Skip to main content

Neuroimaging Biomarkers in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

Abstract

Reviewed herein are contemporary neuroimaging methods that detect abnormalities associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Despite advances in demonstrating underlying neuropathology in a subset of individuals who sustain mTBI, considerable disagreement persists in neuropsychology about mTBI outcome and metrics for evaluation. This review outlines a thesis for the select use of sensitive neuroimaging methods as potential biomarkers of brain injury recognizing that the majority of individuals who sustain an mTBI recover without neuroimaging signs or neuropsychological sequelae detected with methods currently applied. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides several measures that could serve as mTBI biomarkers including the detection of hemosiderin and white matter abnormalities, assessment of white matter integrity derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and quantitative measures that directly assess neuroanatomy. Improved prediction of neuropsychological outcomes in mTBI may be achieved with the use of targeted neuroimaging markers.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20

Notes

  1. 1.

    Definition of concussion and mTBI remains controversial and definitional issues have been discussed by Bigler (2008), but for this review the terms concussion and mTBI are used interchangeably. Based on the International and Interagency Initiative toward Common Data Elements for Research on Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health “TBI is defined as an alteration in brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force” (p. 1637, Menon et al. 2010).

  2. 2.

    I sustained a sports-related concussion playing high school football in 1966. I must have displayed significant PTA and confusion on the sideline because I was taken to the emergency room for evaluation and subsequently hospitalized overnight for observation. I am amnestic to those events, but it was recorded on an 8 mm tape. However, I recovered rapidly, as the injury was on a Friday and I practiced Monday and played in the next game on the following Friday. This, of course, was long before return-to-play guidelines but for me, post-concussion symptoms were minimal and short lived.

Abbreviations

ACR:

Anterior corona radiata

ANAM:

Automated neurological assessment metrics

CC:

Corpus callosum

CT:

Computed tomography

CTE:

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

CVLT:

California verbal learning test

DAI:

Diffuse axonal injury

DKI:

Diffusion kurtosis imaging

DMN:

Default mode network

DOI:

Day-of-injury

DSS:

Disability status scale

DTI:

Diffusion tensor imaging

EF:

Executive function

EN:

Executive network

FE:

Finite element

FLAIR:

Fluid attenuated inversion recovery

fMRI:

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

GCS:

Glasgow coma scale

GM:

Gray matter

GRE:

Gradient recalled echo

GWI:

Gulf war illness

LDFR:

Long delay free recall

LOC:

Loss of consciousness

M:

Mean

MCI:

Mild cognitive impairment

MR:

Magnetic resonance

MRI:

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRS:

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

MS:

Multiple sclerosis

mTBI:

Mild traumatic brain injury

mcTBI:

Mild complicated traumatic brain injury

OI:

Orthopedically injured

PCS:

Post-concussion(al) syndrome

PTA:

Post-traumatic amnesia

RAS:

Reticular activating system

RAVLT:

Rey auditory verbal learning test

RT:

Reaction time

SD or s.d.:

Standard deviation

SDMT:

Symbol digit modality test

SWI:

Susceptibility weighted imaging

TBI:

Traumatic brain injury

TBSS:

Tract-based spatial statistics

UF:

Uncinate fasciculus

WHO:

World Health Organization

WM:

White matter

WMHs:

White matter hyperintensities

References

  1. Abdullah, K. G., Lubelski, D., Nucifora, P. G., & Brem, S. (2013). Use of diffusion tensor imaging in glioma resection. Neurosurgical Focus, 34(4), E1. doi:10.3171/2013.1.FOCUS12412.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Adams, J. H., Graham, D. I., Murray, L. S., & Scott, G. (1982). Diffuse axonal injury due to nonmissile head injury in humans: an analysis of 45 cases. Annals of Neurology, 12(6), 557–563. doi:10.1002/ana.410120610.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Alexander, A. L., Lee, J. E., Lazar, M., & Field, A. S. (2007). Diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Neurotherapeutics, 4(3), 316–329. doi:10.1016/j.nurt.2007.05.011.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Alexander, M. P. (1998). In the pursuit of proof of brain damage after whiplash injury. Neurology, 51(2), 336–340.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Allen, M. D., Wu, T. C., & Bigler, E. D. (2011). Traumatic brain injury alters word memory test performance by slowing response time and increasing cortical activation: an fMRI study of a symptom validity test. Psychological Injury and Law, 4, 140–146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Andrews-Hanna, J. R., Reidler, J. S., Sepulcre, J., Poulin, R., & Buckner, R. L. (2010). Functional-anatomic fractionation of the brain’s default network. Neuron, 65(4), 550–562. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.02.005.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Aoki, Y., Inokuchi, R., Gunshin, M., Yahagi, N., & Suwa, H. (2012). Diffusion tensor imaging studies of mild traumatic brain injury: a meta-analysis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 83(9), 870–876. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2012-302742.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Arciniegas, D. B. (2011). Clinical electrophysiologic assessments and mild traumatic brain injury: state-of-the-science and implications for clinical practice. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 82(1), 41–52. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.03.004.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Arenivas, A., Diaz-Arrastia, R., Spence, J., Cullum, C. M., Krishnan, K., Bosworth, C., et al. (2012). Three approaches to investigating functional compromise to the default mode network after traumatic axonal injury. Brain Imaging and Behavior. doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9191-2.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Armstrong, C. M., Reger, G. M., Edwards, J., Rizzo, A. A., Courtney, C. G., & Parsons, T. D. (2012). Validity of the Virtual Reality Stroop Task (VRST) in active duty military. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 35(2), 113–123. doi:10.1080/13803395.2012.740002.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bailey, D. M., Jones, D. W., Sinnott, A., Brugniaux, J. V., New, K. J., Hodson, D., et al. (2013). Impaired cerebral haemodynamic function associated with chronic traumatic brain injury in professional boxers. Clinical Science, 124(3), 177–189. doi:10.1042/CS20120259.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Barlow, K. M., Crawford, S., Stevenson, A., Sandhu, S. S., Belanger, F., & Dewey, D. (2010). Epidemiology of postconcussion syndrome in pediatric mild traumatic brain injury. Pediatrics, 126(2), e374–e381. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0925.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Barth, J. T., Macciocchi, S. N., Giordani, B., Rimel, R., Jane, J. A., & Boll, T. J. (1983). Neuropsychological sequelae of minor head injury. Neurosurgery, 13(5), 529–533.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Baugh, C. M., Stamm, J. M., Riley, D. O., Gavett, B. E., Shenton, M. E., Lin, A., et al. (2012). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: neurodegeneration following repetitive concussive and subconcussive brain trauma. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 6(2), 244–254. doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9164-5.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Bavikatte, G., Gaber, T., & Eshiett, M. U. (2010). Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome as a complication of Guillain-Barre syndrome. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 17(7), 924–926. doi:10.1016/j.jocn.2009.11.009.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Bayly, P. V., Clayton, E. H., & Genin, G. M. (2012). Quantitative imaging methods for the development and validation of brain biomechanics models. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, 14, 369–396. doi:10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071811-150032.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Bazarian, J. J., Zhu, T., Blyth, B., Borrino, A., & Zhong, J. (2012). Subject-specific changes in brain white matter on diffusion tensor imaging after sports-related concussion. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 30(2), 171–180. doi:10.1016/j.mri.2011.10.001.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Beghi, M., Beghi, E., Cornaggia, C. M., & Gobbi, G. (2006). Idiopathic generalized epilepsies of adolescence. Epilepsia, 47(Suppl 2), 107–110. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2006.00706.x.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Bendlin, B. B., Ries, M. L., Lazar, M., Alexander, A. L., Dempsey, R. J., Rowley, H. A., et al. (2008). Longitudinal changes in patients with traumatic brain injury assessed with diffusion-tensor and volumetric imaging. NeuroImage, 42(2), 503–514. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.04.254.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Bennett, R. E., Mac Donald, C. L., & Brody, D. L. (2012). Diffusion tensor imaging detects axonal injury in a mouse model of repetitive closed-skull traumatic brain injury. Neuroscience Letters, 513(2), 160–165. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2012.02.024.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Benson, R. R., Gattu, R., Sewick, B., Kou, Z., Zakariah, N., Cavanaugh, J. M., et al. (2012). Detection of hemorrhagic and axonal pathology in mild traumatic brain injury using advanced MRI: implications for neurorehabilitation. NeuroRehabilitation, 31(3), 261–279. doi:10.3233/NRE-2012-0795.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Biasca, N., & Maxwell, W. L. (2007). Minor traumatic brain injury in sports: a review in order to prevent neurological sequelae. Progress in Brain Research, 161, 263–291. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(06)61019-4.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Bigler, E. D. (2004). Neuropsychological results and neuropathological findings at autopsy in a case of mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS, 10(5), 794–806. doi:10.1017/S1355617704105146.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Bigler, E. D. (2007). Anterior and middle cranial fossa in traumatic brain injury: relevant neuroanatomy and neuropathology in the study of neuropsychological outcome. Neuropsychology, 21(5), 515–531. doi:10.1037/0894-4105.21.5.515.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Bigler, E. D. (2008). Neuropsychology and clinical neuroscience of persistent post-concussive syndrome. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS, 14(1), 1–22. doi:10.1017/S135561770808017X.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Bigler, E. D. (2012). Mild traumatic brain injury: the elusive timing of “recovery”. Neuroscience Letters, 509(1), 1–4. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2011.12.009.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Bigler, E. D. (2013). Neuroinflammation and the dynamic lesion in traumatic brain injury. Brain, 136(Pt 1), 9–11. doi:10.1093/brain/aws342.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Bigler, E. D., Yeo, R. A. & Turkheimer, E. (1989). Neuropsychological function and brain imaging. N.Y: Plenum Press.

  29. Bigler, E. D., Abildskov, T. J., Petrie, J., Dennis, M., Simic, N., Yaylor, H. G., et al. (2013a). Heterogeneity of brain lesions in pediatric traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 32(4), 707–720. doi:10.3233/NRE-130896.

  30. Bigler, E. D., & Bazarian, J. J. (2010). Diffusion tensor imaging: a biomarker for mild traumatic brain injury? Neurology, 74(8), 626–627. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181d3e43a.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Bigler, E. D., & Brooks, M. (2009). Traumatic brain injury and forensic neuropsychology. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation, 24(2), 76–87. doi:10.1097/HTR.0b013e31819c2190.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Bigler, E. D., Deibert, E., & Filley, C. M. (2013a). When is a concussion no longer a concussion? Neurology, 81(1), 14–15. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318299cd0e.

