol abuse on perceptual reference frames. Neuropsychologia, 23(1), 69–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(85)90045-4.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  190. Roquelaure, Y., Le Gargasson, J. F., Kupper, S., Girre, C., Hispard, E., & Dally, S. (1995). Alcohol consumption and visual contrast sensitivity. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 30(5), 681–685. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.alcalc.a045781.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  191. Rosenbloom, M. J., Sassoon, S. A., Pfefferbaum, A., & Sullivan, E. V. (2009). Contribution of Regional White Matter Integrity to Visuospatial Construction Accuracy, Organizational Strategy, and Memory for a Complex Figure in Abstinent Alcoholics. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 3(4), 379–390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-009-9080-5.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  192. Rupp, C. I., Derntl, B., Osthaus, F., Kemmler, G., & Fleischhacker, W. W. (2017). Impact of Social Cognition on Alcohol Dependence Treatment Outcome: Poorer Facial Emotion Recognition Predicts Relapse/Dropout. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 41(12), 2197–2206. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.13522.

  193. Ryan, C., & Butters, N. (1980). Learning and memory impairments in young and old alcoholics: Evidence for the premature-aging hypothesis. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 4(3), 288–293. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1980.tb04816.x.

  194. Ryan, C., & Butters, N. (1984). Alcohol consumption and premature aging. A critical review. In M. Galanter (Ed.), Recent Developments in Alcoholism (Vol. 2, pp. 223–250). Springer.

  195. Samuelson, K. W., Neylan, T. C., Metzler, T. J., Lenoci, M., Rothlind, J., & Henn-Haase, C. (2006). Neuropsychological functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse. Neuropsychology, 20(6), 716–726. https://doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.20.6.716.

  196. Sancho-Tello, M., Muriach, M., Barcia, J., Bosch-Morell, F., Genovés, J. M., & Johnsen-Soriano, S. (2008). Chronic alcohol feeding induces biochemical, histological, and functional alterations in rat retina. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 43(3), 254–260. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agn006.

  197. Sassoon, S. A., Fama, R., Rosenbloom, M. J., O’Reilly, A., Pfefferbaum, A., & Sullivan, E. V. (2007). Component cognitive and motor processes of the digit symbol test: differential deficits in alcoholism, HIV infection, and their comorbidity. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(8), 1315–1324. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00426.x.

  198. Schandler, S. L., Brannock, J. C., Cohen, M. J., Antick, J., & Caine, K. (1988). Visuospatial learning in elementary school children with and without a family history of alcoholism. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 49(6), 538–545. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1988.49.538.

  199. Schmahmann, J. D., & Pandya, D. N. (2007). The Complex History of the Fronto-Occipital Fasciculus. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 16(4), 362–377. https://doi.org/10.1080/09647040600620468.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  200. Schneider, U., Dietrich, D. E., Sternemann, U., Seeland, I., Gielsdorf, D., & Huber, T. J. (1998). Reduced binocular depth inversion in patients with alcoholism. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 33(2), 168–172. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.alcalc.a008374.

  201. Schneider, U., Leweke, F. M., Niemcyzk, W., Sternemann, U., Bevilacqua, M., & Emrich, H. M. (1996a). Impaired binocular depth inversion in patients with alcohol withdrawal. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 30(6), 469–474. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3956(96)00031-3.

  202. Schneider, U., Leweke, F. M., Sternemann, U., Weber, M. M., & Emrich, H. M. (1996b). Visual 3D illusion: a systems-theoretical approach to psychosis. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 246(5), 256–260. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02190277.

