Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 117–137 | Cite as

Effects of Cannabis on Neurocognitive Functioning: Recent Advances, Neurodevelopmental Influences, and Sex Differences

  • Natania A. Crane
  • Randi Melissa Schuster
  • Paolo Fusar-Poli
  • Raul GonzalezEmail author


Decades of research have examined the effects of cannabis on neurocognition. Recent advances in this field provide us with a better understanding of how cannabis use influences neurocognition both acutely (during intoxication) and non-acutely (after acute effects subside). Evidence of problems with episodic memory is one of the most consistent findings reported; however, several other neurocognitive domains appear to be adversely affected by cannabis use under various conditions. There is significant variability in findings across studies, thus a discussion of potential moderators is increasingly relevant. The purpose of this review was to 1) provide an update on research of cannabis’ acute and non-acute effects on neurocognition, with a focus on findings since 2007 and 2) suggest and discuss how neurodevelopmental issues and sex differences may influence cannabis effects on neurocognition. Finally we discuss how future investigations may lead to better understanding of the complex interplay among cannabis, stages of neurodevelopment, and sex on neurocognitive functioning.


Cannabis Cognition Marijuana Neuropsychology Sex differences THC 



This review was made possible by grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (K23 DA023560, R01 DA031176, and R01 DA033156, PI: Gonzalez) and (F31 DA032244-01, PI: Schuster). Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of NIDA or the National Institutes of Health.