  33. Bigler, E. D., Farrer, T. J., Pertab, J. L., James, K., Petrie, J., & Hedges, D. W. (2013c). Reaffirmed limitations of meta-analytic methods in the study of mild traumatic brain injury: A response to Rohling et al. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, in press.

  34. Bigler, E. D., & Maxwell, W. L. (2011). Neuroimaging and neuropathology of TBI. NeuroRehabilitation, 28(2), 63–74. doi:10.3233/NRE-2011-0633.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Bigler, E. D., & Maxwell, W. L. (2012). Neuropathology of mild traumatic brain injury: relationship to neuroimaging findings. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 6(2), 108–136. doi:10.1007/s11682-011-9145-0.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Bigler, E. D., & Snyder, J. L. (1995). Neuropsychological outcome and quantitative neuroimaging in mild head injury. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 10(2), 159–174.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Blaine, H., Sullivan, K., & Edmed, S. (2013). The effect of varied test instructions on neuropsychological performance following mild traumatic brain injury: an investigation of ‘Diagnosis threat’. Journal of Neurotrauma. doi:10.1089/neu.2013.2865.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Blennow, K., Hardy, J., & Zetterberg, H. (2012). The neuropathology and neurobiology of traumatic brain injury. Neuron, 76(5), 886–899. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.11.021.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Blumbergs, P. C., Scott, G., Manavis, J., Wainwright, H., Simpson, D. A., & McLean, A. J. (1994). Staining of amyloid precursor protein to study axonal damage in mild head injury. Lancet, 344(8929), 1055–1056.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Boll, T. J., & Barth, J. (1983). Mild head injury. Psychiatric Developments, 1(3), 263–275.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Bonnelle, V., Ham, T. E., Leech, R., Kinnunen, K. M., Mehta, M. A., Greenwood, R. J., et al. (2012). Salience network integrity predicts default mode network function after traumatic brain injury. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(12), 4690–4695. doi:10.1073/pnas.1113455109.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Bonnelle, V., Leech, R., Kinnunen, K. M., Ham, T. E., Beckmann, C. F., De Boissezon, X., et al. (2011). Default mode network connectivity predicts sustained attention deficits after traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(38), 13442–13451. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1163-11.2011.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Boone, K. B. (2013). Clinical practice of forensic neuropsychology. New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Bornstein, R. A., Weir, B. K., Petruk, K. C., & Disney, L. B. (1987). Neuropsychological function in patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery, 21(5), 651–654.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Breedlove, E. L., Robinson, M., Talavage, T. M., Morigaki, K. E., Yoruk, U., O’Keefe, K., et al. (2012). Biomechanical correlates of symptomatic and asymptomatic neurophysiological impairment in high school football. Journal of Biomechanics, 45(7), 1265–1272. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.01.034.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Brenner, L. A., Terrio, H., Homaifar, B. Y., Gutierrez, P. M., Staves, P. J., Harwood, J. E., et al. (2010). Neuropsychological test performance in soldiers with blast-related mild TBI. Neuropsychology, 24(2), 160–167. doi:10.1037/a0017966.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Browne, K. D., Chen, X. H., Meaney, D. F., & Smith, D. H. (2011). Mild traumatic brain injury and diffuse axonal injury in swine. Journal of Neurotrauma, 28(9), 1747–1755. doi:10.1089/neu.2011.1913.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Bryer, E. J., Medaglia, J. D., Rostami, S., & Hillary, F. G. (2013). Neural recruitment after mild traumatic brain injury is task dependent: a meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS, 1–12, doi:10.1017/S1355617713000490.