  203. Schulte, T., Muller-Oehring, E. M., Rohlfing, T., Pfefferbaum, A., & Sullivan, E. V. (2010). White Matter Fiber Degradation Attenuates Hemispheric Asymmetry When Integrating Visuomotor Information. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(36), 12168–12178. https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.2160-10.2010.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  204. Schulte, T., Müller-Oehring, E. M., Salo, R., Pfefferbaum, A., & Sullivan, E. V. (2006). Callosal involvement in a lateralized stroop task in alcoholic and healthy subjects. Neuropsychology, 20(6), 727–736. https://doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.20.6.727.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  205. Schulte, T., Pfefferbaum, A., & Sullivan, E. V. (2004). Parallel interhemispheric processing in aging and alcoholism: relation to corpus callosum size. Neuropsychologia, 42(2), 257–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3932(03)00155-6.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  206. Schulte-Körne, G., & Bruder, J. (2010). Clinical neurophysiology of visual and auditory processing in dyslexia: A review. Clinical Neurophysiology, 121(11), 1794–1809. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2010.04.028.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  207. Schweizer, T. A., Vogel-Sprott, M., Danckert, J., Roy, E. A., Skakum, A., & Broderick, C. E. (2006). Neuropsychological profile of acute alcohol intoxication during ascending and descending blood alcohol concentrations. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31(6), 1301–1309. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300941.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  208. Selby, M. J., & Azrin, R. L. (1998). Neuropsychological functioning in drug abusers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 50(1), 39–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(98)00002-7.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  209. Serý, O., Sťastný, F., Zvolský, P., Hlinomazová, Z., & Balcar, V. J. (2011). Association between Val66Met polymorphism of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene and a deficiency of colour vision in alcohol-dependent male patients. Neuroscience Letters, 499(3), 154–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2011.05.038.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  210. Sharma, P., & Sharma, R. (2011). Toxic optic neuropathy. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, 59(2), 137–141. https://doi.org/10.4103/0301-4738.77035.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  211. Shelton, M. D., Parsons, O. A., & Leber, W. R. (1984). Verbal and visuospatial performance in male alcoholics: a test of the premature-aging hypothesis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52(2), 200–206. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.2.200.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  212. Silberstein, J. A., & Parsons, O. A. (1979). Neuropsychological impairment in female alcoholics. Currents in Alcoholism, 7, 481–495.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  213. Silberstein, J. A., & Parsons, O. A. (1981). Neuropsychological impairment in female alcoholics: Replication and extension. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90(2), 179–182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.90.2.179.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  214. Smith, J. W. (1972). Color vision in alcoholics. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 197, 143–147.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  215. Smith, J. W., & Layden, T. A. (1971). Color vision defects in alcoholism. II. The British Journal of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs, 66(1), 31–37. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1971.tb02363.x.

  216. Snortum, J. R. (1965). Performance of different diagnostic groups on the tachistoscopic and copy phases of the Bender-Gestalt. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 29(4), 345–351. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0022406.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  217. Sparadseo, F. R., Zwick, W., & Butters, N. (1983). Cognitive functioning of alcoholic females: an exploratory study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 12(2), 143–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-8716(83)90038-8.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  218. Spinazzi, M. (2019). Optic Neuropathies Caused by Micronutrients Deficiencies. In V. R. Preedy & R. R. Watson (Eds.), Handbook of Nutrition, Diet, and the Eye (Second Edition) (pp. 441–460). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-815245-4.00027-2.

  219. Squeglia, L. M., Jacobus, J., & Tapert, S. F. (2014a). The effect of alcohol use on human adolescent brain structures and systems. In Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Vol. 125, pp. 501–510). Elsevier. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B9780444626196000288.

  220. Squeglia, L. M., Rinker, D. A., Bartsch, H., Castro, N., Chung, Y., & Dale, A. M. (2014b). Brain Volume Reductions in Adolescent Heavy Drinkers. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 117–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2014.02.005.

  221. Stavro, K., Pelletier, J., & Potvin, S. (2013). Widespread and sustained cognitive deficits in alcoholism: a meta-analysis. Addiction Biology, 18(2), 203–213. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00418.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  222. Steiger, H., Negrete, J. C., & Marcil, G. (1985). Field dependence in alcoholics: relation to years of drinking, severity of alcohol dependence and emotional distress. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 46(6), 486–489. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1985.46.486.

  223. Sullivan, E. V., Fama, R., Rosenbloom, M. J., & Pfefferbaum, A. (2002). A profile of neuropsychological deficits in alcoholic women. Neuropsychology, 16(1), 74–83. https://doi.org/10.1037//0894-4105.16.1.74.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  224. Sullivan, E. V., Harris, R. A., & Pfefferbaum, A. (2010). Alcohol’s effects on brain and behavior. Alcohol Research & Health, 33(1–2), 127–143.