  49. Budde, M. D., Janes, L., Gold, E., Turtzo, L. C., & Frank, J. A. (2011). The contribution of gliosis to diffusion tensor anisotropy and tractography following traumatic brain injury: validation in the rat using fourier analysis of stained tissue sections. Brain, 134(Pt 8), 2248–2260. doi:10.1093/brain/awr161.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Bugalho, P., & Oliveira-Maia, A. J. (2012). Impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease: crossroads between neurology, psychiatry and neuroscience. Behavioural Neurology. doi:10.3233/BEN-129019. Epub ahead of print.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Butler, M. A., Corboy, J. R., & Filley, C. M. (2009). How the conflict between American psychiatry and neurology delayed the appreciation of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Neuropsychology Review, 19(3), 399–410. doi:10.1007/s11065-009-9089-y.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Caeyenberghs, K., Leemans, A., Leunissen, I., Gooijers, J., Michiels, K., Sunaert, S., et al. (2012). Altered structural networks and executive deficits in traumatic brain injury patients. Brain Structure & Function. doi:10.1007/s00429-012-0494-2. Epub ahead of print.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Campbell, Z., Zakzanis, K. K., Jovanovski, D., Joordens, S., Mraz, R., & Graham, S. J. (2009). Utilizing virtual reality to improve the ecological validity of clinical neuropsychology: an FMRI case study elucidating the neural basis of planning by comparing the Tower of London with a three-dimensional navigation task. Applied Neuropsychology, 16(4), 295–306. doi:10.1080/09084280903297891.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Carone, D. A., & Bush, S. S. (2013). Traumatic brain injury: Symptom validity assessment and malingering. New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Carroll, L. J., Cassidy, J. D., Holm, L., Kraus, J., & Coronado, V. G. (2004a). Methodological issues and research recommendations for mild traumatic brain injury: the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43(Suppl), 113–125.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Carroll, L. J., Cassidy, J. D., Peloso, P. M., Borg, J., von Holst, H., Holm, L., et al. (2004b). Prognosis for mild traumatic brain injury: results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43(Suppl), 84–105.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Catani, M., & Thiebaut de Schotten, M. (2008). A diffusion tensor mapping tractography atlas for virtual in vivo dissections. Cortex, 44(8), 1105–1132. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Catani, M., Dell’acqua, F., Bizzi, A., Forkel, S. J., Williams, S. C., Simmons, A., et al. (2012). Beyond cortical localization in clinico-anatomical correlation. Cortex, 48(10), 1262–1287. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.07.001.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Catani, M., & Thiebaut de Schotten, M. (2012). Atlas of human brain connections. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  60. Cernich, A., Reeves, D., Sun, W., & Bleiberg, J. (2007). Automated neuropsychological assessment metrics sports medicine battery. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22(Suppl 1), S101–S114. doi:10.1016/j.acn.2006.10.008.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Chanraud, S., Zahr, N., Sullivan, E. V., & Pfefferbaum, A. (2010). MR diffusion tensor imaging: a window into white matter integrity of the working brain. Neuropsychology Review, 20(2), 209–225. doi:10.1007/s11065-010-9129-7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Chapman, C. H., Nagesh, V., Sundgren, P. C., Buchtel, H., Chenevert, T. L., Junck, L., et al. (2012). Diffusion tensor imaging of normal-appearing white matter as biomarker for radiation-induced late delayed cognitive decline. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 82(5), 2033–2040. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.01.068.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Chaput, G., Giguere, J. F., Chauny, J. M., Denis, R., & Lavigne, G. (2009). Relationship among subjective sleep complaints, headaches, and mood alterations following a mild traumatic brain injury. Sleep Medicine, 10(7), 713–716. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2008.07.015.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Chatelin, S., Deck, C., Renard, F., Kremer, S., Heinrich, C., Armspach, J. P., et al. (2011). Computation of axonal elongation in head trauma finite element simulation. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 4(8), 1905–1919. doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2011.06.007.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Chen, A. J., & D’Esposito, M. (2010). Traumatic brain injury: from bench to bedside [corrected] to society. Neuron, 66(1), 11–14. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.04.004.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Chen, C. J., Wu, C. H., Liao, Y. P., Hsu, H. L., Tseng, Y. C., Liu, H. L., et al. (2012a). Working memory in patients with mild traumatic brain injury: functional MR imaging analysis. Radiology, 264(3), 844–851. doi:10.1148/radiol.12112154.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Chen, J. K., Johnston, K. M., Collie, A., McCrory, P., & Ptito, A. (2007). A validation of the post concussion symptom scale in the assessment of complex concussion using cognitive testing and functional MRI. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 78(11), 1231–1238. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2006.110395.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Chen, Z., Leung, L. Y., Mountney, A., Liao, Z., Yang, W., Lu, X. C., et al. (2012b). A novel animal model of closed-head concussive-induced mild traumatic brain injury: development, implementation, and characterization. Journal of Neurotrauma, 29(2), 268–280. doi:10.1089/neu.2011.2057.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Choe, M. C., Babikian, T., DiFiori, J., Hovda, D. A., & Giza, C. C. (2012). A pediatric perspective on concussion pathophysiology. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 24(6), 689–695. doi:10.1097/MOP.0b013e32835a1a44.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Chu, Z., Wilde, E. A., Hunter, J. V., McCauley, S. R., Bigler, E. D., Troyanskaya, M., et al. (2010). Voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging in mild traumatic brain injury in adolescents. AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 31(2), 340–346. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A1806.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Ciaramelli, E., Serino, A., Di Santantonio, A., & Ladavas, E. (2006). Central executive system impairment in traumatic brain injury. Brain and Cognition, 60(2), 198–199.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. Cipolotti, L., & Warrington, E. K. (1995). Neuropsychological assessment. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 58(6), 655–664.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Cohen, A. S., Pfister, B. J., Schwarzbach, E., Grady, M. S., Goforth, P. B., & Satin, L. S. (2007). Injury-induced alterations in CNS electrophysiology. Progress in Brain Research, 161, 143–169. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(06)61010-8.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Colgan, N. C., Cronin, M. M., Gobbo, O. L., O’Mara, S. M., O’Connor, W. T., & Gilchrist, M. D. (2010). Quantitative MRI analysis of brain volume changes due to controlled cortical impact. Journal of Neurotrauma, 27(7), 1265–1274. doi:10.1089/neu.2009.1267.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Cubon, V. A., Putukian, M., Boyer, C., & Dettwiler, A. (2011). A diffusion tensor imaging study on the white matter skeleton in individuals with sports-related concussion. Journal of Neurotrauma, 28(2), 189–201. doi:10.1089/neu.2010.1430.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. de Guise, E., Lepage, J. F., Tinawi, S., LeBlanc, J., Dagher, J., Lamoureux, J., et al. (2010). Comprehensive clinical picture of patients with complicated vs uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 24(7), 1113–1130. doi:10.1080/13854046.2010.506199.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Dean, P. J., & Sterr, A. (2013). Long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury on cognitive performance. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 30. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00030.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Deepika, A., Munivenkatappa, A., Devi, B. I., & Shukla, D. (2012). Does isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage affect outcome in patients with mild traumatic brain injury? The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. doi:10.1097/HTR.0b013e31825e19e5. Epub ahead of print.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. Delis, D. C., Kramer, J. H., Kaplan, E., & Ober, B. A. (2000). California verbal learning test (2nd ed.). San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Denburg, S. D., Stewart, K. E., Hart, L. E., & Denburg, J. A. (2003). How “soft” are soft neurological signs? The relationship of subjective neuropsychiatric complaints to cognitive function in systemic lupus erythematosus. The Journal of Rheumatology, 30(5), 1006–1010.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Dewitt, D., Perez-Polo, J. R. P. D., Hulsebosch, C., Dash, P. K., & Robertson, C. S. (2013). Challenges in the development of rodent models of mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma. doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2349.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Di Battista, A. P., Rhind, S. G., & Baker, A. J. (2013). Application of blood-based biomarkers in human mild traumatic brain injury. Frontiers in Neurology, 4, 44. doi:10.3389/fneur.2013.00044.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Dineen, R. A., Vilisaar, J., Hlinka, J., Bradshaw, C. M., Morgan, P. S., Constantinescu, C. S., et al. (2009). Disconnection as a mechanism for cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Brain Injury, 132(Pt 1), 239–249. doi:10.1093/brain/awn275.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. Duffin, J. T., Collins, D. R., Coughlan, T., O’Neill, D., Roche, R. A., & Commins, S. (2012). Subtle memory and attentional deficits revealed in an Irish stroke patient sample using domain-specific cognitive tasks. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 34(8), 864–875. doi:10.1080/13803395.2012.690368.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Duhaime, A. C., Holshouser, B., Hunter, J. V., & Tong, K. (2012). Common data elements for neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury: pediatric considerations. Journal of Neurotrauma, 29(4), 629–633. doi:10.1089/neu.2011.1927.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Editorial. (2010). A decade for psychiatric disorders. Nature, 463(7277), 9. doi:10.1038/463009a.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. Eisenberg, M. A., Andrea, J., Meehan, W., & Mannix, R. (2013). Time interval between concussions and symptom duration. Pediatrics. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-0432.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. Evans, R. W. (2010). Persistent post-traumatic headache, postconcussion syndrome, and whiplash injuries: the evidence for a non-traumatic basis with an historical review. Headache, 50(4), 716–724. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2010.01645.x.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Farbota, K. D., Bendlin, B. B., Alexander, A. L., Rowley, H. A., Dempsey, R. J., & Johnson, S. C. (2012a). Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological correlates in traumatic brain injury patients. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 160. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00160.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Farbota, K. D., Sodhi, A., Bendlin, B. B., McLaren, D. G., Xu, G., Rowley, H. A., et al. (2012b). Longitudinal volumetric changes following traumatic brain injury: a tensor-based morphometry study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS, 18(6), 1006–1018. doi:10.1017/S1355617712000835.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Fox, W. C., Park, M. S., Belverud, S., Klugh, A., Rivet, D., & Tomlin, J. M. (2013). Contemporary imaging of mild TBI: the journey toward diffusion tensor imaging to assess neuronal damage. Neurological Research, 35(3), 223–232. doi:10.1179/1743132813Y.0000000162.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Fujita, M., Wei, E. P., & Povlishock, J. T. (2012). Intensity- and interval-specific repetitive traumatic brain injury can evoke both axonal and microvascular damage. Journal of Neurotrauma, 29(12), 2172–2180. doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2357.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Gardner, A., Kay-Lambkin, F., Stanwell, P., Donnelly, J., Williams, W. H., Hiles, A., et al. (2012). A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging findings in sports-related concussion. Journal of Neurotrauma, 29(16), 2521–2538. doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2628.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Geary, E. K., Kraus, M. F., Pliskin, N. H., & Little, D. M. (2010). Verbal learning differences in chronic mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS, 16(3), 506–516. doi:10.1017/S135561771000010X.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Geary, E. K., Kraus, M. F., Rubin, L. H., Pliskin, N. H., & Little, D. M. (2011). Verbal learning strategy following mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS, 17(4), 709–719. doi:10.1017/S1355617711000646.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Ghosh, A., Wilde, E. A., Hunter, J. V., Bigler, E. D., Chu, Z., Li, X., et al. (2009). The relation between Glasgow Coma Scale score and later cerebral atrophy in paediatric traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 23(3), 228–233. doi:10.1080/02699050802672789.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Gladstone, J. (2009). From psychoneurosis to ICHD-2: an overview of the state of the art in post-traumatic headache. Headache, 49(7), 1097–1111. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2009.01461.x.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Gonzalez, P. G., & Walker, M. T. (2011). Imaging modalities in mild traumatic brain injury and sports concussion. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 3(10 Suppl 2), S413–S424. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2011.08.536.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Gosselin, N., Bottari, C., Chen, J. K., Petrides, M., Tinawi, S., de Guise, E., et al. (2011). Electrophysiology and functional MRI in post-acute mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 28(3), 329–341. doi:10.1089/neu.2010.1493.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Graham, D. I., & Lantos, P. L. (2002). Greenfield’s neuropathology. London: Hodder Arnold.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Grau-Olivares, M., & Arboix, A. (2009). Mild cognitive impairment in stroke patients with ischemic cerebral small-vessel disease: a forerunner of vascular dementia? Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 9(8), 1201–1217. doi:10.1586/ern.09.73.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Greer, J. E., Povlishock, J. T., & Jacobs, K. M. (2012). Electrophysiological abnormalities in both axotomized and nonaxotomized pyramidal neurons following mild traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32(19), 6682–6687. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0881-12.2012.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Grindel, S. H. (2006). The use, abuse, and future of neuropsychologic testing in mild traumatic brain injury. Current sports medicine reports, 5(1), 9–14.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Gronseth, G. S. (2005). Gulf war syndrome: a toxic exposure? A systematic review. Neurologic Clinics, 23(2), 523–540. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2004.12.011.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Gronwall, D., & Wrightson, P. (1974a). Delayed recovery of intellectual function after minor head injury. Lancet, 2(7881), 605–609.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Gronwall, D., & Wrightson, P. (1974b). Letter: recovery after minor head injury. Lancet, 2(7894), 1452.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Gronwall, D., & Wrightson, P. (1975). Cumulative effect of concussion. Lancet, 2(7943), 995–997.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Gronwall, D., Wrightson, P., & Waddell, P. (1990). Head injury: The facts. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Grossman, E. J., Ge, Y., Jensen, J. H., Babb, J. S., Miles, L., Reaume, J., et al. (2012a). Thalamus and cognitive impairment in mild traumatic brain injury: a diffusional kurtosis imaging study. Journal of Neurotrauma, 29(13), 2318–2327. doi:10.1089/neu.2011.1763.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Grossman, E. J., Jensen, J. H., Babb, J. S., Chen, Q., Tabesh, A., Fieremans, E., et al. (2012b). Cognitive impairment in mild traumatic brain injury: a longitudinal diffusional kurtosis and perfusion imaging study. AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A3358.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  111. Handratta, V., Hsu, E., Vento, J., Yang, C., & Tanev, K. (2010). Neuroimaging findings and brain-behavioral correlates in a former boxer with chronic traumatic brain injury. Neurocase, 16(2), 125–134. doi:10.1080/13554790903329166.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Hanten, G., Li, X., Ibarra, A., Wilde, E. A., Barnes, A. F., McCauley, S. R., et al. (2012). Updating memory after mild TBI and orthopedic injuries. Journal of Neurotrauma. doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2392.

    Google Scholar 

  113. Hart, J., Kraut, M. A., Womack, K. B., Strain, J., Didehbani, N., Bartz, E., et al. (2013). Neuroimaging of cognitive dysfunction and depression in aging retired national football league players: a cross-sectional study. JAMA Neurology, 70(3), 326–335. doi:10.1001/2013.jamaneurol.340.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Hartikainen, K. M., Waljas, M., Isoviita, T., Dastidar, P., Liimatainen, S., Solbakk, A. K., et al. (2010). Persistent symptoms in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury associated with executive dysfunction. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32(7), 767–774. doi:10.1080/13803390903521000.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Heitger, M. H., Jones, R. D., Macleod, A. D., Snell, D. L., Frampton, C. M., & Anderson, T. J. (2009). Impaired eye movements in post-concussion syndrome indicate suboptimal brain function beyond the influence of depression, malingering or intellectual ability. Brain, 132(Pt 10), 2850–2870. doi:10.1093/brain/awp181.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Hellyer, P. J., Leech, R., Ham, T. E., Bonnelle, V., & Sharp, D. J. (2012). Individual prediction of white matter injury following traumatic brain injury. Annals of Neurology. doi:10.1002/ana.23824. Epub ahead of print.

  117. Henry, L. C., Tremblay, J., Tremblay, S., Lee, A., Brun, C., Lepore, N., et al. (2011). Acute and chronic changes in diffusivity measures after sports concussion. Journal of Neurotrauma, 28(10), 2049–2059. doi:10.1089/neu.2011.1836.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Ho, T., Brown, S., van Maanen, L., Forstmann, B. U., Wagenmakers, E. J., & Serences, J. T. (2012). The optimality of sensory processing during the speed-accuracy tradeoff. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32(23), 7992–8003. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0340-12.2012.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Hopkins, R. O., Beck, C. J., Burnett, D. L., Weaver, L. K., Victoroff, J., & Bigler, E. D. (2006). Prevalence of white matter hyperintensities in a young healthy population. Journal of Neuroimaging, 16(3), 243–251. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6569.2006.00047.x.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Hulkower, M. B., Poliak, D. B., Rosenbaum, S. B., Zimmerman, M. E., & Lipton, M. L. (2013). A decade of DTI in traumatic brain injury: 10 Years and 100 articles later. AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A3395. Epub ahead of print.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  121. Hunter, J. V., Wilde, E. A., Tong, K. A., & Holshouser, B. A. (2012). Emerging imaging tools for use with traumatic brain injury research. Journal of Neurotrauma, 29(4), 654–671. doi:10.1089/neu.2011.1906.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  122. Huston, J. M., & Field, A. S. (2013). Clinical applications of diffusion tensor imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America, 21(2), 279–298. doi:10.1016/j.mric.2012.12.003.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  123. Hylin, M. J., Orsi, S. A., Zhao, J., Bockhorst, K., Perez, A., Moore, A. N., et al. (2013). Behavioral and histopathological alterations resulting from mild fluid percussion injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 30(9), 702–715. doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2630.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Iverson, G. L. (2005). Outcome from mild traumatic brain injury. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18(3), 301–317. doi:10.1097/01.yco.0000165601.29047.ae.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Iverson, G. L., Hakulinen, U., Waljas, M., Dastidar, P., Lange, R. T., Soimakallio, S., et al. (2011). To exclude or not to exclude: white matter hyperintensities in diffusion tensor imaging research. Brain Injury, 25(13–14), 1325–1332. doi:10.3109/02699052.2011.608409.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  126. Iverson, G. L., Lange, R. T., Brooks, B. L., & Rennison, V. L. (2010). “Good old days” bias following mild traumatic brain injury. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 24(1), 17–37. doi:10.1080/13854040903190797.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Iverson, G. L., Lovell, M. R., & Collins, M. W. (2003). Interpreting change on ImPACT following sport concussion. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 17(4), 460–467. doi:10.1076/clin.17.4.460.27934.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  128. Iverson, G. L., Lovell, M. R., Smith, S., & Franzen, M. D. (2000). Prevalence of abnormal CT-scans following mild head injury. Brain Injury, 14(12), 1057–1061.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  129. Izhikevich, E. M., & Edelman, G. M. (2008). Large-scale model of mammalian thalamocortical systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(9), 3593–3598. doi:10.1073/pnas.0712231105.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Jacobson, R. R. (1995). The post-concussional syndrome: physiogenesis, psychogenesis and malingering. An integrative model. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 39(6), 675–693.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  131. Jakola, A. S., Muller, K., Larsen, M., Waterloo, K., Romner, B., & Ingebrigtsen, T. (2007). Five-year outcome after mild head injury: a prospective controlled study. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 115(6), 398–402. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.2007.00827.x.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  132. Jellinger, K. A. (2013). Neuropathology of prolonged unresponsive wakefulness syndrome after blunt head injury: review of 100 post-mortem cases. Brain Injury, 27(7–8), 917–923. doi:10.3109/02699052.2013.793395.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  133. Jessen, F., Wiese, B., Bachmann, C., Eifflaender-Gorfer, S., Haller, F., Kolsch, H., et al. (2010). Prediction of dementia by subjective memory impairment: effects of severity and temporal association with cognitive impairment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(4), 414–422. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.30.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  134. Jeter, C. B., Hergenroeder, G. W., Hylin, M. J., Redell, J. B., Moore, A. N., & Dash, P. K. (2013). Biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of mild traumatic brain injury/concussion. Journal of neurotrauma, 30(8), 657–670. doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2439.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  135. Johnson, B., Zhang, K., Gay, M., Horovitz, S., Hallett, M., Sebastianelli, W., et al. (2012a). Alteration of brain default network in subacute phase of injury in concussed individuals: resting-state fMRI study. NeuroImage, 59(1), 511–518. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.081.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  136. Johnson, V. E., Stewart, W., & Smith, D. H. (2012b). Axonal pathology in traumatic brain injury. Experimental Neurology, 246, 35–43. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2012.01.013.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  137. Jorge, R. E., Acion, L., White, T., Tordesillas-Gutierrez, D., Pierson, R., Crespo-Facorro, B., et al. (2012). White matter abnormalities in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(12), 1284–1291. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12050600.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  138. Junger, E. C., Newell, D. W., Grant, G. A., Avellino, A. M., Ghatan, S., Douville, C. M., et al. (1997). Cerebral autoregulation following minor head injury. Journal of Neurosurgery, 86(3), 425–432. doi:10.3171/jns.1997.86.3.0425.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  139. Kan, E. M., Ling, E. A., & Lu, J. (2012). Microenvironment changes in mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Research Bulletin, 87(4–5), 359–372. doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2012.01.007.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  140. Kasahara, K., Hashimoto, K., Abo, M., & Senoo, A. (2012). Voxel- and atlas-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging may reveal focal axonal injuries in mild traumatic brain injury—comparison with diffuse axonal injury. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 30(4), 496–505. doi:10.1016/j.mri.2011.12.018.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  141. Kashluba, S., Hanks, R. A., Casey, J. E., & Millis, S. R. (2008). Neuropsychologic and functional outcome after complicated mild traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89(5), 904–911. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2007.12.029.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  142. Katzman, G. L., Dagher, A. P., & Patronas, N. J. (1999). Incidental findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging from 1000 asymptomatic volunteers. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(1), 36–39.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  143. Kempton, M. J., Salvador, Z., Munafo, M. R., Geddes, J. R., Simmons, A., Frangou, S., et al. (2011). Structural neuroimaging studies in major depressive disorder. Meta-analysis and comparison with bipolar disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(7), 675–690. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.60.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  144. Kennedy, J. E., Jaffee, M. S., Leskin, G. A., Stokes, J. W., Leal, F. O., & Fitzpatrick, P. J. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder-like symptoms and mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 44(7), 895–920.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  145. Kim, N., Branch, C. A., Kim, M., & Lipton, M. L. (2013). Whole brain approaches for identification of microstructural abnormalities in individual patients: comparison of techniques applied to mild traumatic brain injury. PloS One, 8(3), e59382. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059382.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  146. Kirov, I. I., Tal, A., Babb, J. S., Reaume, J., Bushnik, T., Ashman, T., et al. (2013). Proton MR spectroscopy correlates diffuse axonal abnormalities with post-concussive symptoms in mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma. doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2696.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  147. Koerte, I. K., Ertl-Wagner, B., Reiser, M., Zafonte, R., & Shenton, M. E. (2012a). White matter integrity in the brains of professional soccer players without a symptomatic concussion. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 308(18), 1859–1861. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.13735.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  148. Koerte, I. K., Kaufmann, D., Hartl, E., Bouix, S., Pasternak, O., Kubicki, M., et al. (2012b). A prospective study of physician-observed concussion during a varsity university hockey season: white matter integrity in ice hockey players. Part 3 of 4. Neurosurgical Focus, 33(6), 1–7. doi:10.3171/2012.10.FOCUS12303. E3.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  149. Konrad, C., Geburek, A. J., Rist, F., Blumenroth, H., Fischer, B., Husstedt, I., et al. (2011). Long-term cognitive and emotional consequences of mild traumatic brain injury. Psychological Medicine, 44, 1197–1211. doi:10.1017/S0033291710001728.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  150. Kou, Z., Wu, Z., Tong, K. A., Holshouser, B., Benson, R. R., Hu, J., et al. (2010). The role of advanced MR imaging findings as biomarkers of traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25(4), 267–282. doi:10.1097/HTR.0b013e3181e54793.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  151. Kubal, W. S. (2012). Updated imaging of traumatic brain injury. Radiologic clinics of North America, 50(1), 15–41. doi:10.1016/j.rcl.2011.08.010.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  152. Kumar, S., Rao, S. L., Chandramouli, B. A., & Pillai, S. (2013). Reduced contribution of executive functions in impaired working memory performance in mild traumatic brain injury patients. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. doi:10.1016/j.clineuro.2012.12.038. Epub ahead of print.

    Google Scholar 

  153. Kurtzke, J. F. (1961). On the evaluation of disability in multiple sclerosis. Neurology, 11, 686–694.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  154. Lafrance, W. C., Jr., Deluca, M., Machan, J. T., & Fava, J. L. (2013). Traumatic brain injury and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures yield worse outcomes. Epilepsia, 54(4), 718–725. doi:10.1111/epi.12053.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  155. Lange, R. T., Brickell, T. A., French, L. M., Merritt, V. C., Bhagwat, A., Pancholi, S., et al. (2012). Neuropsychological outcome from uncomplicated mild, complicated mild, and moderate traumatic brain injury in US military personnel. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27(5), 480–494. doi:10.1093/arclin/acs059.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  156. Larrabee, G. J., Binder, L. M., Rohling, M. L., & Ploetz, D. M. (2013). Meta-analytic methods and the importance of non-TBI factors related to outcome in mild traumatic brain injury: response to Bigler et al. (2013). The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 27(2), 215–237. doi:10.1080/13854046.2013.769634.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  157. Laughlin, H. P. (1956). The neuroses in clinical practice. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.

    Google Scholar 

  158. Lee, Y. K., Hou, S. W., Lee, C. C., Hsu, C. Y., Huang, Y. S., & Su, Y. C. (2013). Increased risk of dementia in patients with mild traumatic brain injury: a nationwide cohort study. PLoS One, 8(5), e62422. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062422.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  159. Lehman, E. J., Hein, M. J., Baron, S. L., & Gersic, C. M. (2012). Neurodegenerative causes of death among retired National Football League players. Neurology, 79(19), 1970–1974. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31826daf50.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  160. Leker, R. R., Shohami, E., & Constantini, S. (2002). Experimental models of head trauma. Acta Neurochirurgica, 83(Suppl), 49–54.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  161. Levin, H., Li, X., McCauley, S. R., Hanten, G., Wilde, E. A., & Swank, P. R. (2012). Neuropsychological outcome of mTBI: a principal component analysis approach. Journal of Neurotrauma. doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2627.