    Google Scholar 

  225. Sullivan, E. V., Mathalon, D. H., Ha, C. N., Zipursky, R. B., & Pfefferbaum, A. (1992). The contribution of constructional accuracy and organizational strategy to nonverbal recall in schizophrenia and chronic alcoholism. Biological Psychiatry, 32(4), 312–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(92)90036-y.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  226. Sullivan, E. V., Rosenbloom, M. J., & Pfefferbaum, A. (2000). Pattern of Motor and Cognitive Deficits in Detoxified Alcoholic Men. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(5), 611–621. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2000.tb02032.x.

  227. Sullivan, E. V., Zahr, N. M., Sassoon, S. A., Thompson, W. K., Kwon, D., Pohl, K. M., & Pfefferbaum, A. (2018). The Role of Aging, Drug Dependence, and Hepatitis C Comorbidity in Alcoholism Cortical Compromise. JAMA Psychiatry, 75(5), 474–483. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.0021.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  228. Templer, D. I., Ruff, C. F., & Simpson, K. (1975). Trail Making Test Performance of Alcoholics Abstinent at Least a Year. International Journal of the Addictions, 10(4), 609–612. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826087509026738.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  229. Thomas, C., Kveraga, K., Huberle, E., Karnath, H.-O., & Bar, M. (2012). Enabling global processing in simultanagnosia by psychophysical biasing of visual pathways. Brain, 135(5), 1578–1585. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/aws066.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  230. Tivis, R., Beatty, W. W., Nixon, S. J., & Parsons, O. A. (1995). Patterns of cognitive impairment among alcoholics: are there subtypes? Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 19(2), 496–500. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1995.tb01537.x.

  231. Tsagareli, M. G. (1995). The interhemispheric functional organization on human visuo-spatial perception. NeuroReport, 6(6), 925–928. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001756-199504190-00025.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  232. Tsermentseli, S., O’Brien, J. M., & Spencer, J. V. (2008). Comparison of Form and Motion Coherence Processing in Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Dyslexia. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(7), 1201–1210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0500-3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  233. Tyler, C. W. (1985). Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. II. Peripheral retina and the role of photoreceptor dimensions. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 2(3), 393–398. https://doi.org/10.1364/josaa.2.000393.

  234. Tyler, C. W. (1987). Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. III. Meridional variations in peripheral flicker sensitivity. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 4(8), 1612–1619. https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.4.001612.

  235. Uekermann, J., Daum, I., Schlebusch, P., Wiebel, B., & Trenckmann, U. (2003). Depression and cognitive functioning in alcoholism. Addiction, 98(11), 1521–1529. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00526.x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  236. Ugarte, G., Cruz-Coke, R., Rivera, L., Altschiller, H., & Mardones, J. (1970). Relationship of color blindness to alcoholic liver damage. Pharmacology, 4(5), 297–308. https://doi.org/10.1159/000136150.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  237. Varela, A., Rivera, L., Mardones, J., & Cruz-Coke, R. (1969). Color vision defects in non-alcoholic relatives of alcoholic patients. The British Journal of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs, 64(1), 67–73. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1969.tb01111.x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  238. Verriest, G., Francq, P., & Pierart, P. (1980). Results of colour vision tests in alcoholic and in mentally disordered subjects. Ophthalmologica, 180(5), 247–256. https://doi.org/10.1159/000308982.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  239. Vivian, T. N., Goldstein, G., & Shelly, C. (1973). Reaction time and motor speed in chronic alcoholics. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 36(1), 136–138. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1973.36.1.136.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  240. Wang, J., Fan, Y., Dong, Y., Ma, M., Dong, Y., & Niu, Y. (2018). Combining gray matter volume in the cuneus and the cuneus-prefrontal connectivity may predict early relapse in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. PLoS ONE, 13(5), e0196860. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196860.