    Google Scholar 

  162. Levin, H. S., Amparo, E., Eisenberg, H. M., Williams, D. H., High, W. M., Jr., McArdle, C. B., et al. (1987). Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography in relation to the neurobehavioral sequelae of mild and moderate head injuries. Journal of Neurosurgery, 66(5), 706–713. doi:10.3171/jns.1987.66.5.0706.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  163. Levine, B., Kovacevic, N., Nica, E. I., Cheung, G., Gao, F., Schwartz, M. L., et al. (2008). The Toronto traumatic brain injury study: injury severity and quantified MRI. Neurology, 70(10), 771–778. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000304108.32283.aa.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  164. Lewine, J. D., Davis, J. T., Bigler, E. D., Thoma, R., Hill, D., Funke, M., et al. (2007). Objective documentation of traumatic brain injury subsequent to mild head trauma: multimodal brain imaging with MEG, SPECT, and MRI. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 22(3), 141–155. doi:10.1097/01.HTR.0000271115.29954.27.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  165. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D., Bigler, E. D., & Tranel, D. (2012). Neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  166. Lifshitz, J., & Lisembee, A. M. (2012). Neurodegeneration in the somatosensory cortex after experimental diffuse brain injury. Brain Structure & Function, 217(1), 49–61. doi:10.1007/s00429-011-0323-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  167. Ling, J. M., Pena, A., Yeo, R. A., Merideth, F. L., Klimaj, S., Gasparovic, C., et al. (2012). Biomarkers of increased diffusion anisotropy in semi-acute mild traumatic brain injury: a longitudinal perspective. Brain, 135(Pt 4), 1281–1292. doi:10.1093/brain/aws073.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  168. Lipton, M. L., Kim, N., Park, Y. K., Hulkower, M. B., Gardin, T. M., Shifteh, K., et al. (2012). Robust detection of traumatic axonal injury in individual mild traumatic brain injury patients: intersubject variation, change over time and bidirectional changes in anisotropy. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 6(2), 329–342. doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9175-2.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  169. Lipton, M. L., Kim, N., Zimmerman, M. E., Kim, M., Stewart, W. F., Branch, C. A., et al. (2013). Soccer heading is associated with white matter microstructural and cognitive abnormalities. Radiology. doi:10.1148/radiol.13130545. Epub ahead of print.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  170. Little, D. M., Kraus, M. F., Joseph, J., Geary, E. K., Susmaras, T., Zhou, X. J., et al. (2010). Thalamic integrity underlies executive dysfunction in traumatic brain injury. Neurology, 74(7), 558–564. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181cff5d5.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  171. Liu, M., Gross, D. W., Wheatley, B. M., Concha, L., & Beaulieu, C. (2013). The acute phase of Wallerian degeneration: longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging of the fornix following temporal lobe surgery. NeuroImage, 74, 128–139. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.01.069.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  172. Logothetis, N. K. (2008). What we can do and what we cannot do with fMRI. Nature, 453(7197), 869–878. doi:10.1038/nature06976.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  173. Loov, C., Shevchenko, G., Geeyarpuram Nadadhur, A., Clausen, F., Hillered, L., Wetterhall, M., et al. (2013). Identification of injury specific proteins in a cell culture model of traumatic brain injury. PloS One, 8(2), e55983. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055983.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  174. Luoto, T. M., Tenovuo, O., Kataja, A., Brander, A., Ohman, J., & Iverson, G. L. (2012). Who gets recruited in mild traumatic brain injury research? Journal of Neurotrauma, 30(1), 11–16. doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2611.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  175. Mac Donald, C. L., Johnson, A., Cooper, D., Malone, T., Sorrell, J., Shimony, J., et al. (2013). Cerebellar white matter abnormalities following primary blast injury in US military personnel. PloS one, 8(2), e55823. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055823.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  176. Mac Donald, C. L., Johnson, A. M., Cooper, D., Nelson, E. C., Werner, N. J., Shimony, J. S., et al. (2011). Detection of blast-related traumatic brain injury in U.S. military personnel. The New England Journal of Medicine, 364(22), 2091–2100. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1008069.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  177. MacKenzie, J. D., Siddiqi, F., Babb, J. S., Bagley, L. J., Mannon, L. J., Sinson, G. P., et al. (2002). Brain atrophy in mild or moderate traumatic brain injury: a longitudinal quantitative analysis. AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 23(9), 1509–1515.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  178. Macleod, A. D. (2010). Post concussion syndrome: the attraction of the psychological by the organic. Medical Hypotheses, 74(6), 1033–1035. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2010.01.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  179. Malec, J. (1978). Neuropsychological assessment of schizophrenia versus brain damage: a review. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 166(7), 507–516.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  180. Mao, H., Jin, X., Zhang, L., Yang, K. H., Igarashi, T., Noble-Haeusslein, L. J., et al. (2010). Finite element analysis of controlled cortical impact-induced cell loss. Journal of Neurotrauma, 27(5), 877–888. doi:10.1089/neu.2008.0616.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  181. Marquez de la Plata, C., Ardelean, A., Koovakkattu, D., Srinivasan, P., Miller, A., Phuong, V., et al. (2007). Magnetic resonance imaging of diffuse axonal injury: quantitative assessment of white matter lesion volume. Journal of Neurotrauma, 24(4), 591–598. doi:10.1089/neu.2006.0214.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  182. Marrie, R. A., Fisher, E., Miller, D. M., Lee, J. C., & Rudick, R. A. (2005). Association of fatigue and brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 228(2), 161–166. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2004.11.046.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  183. Masel, B. E., & DeWitt, D. S. (2010). Traumatic brain injury: a disease process, not an event. Journal of Neurotrauma, 27(8), 1529–1540. doi:10.1089/neu.2010.1358.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  184. Matthews, S. C., Spadoni, A. D., Lohr, J. B., Strigo, I. A., & Simmons, A. N. (2012). Diffusion tensor imaging evidence of white matter disruption associated with loss versus alteration of consciousness in warfighters exposed to combat in Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom. Psychiatry Research, 204(2–3), 149–154. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2012.04.018.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  185. Matthews, S. C., Strigo, I. A., Simmons, A. N., O’Connell, R. M., Reinhardt, L. E., & Moseley, S. A. (2011). A multimodal imaging study in U.S. veterans of Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom with and without major depression after blast-related concussion. NeuroImage, 54(Suppl 1), S69–S75. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.04.269.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  186. Maugans, T. A., Farley, C., Altaye, M., Leach, J., & Cecil, K. M. (2012). Pediatric sports-related concussion produces cerebral blood flow alterations. Pediatrics, 129(1), 28–37. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2083.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  187. Maxwell, W. L. (2013). Damage to myelin and oligodendrocytes: A role in chronic outcomes following traumatic brain injury. Brain Sciences, 3, doi:10.3390/brainsci30x000x.

  188. Maxwell, W. L., MacKinnon, M. A., Stewart, J. E., & Graham, D. I. (2010). Stereology of cerebral cortex after traumatic brain injury matched to the Glasgow outcome score. Brain, 133(Pt 1), 139–160. doi:10.1093/brain/awp264.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  189. Mayer, A. R., Ling, J. M., Yang, Z., Pena, A., Yeo, R. A., & Klimaj, S. (2012a). Diffusion abnormalities in pediatric mild traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32(50), 17961–17969. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3379-12.2012.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  190. Mayer, A. R., Mannell, M. V., Ling, J., Elgie, R., Gasparovic, C., Phillips, J. P., et al. (2009). Auditory orienting and inhibition of return in mild traumatic brain injury: a fMRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 30(12), 4152–4166. doi:10.1002/hbm.20836.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  191. Mayer, A. R., Mannell, M. V., Ling, J., Gasparovic, C., & Yeo, R. A. (2011). Functional connectivity in mild traumatic brain injury. Human Brain Mapping, 32(11), 1825–1835. doi:10.1002/hbm.21151.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  192. Mayer, A. R., Yang, Z., Yeo, R. A., Pena, A., Ling, J. M., Mannell, M. V., et al. (2012b). A functional MRI study of multimodal selective attention following mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 6(2), 343–354. doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9178-z.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  193. McAllister, T. W., Ford, J. C., Ji, S., Beckwith, J. G., Flashman, L. A., Paulsen, K., et al. (2012). Maximum principal strain and strain rate associated with concussion diagnosis correlates with changes in corpus callosum white matter indices. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 40(1), 127–140. doi:10.1007/s10439-011-0402-6.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  194. McCrea, M. A. (2007). Mild traumatic brain injury and postconcussion syndrome: The new evidence base for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  195. McKee, A. C., Gavett, B. E., Stern, R. A., Nowinski, C. J., Cantu, R. C., Kowall, N. W., et al. (2010). TDP-43 proteinopathy and motor neuron disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 69(9), 918–929. doi:10.1097/NEN.0b013e3181ee7d85.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  196. McKee, A. C., Stein, T. D., Nowinski, C. J., Stern, R. A., Daneshvar, D. H., Alvarez, V. E., et al. (2012). The spectrum of disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Brain, 136(pt 1), 43–64. doi:10.1093/brain/aws307.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  197. McLean, S. A., Kirsch, N. L., Tan-Schriner, C. U., Sen, A., Frederiksen, S., Harris, R. E., et al. (2009). Health status, not head injury, predicts concussion symptoms after minor injury. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 27(2), 182–190. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2008.01.054.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  198. McMillan, T. M., Teasdale, G. M., & Stewart, E. (2012). Disability in young people and adults after head injury: 12–14 year follow-up of a prospective cohort. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 83(11), 1086–1091. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2012-302746.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  199. McNally, K. A., Bangert, B., Dietrich, A., Nuss, K., Rusin, J., Wright, M., et al. (2013). Injury versus noninjury factors as predictors of postconcussive symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury in children. Neuropsychology, 27(1), 1–12. doi:10.1037/a00313702013-01868-001.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  200. Menon, D. K., Schwab, K., Wright, D. W., & Maas, A. I. (2010). Position statement: definition of traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91(11), 1637–1640. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2010.05.017.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  201. Messe, A., Caplain, S., Paradot, G., Garrigue, D., Mineo, J. F., Soto Ares, G., et al. (2011). Diffusion tensor imaging and white matter lesions at the subacute stage in mild traumatic brain injury with persistent neurobehavioral impairment. Human Brain Mapping, 32(6), 999–1011. doi:10.1002/hbm.21092.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  202. Messe, A., Caplain, S., Pelegrini-Issac, M., Blancho, S., Levy, R., Aghakhani, N., et al. (2013). Specific and evolving resting-state network alterations in post-concussion syndrome following mild traumatic brain injury. PloS one, 8(6), e65470. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065470.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  203. Messe, A., Caplain, S., Pelegrini-Issac, M., Blancho, S., Montreuil, M., Levy, R., et al. (2012). Structural integrity and postconcussion syndrome in mild traumatic brain injury patients. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 6(2), 283–292. doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9159-2.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  204. Metting, Z., Cerliani, L., Rodiger, L. A., & van der Naalt, J. (2013). Pathophysiological concepts in mild traumatic brain injury: diffusion tensor imaging related to acute perfusion CT imaging. PloS one, 8(5), e64461. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064461.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  205. Metting, Z., Rodiger, L. A., de Jong, B. M., Stewart, R. E., Kremer, B. P., & van der Naalt, J. (2010). Acute cerebral perfusion CT abnormalities associated with posttraumatic amnesia in mild head injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 27(12), 2183–2189. doi:10.1089/neu.2010.1395.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  206. Metting, Z., Rodiger, L. A., Stewart, R. E., Oudkerk, M., De Keyser, J., & van der Naalt, J. (2009). Perfusion computed tomography in the acute phase of mild head injury: regional dysfunction and prognostic value. Annals of Neurology, 66(6), 809–816. doi:10.1002/ana.21785.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  207. Miller, H. (1961a). Accident neurosis—Lecture I. British Medical Journal, 1(5230), 919–925.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  208. Miller, H. (1961b). Accident neurosis—Lecture II. British Medical Journal, 1(5231), 992–998.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  209. Miller, H. (1962). Accident neurosis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 55, 509–511.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  210. Miller, H., & Cartlidge, N. (1972). Simulation and malingering after injuries to the brain and spinal cord. Lancet, 1(7750), 580–585.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  211. Millis, S. R. (2009). Methodological challenges in assessment of cognition following mild head injury: response to Malojcic et al. 2008. Journal of Neurotrauma, 26(12), 2409–2410. doi:10.1089/neu.2008.0530.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  212. Millis, S. R., Rosenthal, M., Novack, T. A., Sherer, M., Nick, T. G., Kreutzer, J. S., et al. (2001). Long-term neuropsychological outcome after traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 16(4), 343–355.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  213. Momjian, S., Seghier, M., Seeck, M., & Michel, C. M. (2003). Mapping of the neuronal networks of human cortical brain functions. Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery, 28, 91–142.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  214. Moretti, L., Cristofori, I., Weaver, S. M., Chau, A., Portelli, J. N., & Grafman, J. (2012). Cognitive decline in older adults with a history of traumatic brain injury. Lancet Neurology, 11(12), 1103–1112. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70226-0.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  215. Morey, R. A., Haswell, C. C., Selgrade, E. S., Massoglia, D., Liu, C., Weiner, J., et al. (2012). Effects of chronic mild traumatic brain injury on white matter integrity in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans. Human Brain Mapping. doi:10.1002/hbm.22117.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  216. Mori, S., van Zijl, P. C. M., Oishi, K., & Faria, A. V. (2012). MRI atlas of human white matter (2nd ed.). New York: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  217. Mott, T. F., McConnon, M. L., & Rieger, B. P. (2012). Subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury. American Family Physician, 86(11), 1045–1051.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  218. Mounce, L. T., Williams, W. H., Jones, J. M., Harris, A., Haslam, S. A., & Jetten, J. (2012). Neurogenic and psychogenic acute postconcussion symptoms can be identified after mild traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. doi:10.1097/HTR.0b013e318252dd75. Epub ahead of print.

    Google Scholar 

  219. Nakagawara, J., Kamiyama, K., Takahashi, M., & Nakamura, H. (2013). Cortical neuron loss in post-traumatic higher brain dysfunction using (123)I-iomazenil SPECT. Acta neurochirurgica, 118, 245–250. doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-1434-6_46.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  220. Nathan, D. E., Wang, B. Q., Wolfowitz, R. D., Liu, W., Yeh, P. H., Graner, J. L., et al. (2012). Examining intrinsic thalamic resting state networks using graph theory analysis: Implications for mTBI detection. Conference Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2012, 5445–5448, doi:10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347226.

  221. Nestor, P. G., Kubicki, M., Nakamura, M., Niznikiewicz, M., Levitt, J. J., Shenton, M. E., et al. (2012). Neuropsychological variability, symptoms, and brain imaging in chronic schizophrenia. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 7(1), 68–76. doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9193-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  222. Niogi, S. N., & Mukherjee, P. (2010). Diffusion tensor imaging of mild traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25(4), 241–255. doi:10.1097/HTR.0b013e3181e52c2a.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  223. Niogi, S. N., Mukherjee, P., Ghajar, J., Johnson, C. E., Kolster, R., Lee, H., et al. (2008). Structural dissociation of attentional control and memory in adults with and without mild traumatic brain injury. Brain, 131(Pt 12), 3209–3221. doi:10.1093/brain/awn247.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  224. Obermann, M., Keidel, M., & Diener, H. C. (2010). Post-traumatic headache: is it for real? Crossfire debates on headache: Pro. Headache, 50(4), 710–715. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2010.01644.x.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  225. Oehmichen, M., Walter, T., Meissner, C., & Friedrich, H. J. (2003). Time course of cortical hemorrhages after closed traumatic brain injury: statistical analysis of posttraumatic histomorphological alterations. Journal of Neurotrauma, 20(1), 87–103. doi:10.1089/08977150360517218.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  226. Oppenheimer, D. R. (1968). Microscopic lesions in the brain following head injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 31(4), 299–306.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  227. Orrison, W. W., Hanson, E. H., Alamo, T., Watson, D., Sharma, M., Perkins, T. G., et al. (2009). Traumatic brain injury: a review and high-field MRI findings in 100 unarmed combatants using a literature-based checklist approach. Journal of Neurotrauma, 26(5), 689–701. doi:10.1089/neu.2008.0636.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  228. Palacios, E. M., Sala-Llonch, R., Junque, C., Roig, T., Tormos, J. M., Bargallo, N., et al. (2012). White matter integrity related to functional working memory networks in traumatic brain injury. Neurology, 78(12), 852–860. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31824c465a.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  229. Pandit, A. S., Expert, P., Lambiotte, R., Bonnelle, V., Leech, R., Turkheimer, F. E., et al. (2013). Traumatic brain injury impairs small-world topology. Neurology, 80(20), 1826–1833. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182929f38.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  230. Park, E., Eisen, R., Kinio, A., & Baker, A. J. (2012). Electrophysiological white matter dysfunction and association with neurobehavioral deficits following low-level primary blast trauma. Neurobiology of Disease. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2012.12.002.

    Google Scholar 

  231. Parkinson, D. (1992). Concussion is completely reversible; an hypothesis. Medical Hypotheses, 37(1), 37–39.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  232. Parsons, T. D., Courtney, C. G., Arizmendi, B., & Dawson, M. (2011). Virtual reality stroop task for neurocognitive assessment. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 163, 433–439.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  233. Peerless, S. J., & Rewcastle, N. B. (1967). Shear injuries of the brain. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 96(10), 577–582.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  234. Pettersen, J. A., Sathiyamoorthy, G., Gao, F. Q., Szilagyi, G., Nadkarni, N. K., St George-Hyslop, P., et al. (2008). Microbleed topography, leukoaraiosis, and cognition in probable Alzheimer disease from the Sunnybrook dementia study. Archives of Neurology, 65(6), 790–795. doi:10.1001/archneur.65.6.790.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  235. Pomschar, A., Koerte, I., Lee, S., Laubender, R. P., Straube, A., Heinen, F., et al. (2013). MRI evidence for altered venous drainage and intracranial compliance in mild traumatic brain injury. PloS one, 8(2), e55447. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055447.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  236. Ponsford, J., Cameron, P., Fitzgerald, M., Grant, M., & Mikocka-Walus, A. (2011). Long-term outcomes after uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury: a comparison with trauma controls. Journal of Neurotrauma, 28(6), 937–946. doi:10.1089/neu.2010.1516.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  237. Pontifex, M. B., Broglio, S. P., Drollette, E. S., Scudder, M. R., Johnson, C. R., O’Connor, P. M., et al. (2012). The relation of mild traumatic brain injury to chronic lapses of attention. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83(4), 553–559.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  238. Potchen, M. J., Kampondeni, S. D., Mallewa, M., Taylor, T. E., & Birbeck, G. L. (2013). Brain imaging in normal kids: a community-based MRI study in Malawian children. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 18(4), 398–402. doi:10.1111/tmi.12064.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  239. Prichep, L. S., McCrea, M., Barr, W., Powell, M., & Chabot, R. J. (2012). Time course of clinical and electrophysiological recovery after sport-related concussion. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. doi:10.1097/HTR.0b013e318247b54e. Epub ahead of print.

    Google Scholar 

  240. Prigatano, G. P., & Gale, S. D. (2011). The current status of postconcussion syndrome. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 24(3), 243–250. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e328344698b.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  241. Pula, J. H., & Eggenberger, E. (2008). Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, 19(6), 479–484. doi:10.1097/ICU.0b013e3283129746.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  242. Rao, V., Mielke, M., Xu, X., Smith, G. S., McCann, U. D., Bergey, A., et al. (2012). Diffusion tensor imaging atlas-based analyses in major depression after mild traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24(3), 309–315. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.11080188.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  243. Rayhan, R. U., Stevens, B. W., Timbol, C. R., Adewuyi, O., Walitt, B., VanMeter, J. W., et al. (2013). Increased brain white matter axial diffusivity associated with fatigue, pain and hyperalgesia in Gulf War illness. PloS one, 8(3), e58493. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058493.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  244. Raz, E., Jensen, J. H., Ge, Y., Babb, J. S., Miles, L., Reaume, J., et al. (2011). Brain iron quantification in mild traumatic brain injury: a magnetic field correlation study. AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 32(10), 1851–1856. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A2637.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  245. Reeves, D. L., Kane, R., Elsmore, T., Winter, K., & Bleiberg, J. (2002). ANAM 2001 user’s manual: Clinical and research modules. San Diego: National Cognitive Recovery Foundation, Publication SNRF-SF-2002-1.

    Google Scholar 

  246. Reisberg, B., Shulman, M. B., Torossian, C., Leng, L., & Zhu, W. (2010). Outcome over seven years of healthy adults with and without subjective cognitive impairment. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 6(1), 11–24. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2009.10.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  247. Rey, A. (1958). L’examen clinique en psychologie [The clinical examination in psychology]. Oxford: Presses Universitaires de France.