  241. Wang, S., Wang, J. J., & Wong, T. Y. (2008). Alcohol and Eye Diseases. Survey of Ophthalmology, 53(5), 512–525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.survophthal.2008.06.003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  242. Wegner, A. J., Gunthner, A., & Fahle, M. (2001). Visual performance and recovery in recently detoxified alcoholics. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 36(2), 171–179. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/36.2.171.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  243. Whipple, S. C., Parker, E. S., & Noble, E. P. (1988). An atypical neurocognitive profile in alcoholic fathers and their sons. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 49(3), 240–244. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.1988.49.240.

  244. Wilcox, C. E., Dekonenko, C. J., Mayer, A. R., Bogenschutz, M. P., & Turner, J. A. (2014). Cognitive control in alcohol use disorder: Deficits and clinical relevance. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 25(1), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1515/revneuro-2013-0054.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  245. Williams, D. E. (1984). Visual electrophysiology and psychophysics in chronic alcoholics and in patients on tuberculostatic chemotherapy. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics, 61(9), 576–585. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-198409000-00007.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  246. Wilson, B., Kolb, B., Odland, L., & Wishaw, I. Q. (1987). Alcohol, sex, age, and the hippocampus. Psychobiology, 15(4), 300–307. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03327286.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  247. Wilson, J. T. L., Wiedmann, K. D., Phillips, W. A., & Brooks, D. N. (1988). Visual Event Perception in Alcoholics. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 10(2), 222–234. https://doi.org/10.1080/01688638808408237.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  248. Witkin, H. A. (1960). The problem of individuality in development. In B. Kaplan & S. Wapner (Eds.), Perspectives in psychological theory (pp. 335–361). International Universities Press.

  249. Witkin, H. A., & Asch, S. E. (1948). Studies in space orientation. IV. Further experiments on perception of the upright with displaced visual fields. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38(6), 762–782. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0053671.

  250. Witkin, H. A., Oltman, P. K., Raskin, E., & Karp, S. A. (1971). A manual for the Embedded Figures Test. Consulting Psychologist Press.

  251. Wittchen, H. U., Jacobi, F., Rehm, J., Gustavsson, A., Svensson, M., & Jönsson, B. (2011). The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 21(9), 655–679. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.07.018.

  252. World Health Organization. (2004). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (10th ed.). http://apps.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online2004/fr-icd.htm.

  253. World Health Organization. (2019). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (11th ed.). https://icd.who.int/.

  254. Yohman, J. R., Parsons, O. A., & Leber, W. R. (1985). Lack of recovery in male alcoholics’ neuropsychological performance one year after treatment. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 9(2), 114–117. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1985.tb05530.x.

  255. Zahr, N. M. (2014). Chapter 17 - Structural and microstructral imaging of the brain in alcohol use disorders. In E. V. S. and A. Pfefferbaum (Ed.), Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Vol. 125, pp. 275–290). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-62619-6.00017-3.

  256. Zhang, X. L., Begleiter, H., & Projesz, B. (1997). Is working memory intact in alcoholics? An ERP study. Psychiatry Research, 75(2), 75–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-4927(97)00043-7

  257. Zhu, J., Wang, Y., Wang, H., Cheng, W., Li, Z., & Qian, Y. (2018). Abnormal gray matter asymmetry in alcohol dependence. NeuroReport, 29(9), 753–759. https://doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000001027.

  258. Zhuang, X., King, A., McNamara, P., Pokorny, J., & Cao, D. (2012). Differential effects of alcohol on contrast processing mediated by the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. Journal of Vision, 12(11), 16. https://doi.org/10.1167/12.11.16.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  259. Zinn, S., Stein, R., & Swartzwelder, H. S. (2004). Executive Functioning Early in Abstinence From Alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 28(9), 1338–1346. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ALC.0000139814.81811.62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fabien DˈHondt.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 89.5 KB)

Supplementary file2 (DOCX 224 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Creupelandt, C., Maurage, P. & DˈHondt, F. Visuoperceptive Impairments in Severe Alcohol Use Disorder: A Critical Review of Behavioral Studies. Neuropsychol Rev 31, 361–384 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-020-09469-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Alcohol-dependence
  • Vision
  • Visual perception
  • Visuospatial