    Google Scholar 

  248. Risling, M., Plantman, S., Angeria, M., Rostami, E., Bellander, B. M., Kirkegaard, M., et al. (2011). Mechanisms of blast induced brain injuries, experimental studies in rats. NeuroImage, 54(Suppl 1), S89–S97. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.05.031.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  249. Rohling, M. L., Binder, L. M., Demakis, G. J., Larrabee, G. J., Ploetz, D. M., & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2011). A meta-analysis of neuropsychological outcome after mild traumatic brain injury: re-analyses and reconsiderations of Binder et al. (1997), Frencham et al. (2005), and Pertab et al. (2009). The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 25(4), 608–623. doi:10.1080/13854046.2011.565076.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  250. Rona, R. J. (2012). Long-term consequences of mild traumatic brain injury. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 201(3), 172–174. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.111492.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  251. Rosenbaum, S. B., & Lipton, M. L. (2012). Embracing chaos: the scope and importance of clinical and pathological heterogeneity in mTBI. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 6(2), 255–282. doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9162-7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  252. Ross, D. E., Ochs, A. L., Seabaugh, J. M., Demark, M. F., Shrader, C. R., Marwitz, J. H., et al. (2012). Progressive brain atrophy in patients with chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study. Brain injury : [BI], 26(12), 1500–1509. doi:10.3109/02699052.2012.694570.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  253. Rostami, E., Davidsson, J., Ng, K. C., Lu, J., Gyorgy, A., Walker, J., et al. (2012). A model for mild traumatic brain injury that induces limited transient memory impairment and increased levels of axon related serum biomarkers. Frontiers in Neurology, 3, 115. doi:10.3389/fneur.2012.00115.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  254. Ruff, R. (2009). Best practice guidelines for forensic neuropsychological examinations of patients with traumatic brain injury. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation, 24(2), 131–140. doi:10.1097/01.HTR.0000348755.42649.e9.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  255. Ruff, R. M. (2011). Mild traumatic brain injury and neural recovery: rethinking the debate. NeuroRehabilitation, 28(3), 167–180. doi:10.3233/NRE-2011-0646.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  256. Ruff, R. M., Iverson, G. L., Barth, J. T., Bush, S. S., & Broshek, D. K. (2009). Recommendations for diagnosing a mild traumatic brain injury: a National Academy of Neuropsychology education paper. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 24(1), 3–10. doi:10.1093/arclin/acp006.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  257. Saljo, A., Mayorga, M., Bolouri, H., Svensson, B., & Hamberger, A. (2011). Mechanisms and pathophysiology of the low-level blast brain injury in animal models. NeuroImage, 54(Suppl 1), S83–S88. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.05.050.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  258. Sangiorgi, S., De Benedictis, A., Protasoni, M., Manelli, A., Reguzzoni, M., Cividini, A., et al. (2013). Early-stage microvascular alterations of a new model of controlled cortical traumatic brain injury: 3D morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy and corrosion casting. Journal of Neurosurgery, 118(4), 763–774. doi:10.3171/2012.11.JNS12627.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  259. Scheid, R., Walther, K., Guthke, T., Preul, C., & von Cramon, D. Y. (2006). Cognitive sequelae of diffuse axonal injury. Archives of Neurology, 63(3), 418–424. doi:10.1001/archneur.63.3.418.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  260. Schultheis, M. T., Himelstein, J., & Rizzo, A. A. (2002). Virtual reality and neuropsychology: upgrading the current tools. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 17(5), 378–394.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  261. Sepulcre, J., Masdeu, J. C., Pastor, M. A., Goni, J., Barbosa, C., Bejarano, B., et al. (2009). Brain pathways of verbal working memory: a lesion-function correlation study. NeuroImage, 47(2), 773–778. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.04.054.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  262. Sharp, D. J., Beckmann, C. F., Greenwood, R., Kinnunen, K. M., Bonnelle, V., De Boissezon, X., et al. (2011). Default mode network functional and structural connectivity after traumatic brain injury. Brain, 134(Pt 8), 2233–2247. doi:10.1093/brain/awr175.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  263. Sharp, D. J., & Ham, T. E. (2011). Investigating white matter injury after mild traumatic brain injury. Current opinion in neurology, 24(6), 558–563. doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e32834cd523.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  264. Shaw, N. A. (2002). The neurophysiology of concussion. Progress in Neurobiology, 67(4), 281–344.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  265. Shenton, M. E., Hamoda, H. M., Schneiderman, J. S., Bouix, S., Pasternak, O., Rathi, Y., et al. (2012). A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 6(2), 137–192. doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9156-5.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  266. Shumskaya, E., Andriessen, T. M., Norris, D. G., & Vos, P. E. (2012). Abnormal whole-brain functional networks in homogeneous acute mild traumatic brain injury. Neurology, 79(2), 175–182. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31825f04fb.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  267. Silver, J. M. (2012). Effort, exaggeration and malingering after concussion. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 83(8), 836–841. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2011-302078.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  268. Silver, J. M., McAllister, T. W., & Arciniegas, D. B. (2009). Depression and cognitive complaints following mild traumatic brain injury. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(6), 653–661. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08111676.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  269. Sims, A. C. (1985). Head injury, neurosis and accident proneness. Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine, 13, 49–70.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  270. Skogar, O., Fall, P. A., Hallgren, G., Bringer, B., Carlsson, M., Lennartsson, U., et al. (2012). Parkinson’s disease patients’ subjective descriptions of characteristics of chronic pain, sleeping patterns and health-related quality of life. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 8, 435–442. doi:10.2147/NDT.S34882.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  271. Slobounov, S., Gay, M., Johnson, B., & Zhang, K. (2012). Concussion in athletics: ongoing clinical and brain imaging research controversies. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 6(2), 224–243. doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9167-2.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  272. Slobounov, S., Sebastianelli, W., & Newell, K. M. (2011). Incorporating virtual reality graphics with brain imaging for assessment of sport-related concussions. Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 2011, 1383–1386, doi:10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6090325.

  273. Slobounov, S. M., Gay, M., Zhang, K., Johnson, B., Pennell, D., Sebastianelli, W., et al. (2011b). Alteration of brain functional network at rest and in response to YMCA physical stress test in concussed athletes: RsFMRI study. NeuroImage, 55(4), 1716–1727. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.01.024.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  274. Smith, A. (1992). Symbol-digit modalities test (Revised). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

    Google Scholar 

  275. Smits, M., Houston, G. C., Dippel, D. W., Wielopolski, P. A., Vernooij, M. W., Koudstaal, P. J., et al. (2011). Microstructural brain injury in post-concussion syndrome after minor head injury. Neuroradiology, 53(8), 553–563. doi:10.1007/s00234-010-0774-6.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  276. Smits, M., Hunink, M. G., Nederkoorn, P. J., Dekker, H. M., Vos, P. E., Kool, D. R., et al. (2007). A history of loss of consciousness or post-traumatic amnesia in minor head injury: “Conditio sine qua non” or one of the risk factors? Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 78(12), 1359–1364. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2007.117143.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  277. Snyder, P. J., Jackson, C. E., Petersen, R. C., Khachaturian, A. S., Kaye, J., Albert, M. S., et al. (2011). Assessment of cognition in mild cognitive impairment: a comparative study. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 7(3), 338–355. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.03.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  278. Sorg, S. F., Delano-Wood, L., Luc, N., Schiehser, D. M., Hanson, K. L., Nation, D. A., et al. (2013). White matter integrity in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury: associations with executive function and loss of consciousness. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. doi:10.1097/HTR.0b013e31828a1aa4.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  279. Spain, A., Daumas, S., Lifshitz, J., Rhodes, J., Andrews, P. J., Horsburgh, K., et al. (2010). Mild fluid percussion injury in mice produces evolving selective axonal pathology and cognitive deficits relevant to human brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 27(8), 1429–1438. doi:10.1089/neu.2010.1288.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  280. Stevens, M. C., Lovejoy, D., Kim, J., Oakes, H., Kureshi, I., & Witt, S. T. (2012). Multiple resting state network functional connectivity abnormalities in mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 6(2), 293–318. doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9157-4.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  281. Strain, J., Didehbani, N., Cullum, C. M., Mansinghani, S., Conover, H., Kraut, M. A., et al. (2013). Depressive symptoms and white matter dysfunction in retired NFL players with concussion history. Neurology. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318299ccf8. Epub ahead of print.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  282. Strich, S. J. (1956). Diffuse degeneration of the cerebral white matter in severe dementia following head injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 19(3), 163–185.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  283. Sullivan, S., Friess, S. H., Ralston, J., Smith, C., Propert, K. J., Rapp, P. E., et al. (2013). Behavioral deficits and axonal injury persistence after rotational head injury are direction dependent. Journal of Neurotrauma, 30(7), 538–545. doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2594.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  284. Sundgren, P. C., Dong, Q., Gomez-Hassan, D., Mukherji, S. K., Maly, P., & Welsh, R. (2004). Diffusion tensor imaging of the brain: review of clinical applications. Neuroradiology, 46(5), 339–350. doi:10.1007/s00234-003-1114-x.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  285. Talavage, T. M., Nauman, E., Breedlove, E. L., Yoruk, U., Dye, A. E., Morigaki, K., et al. (2013). Functionally-detected cognitive impairment in high school football players without clinically-diagnosed concussion. Journal of Neurotrauma. doi:10.1089/neu.2010.1512. Epub ahead of print.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  286. Tallus, J., Lioumis, P., Hamalainen, H., Kahkonen, S., & Tenovuo, O. (2013). TMS-EEG responses in recovered and symptomatic mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma. doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2760. Epub ahead of print.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  287. Tang, C. Y., Eaves, E., Dams-O’Connor, K., Ho, L., Leung, E., Wong, E., et al. (2012). Diffuse disconnectivity in TBI: a resting state fMRI and DTI study. Translational Neuroscience, 3(1), 9–14. doi:10.2478/s13380-012-0003-3.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  288. Tang, L., Ge, Y., Sodickson, D. K., Miles, L., Zhou, Y., Reaume, J., et al. (2011). Thalamic resting-state functional networks: disruption in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Radiology, 260(3), 831–840. doi:10.1148/radiol.11110014.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  289. Tate, D. F., Shenton, M. E., & Bigler, E. D. (2012). Introduction to the brain imaging and behavior special issue on neuroimaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 6(2), 103–107. doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9185-0.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  290. Taylor, A. R. (1967). Post-concussional sequelae. British Medical Journal, 3(5557), 67–71.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  291. Teasdale, G., & Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet, 2(7872), 81–84.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  292. Temme, L., Bleiberg, J., Reeves, D., Still, D. L., Levinson, D., & Browning, R. (2013). Uncovering latent deficits due to mild traumatic brain injury by using normobaric hypoxia stress. Frontiers in neurology, 4, 41. doi:10.3389/fneur.2013.00041.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  293. Toth, A., Kovacs, N., Perlaki, G., Orsi, G., Aradi, M., Komaromy, H., et al. (2013). Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and sub-acute phase of mild traumatic brain injury: can we see the difference? Journal of Neurotrauma, 30(1), 2–10. doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2486.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  294. Travers, B. G., Adluru, N., Ennis, C., do Tromp, P. M., Destiche, D., Doran, S., et al. (2012). Diffusion tensor imaging in autism spectrum disorder: a review. Autism Research, 5(5), 289–313. doi:10.1002/aur.1243.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  295. Turtzo, L. C., Budde, M. D., Gold, E. M., Lewis, B. K., Janes, L., Yarnell, A., et al. (2012). The evolution of traumatic brain injury in a rat focal contusion model. NMR in Biomedicine. doi:10.1002/nbm.2886. Epub ahead of print.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  296. Turner, R. C., Naser, Z. J., Logsdon, A. F., Dipasquale, K. H., Jackson, G. J., Robson, M. J., et al. (2013). Modeling clinically relevant blast parameters based on scaling principles produces functional & histological deficits in rats. Experimental Neurology. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.07.008. Epub ahead of print.

  297. Ueda, Y., Walker, S. A., & Povlishock, J. T. (2006). Perivascular nerve damage in the cerebral circulation following traumatic brain injury. Acta Neuropathologica, 112(1), 85–94. doi:10.1007/s00401-005-0029-5.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  298. Van Boven, R. W., Harrington, G. S., Hackney, D. B., Ebel, A., Gauger, G., Bremner, J. D., et al. (2009). Advances in neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 46(6), 717–757.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  299. van den Heuvel, M. P., & Sporns, O. (2011). Rich-club organization of the human connectome. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(44), 15775–15786. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3539-11.2011.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  300. van Veldhoven, L. M., Sander, A. M., Struchen, M. A., Sherer, M., Clark, A. N., Hudnall, G. E., et al. (2011). Predictive ability of preinjury stressful life events and post-traumatic stress symptoms for outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury: analysis in a prospective emergency room sample. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 82(7), 782–787. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.228254.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  301. Vasterling, J. J., Brailey, K., Proctor, S. P., Kane, R., Heeren, T., & Franz, M. (2012). Neuropsychological outcomes of mild traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in Iraq-deployed US Army soldiers. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 201(3), 186–192. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.096461.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  302. Vasterling, J. J., & Dikmen, S. (2012). Mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder: clinical and conceptual complexities. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS, 18(3), 390–393. doi:10.1017/S1355617712000367.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  303. Vernooij, M. W., Ikram, M. A., Tanghe, H. L., Vincent, A. J., Hofman, A., Krestin, G. P., et al. (2007). Incidental findings on brain MRI in the general population. The New England Journal of Medicine, 357(18), 1821–1828. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa070972.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  304. Vicente-Rodriguez, G., Rey-Lopez, J. P., Ruiz, J. R., Jimenez-Pavon, D., Bergman, P., Ciarapica, D., et al. (2011). Interrater reliability and time measurement validity of speed-agility field tests in adolescents. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(7), 2059–2063. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e742fe.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  305. Victoroff, J. (2013). Traumatic encephalopathy: review and provisional research diagnostic criteria. NeuroRehabilitation, 32(2), 211–224. doi:10.3233/NRE-130839.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  306. Virji-Babul, N., Borich, M. R., Makan, N., Moore, T., Frew, K., Emery, C. A., et al. (2013). Diffusion tensor imaging of sports-related concussion in adolescents. Pediatric Neurology, 48(1), 24–29. doi:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2012.09.005.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  307. Voelbel, G. T., Genova, H. M., Chiaravalotti, N. D., & Hoptman, M. J. (2012). Diffusion tensor imaging of traumatic brain injury review: implications for neurorehabilitation. NeuroRehabilitation, 31(3), 281–293. doi:10.3233/NRE-2012-0796.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  308. Wada, T., Asano, Y., & Shinoda, J. (2012). Decreased fractional anisotropy evaluated using tract-based spatial statistics and correlated with cognitive dysfunction in patients with mild traumatic brain injury in the chronic stage. AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 33(11), 2117–2122. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A3141.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  309. Waldstein, S. R., & Wendell, C. R. (2010). Neurocognitive function and cardiovascular disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 20(3), 833–842. doi:10.3233/JAD-2010-091591.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  310. Walker, K. R., & Tesco, G. (2013). Molecular mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury. Frontiers In Aging Neuroscience, 5, 29. doi:10.3389/fnagi.2013.00029.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  311. Wall, S. E., Williams, W. H., Cartwright-Hatton, S., Kelly, T. P., Murray, J., Murray, M., et al. (2006). Neuropsychological dysfunction following repeat concussions in jockeys. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 77(4), 518–520. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2004.061044.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  312. Watanabe, R., Katsuhara, T., Miyazaki, H., Kitagawa, Y., & Yasuki, T. (2012). Research of the relationship of pedestrian injury to collision speed, car-type, impact location and pedestrian sizes using human FE model (THUMS Version 4). Stapp Car Crash Journal, 56, 269–321.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  313. Weber, J. T. (2007). Experimental models of repetitive brain injuries. Progress in Brain Research, 161, 253–261. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(06)61018-2.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  314. Weighill, V. E. (1983). ‘Compensation neurosis’: a review of the literature. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 27(2), 97–104.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  315. Wilde, E. A., Bigler, E. D., Pedroza, C., & Ryser, D. K. (2006). Post-traumatic amnesia predicts long-term cerebral atrophy in traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 20(7), 695–699. doi:10.1080/02699050600744079.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  316. Wilde, E. A., Hunter, & Bigler, E. D. (2012). Pediatric traumatic brain injury: neuroimaging and neurorehabilitation outcome. NeuroRehabilitation, 31(3), 245–260. doi:10.3233/NRE-2012-0794.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  317. Wilde, E. A., McCauley, S. R., Hunter, J. V., Bigler, E. D., Chu, Z., Wang, Z. J., et al. (2008). Diffusion tensor imaging of acute mild traumatic brain injury in adolescents. Neurology, 70(12), 948–955. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000305961.68029.54.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  318. Williams, W. H., Potter, S., & Ryland, H. (2010). Mild traumatic brain injury and postconcussion syndrome: a neuropsychological perspective. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 81(10), 1116–1122. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2008.171298.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  319. Willmott, C., Ponsford, J., Hocking, C., & Schonberger, M. (2009). Factors contributing to attentional impairments after traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 23(4), 424–432. doi:10.1037/a0015058.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  320. Wilson, R. S., Arnold, S. E., Schneider, J. A., Li, Y., & Bennett, D. A. (2007). Chronic distress, age-related neuropathology, and late-life dementia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(1), 47–53. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000250264.25017.21.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  321. Wrightson, P., & Gronwall, D. (1999). Mild head injury: A guide to management. Oxford: New York.

    Google Scholar 

  322. Wu, T. C., Allen, M. D., Goodrich-Hunsaker, N. J., Hopkins, R. O., & Bigler, E. D. (2010a). Functional neuroimaging of symptom validity testing in traumatic brain injury. Psychological Injury and Law, 3, 50–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  323. Wu, T. C., Wilde, E. A., Bigler, E. D., Yallampalli, R., McCauley, S. R., Troyanskaya, M., et al. (2010b). Evaluating the relationship between memory functioning and cingulum bundles in acute mild traumatic brain injury using diffusion tensor imaging. Journal of Neurotrauma, 27(2), 303–307. doi:10.1089/neu.2009.1110.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  324. Wycoco, V., Shroff, M., Sudhakar, S., & Lee, W. (2013). White matter anatomy: what the radiologist needs to know. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, 23(2), 197–216. doi:10.1016/j.nic.2012.12.002.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  325. Yang, Z., Yeo, R. A., Pena, A., Ling, J. M., Klimaj, S., Campbell, R., et al. (2012). An FMRI study of auditory orienting and inhibition of return in pediatric mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 29(12), 2124–2136. doi:10.1089/neu.2012.2395.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  326. Yokobori, S., Watanabe, A., Matsumoto, G., Onda, H., Masuno, T., Fuse, A., et al. (2011). Time course of recovery from cerebral vulnerability after severe traumatic brain injury: a microdialysis study. The Journal of Trauma, 71(5), 1235–1240. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3182140dd7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  327. Yuh, E. L., Mukherjee, P., Lingsma, H. F., Yue, J. K., Ferguson, A. R., Gordon, W. A., et al. (2012). Magnetic resonance imaging improves 3-month outcome prediction in mild traumatic brain injury. Annals of Neurology. doi:10.1002/ana.23783.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  328. Zappala, G., Thiebaut de Schotten, M., & Eslinger, P. J. (2012). Traumatic brain injury and the frontal lobes: what can we gain with diffusion tensor imaging? Cortex, 48(2), 156–165. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2011.06.020.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  329. Zetterberg, H., Smith, D. H., & Blennow, K. (2013). Biomarkers of mild traumatic brain injury in cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Nature Reviews. Neurology. doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2013.9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  330. Zhang, K., Johnson, B., Gay, M., Horovitz, S. G., Hallett, M., Sebastianelli, W., et al. (2012). Default mode network in concussed individuals in response to the YMCA physical stress test. Journal of Neurotrauma, 29(5), 756–765. doi:10.1089/neu.2011.2125.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  331. Zhou, Y., Kierans, A., Kenul, D., Ge, Y., Rath, J., Reaume, J., et al. (2013). Mild traumatic brain injury: longitudinal regional brain volume changes. Radiology, 267(3), 880–890. doi:10.1148/radiol.13122542.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  332. Zhou, Y., & Lui, Y. W. (2013). Changes in brain organization after TBI: evidence from functional MRI findings. Neurology, 80(20), 1822–1823. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318292a37d.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  333. Zhou, Y., Milham, M. P., Lui, Y. W., Miles, L., Reaume, J., Sodickson, D. K., et al. (2012). Default-mode network disruption in mild traumatic brain injury. Radiology, 265(3), 882–892. doi:10.1148/radiol.12120748.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  334. Zhuo, J., Xu, S., Proctor, J. L., Mullins, R. J., Simon, J. Z., Fiskum, G., et al. (2012). Diffusion kurtosis as an in vivo imaging marker for reactive astrogliosis in traumatic brain injury. NeuroImage, 59(1), 467–477. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.050.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The assistance of Jo Ann Petrie, Ph.D. in the preparation of this manuscript is gratefully acknowledged as is the assistance of Tracy J. Abildskov in preparation of some of the illustrations.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Erin D. Bigler.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bigler, E.D. Neuroimaging Biomarkers in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). Neuropsychol Rev 23, 169–209 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-013-9237-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)
  • Concussion
  • Neuropsychology
  • Neuroimaging
  • Biomarkers
  • Neuropathology
  • Brain damage
  • Cognitive and neurobehavioral sequelae