  1. Abdullaev, Y., Posner, M. I., Nunnally, R., & Dishion, T. J. (2010). Functional MRI evidence for inefficient attentional control in adolescent chronic cannabis abuse. Behavioural Brain Research, 215(1), 45–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abush, H., & Akirav, I. (2012). Short- and long-term cognitive effects of chronic cannabinoids administration in late-adolescence rats. PLoS One, 7(2), e31731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aharonovich, E., Brooks, A. C., Nunes, E. V., & Hasin, D. S. (2008). Cognitive deficits in marijuana users: effects on motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive behavioral therapy treatment outcome. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95(3), 279–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, B. M., Rizzo, M., Block, R. I., Pearlson, G. D., & O’Leary, D. S. (2010). Sex, drugs, and cognition: effects of marijuana. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 42(4), 413–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asbridge, M., Hayden, J. A., & Cartwright, J. L. (2012). Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: systematic review of observational studies and meta-analysis. BMJ, 344, e536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ballard, M. E., Gallo, D. A., & de Wit, H. (2012). Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition. Psychopharmacology, 219(1), 15–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Battisti, R. A., Roodenrys, S., Johnstone, S. J., Pesa, N., Hermens, D. F., & Solowij, N. (2010). Chronic cannabis users show altered neurophysiological functioning on Stroop task conflict resolution. Psychopharmacology, 212(4), 613–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Battisti, R. A., Roodenrys, S., Johnstone, S. J., Respondek, C., Hermens, D. F., & Solowij, N. (2010). Chronic use of cannabis and poor neural efficiency in verbal memory ability. Psychopharmacology, 209(4), 319–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bava, S., & Tapert, S. F. (2010). Adolescent brain development and the risk for alcohol and other drug problems. Neuropsychology Review, 20(4), 398–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bechara, A. (2005). Decision making, impulse control and loss of willpower to resist drugs: a neurocognitive perspective. Nature Neuroscience, 8(11), 1458–1463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker, B., Wagner, D., Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E., Spuentrup, E., & Daumann, J. (2010). The impact of early-onset cannabis use on functional brain correlates of working memory. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 34(6), 837–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhattacharyya, S., Fusar-Poli, P., Borgwardt, S., Martin-Santos, R., Nosarti, C., O’Carroll, C., et al. (2009). Modulation of mediotemporal and ventrostriatal function in humans by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a neural basis for the effects of Cannabis sativa on learning and psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(4), 442–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhattacharyya, S., Morrison, P. D., Fusar-Poli, P., Martin-Santos, R., Borgwardt, S., Winton-Brown, T., et al. (2010). Opposite effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on human brain function and psychopathology. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35(3), 764–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhattacharyya, S., Crippa, J. A., Allen, P., Martin-Santos, R., Borgwardt, S., Fusar-Poli, P., et al. (2012). Induction of psychosis by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol reflects modulation of prefrontal and striatal function during attentional salience processing. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(1), 27–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boggio, P. S., Zaghi, S., Villani, A. B., Fecteau, S., Pascual-Leone, A., & Fregni, F. (2010). Modulation of risk-taking in marijuana users by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 112(3), 220–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolla, K. I., Eldreth, D. A., Matochik, J. A., & Cadet, J. L. (2004). Sex-related differences in a gambling task and its neurological correlates. Cerebral Cortex, 14(11), 1226–1232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bolla, K. I., Eldreth, D. A., Matochik, J. A., & Cadet, J. L. (2005). Neural substrates of faulty decision-making in abstinent marijuana users. NeuroImage, 26(2), 480–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Borgwardt, S. J., Allen, P., Bhattacharyya, S., Fusar-Poli, P., Crippa, J. A., Seal, M. L., et al. (2008). Neural basis of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol: effects during response inhibition. Biological Psychiatry, 64(11), 966–973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bossong, M. G., Jager, G., van Hell, H. H., Zuurman, L., Jansma, J. M., Mehta, M. A., et al. (2012). Effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration on human encoding and recall memory function: a pharmacological FMRI study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(3), 588–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bossong, M. G., Jansma, J. M., van Hell, H. H., Jager, G., Oudman, E., Saliasi, E., et al. (2012). Effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human working memory function. Biological Psychiatry, 71(8), 693–699.Google Scholar
  21. Bradshaw, H. B., Rimmerman, N., Krey, J. F., & Walker, J. M. (2006). Sex and hormonal cycle differences in rat brain levels of pain-related cannabimimetic lipid mediators. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 291(2), R349–R358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burgdorf, J. R., Kilmer, B., & Pacula, R. L. (2011). Heterogeneity in the composition of marijuana seized in California. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 117(1), 59–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burston, J. J., Wiley, J. L., Craig, A. A., Selley, D. E., & Sim-Selley, L. J. (2010). Regional enhancement of cannabinoid CB1 receptor desensitization in female adolescent rats following repeated Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure. British Journal of Pharmacology, 161(1), 103–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Busemeyer, J. R., & Stout, J. C. (2002). A contribution of cognitive decision models to clinical assessment: decomposing performance on the Bechara gambling task. Psychological Assessment, 14(3), 253–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cane, J. E., Sharma, D., & Albery, I. P. (2009). The addiction Stroop task: examining the fast and slow effects of smoking and marijuana-related cues. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 23(5), 510–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cha, Y. M., Jones, K. H., Kuhn, C. M., Wilson, W. A., & Swartzwelder, H. S. (2007). Sex differences in the effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spatial learning in adolescent and adult rats. Behavioural Pharmacology, 18(5–6), 563–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chang, L., Yakupov, R., Cloak, C., & Ernst, T. (2006). Marijuana use is associated with a reorganized visual-attention network and cerebellar hypoactivation. Brain, 129(Pt 5), 1096–1112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clark, L., Cools, R., & Robbins, T. W. (2004). The neuropsychology of ventral prefrontal cortex: decision-making and reversal learning. Brain and Cognition, 55(1), 41–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clark, L., Roiser, J. P., Robbins, T. W., & Sahakian, B. J. (2009). Disrupted ‘reflection’ impulsivity in cannabis users but not current or former ecstasy users. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 23(1), 14–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cocchetto, D. M., Owens, S. M., Perez-Reyes, M., DiGuiseppi, S., & Miller, L. L. (1981). Relationship between plasma delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol concentration and pharmacologic effects in man. Psychopharmacology, 75(2), 158–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cohen, P. J. (2010). Medical marijuana 2010: it’s time to fix the regulatory vacuum. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 38(3), 654–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Compton, W. M., Grant, B. F., Colliver, J. D., Glantz, M. D., & Stinson, F. S. (2004). Prevalence of marijuana use disorders in the United States: 1991–1992 and 2001–2002. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(17), 2114–2121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crean, R. D., Crane, N. A., & Mason, B. J. (2011). An evidence based review of acute and long-term effects of cannabis Use on executive cognitive functions. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 5(1), 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Crippa, J. A., Zuardi, A. W., Martin-Santos, R., Bhattacharyya, S., Atakan, Z., McGuire, P., et al. (2009). Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence. Human Psychopharmacology, 24(7), 515–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Crippa, J. A., Derenusson, G. N., Ferrari, T. B., Wichert-Ana, L., Duran, F. L., Martin-Santos, R., et al. (2011). Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(1), 121–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cunha, P. J., Nicastri, S., de Andrade, A. G., & Bolla, K. I. (2010). The frontal assessment battery (FAB) reveals neurocognitive dysfunction in substance-dependent individuals in distinct executive domains: abstract reasoning, motor programming, and cognitive flexibility. Addictive Behaviors, 35(10), 875–881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. de Wit, H. (2009). Impulsivity as a determinant and consequence of drug use: a review of underlying processes. Addiction Biology, 14(1), 22–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Drummer, O. H., Gerostamoulos, J., Batziris, H., Chu, M., Caplehorn, J. R., Robertson, M. D., et al. (2003). The incidence of drugs in drivers killed in Australian road traffic crashes. Forensic Science International, 134(2–3), 154–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. D’Souza, D. C., Braley, G., Blaise, R., Vendetti, M., Oliver, S., Pittman, B., et al. (2008). Effects of haloperidol on the behavioral, subjective, cognitive, motor, and neuroendocrine effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans. Psychopharmacology, 198(4), 587–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. D’Souza, D. C., Ranganathan, M., Braley, G., Gueorguieva, R., Zimolo, Z., Cooper, T., et al. (2008). Blunted psychotomimetic and amnestic effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in frequent users of cannabis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33(10), 2505–2516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dumont, G. J., van Hasselt, J. G., de Kam, M., van Gerven, J. M., Touw, D. J., Buitelaar, J. K., et al. (2011). Acute psychomotor, memory and subjective effects of MDMA and THC co-administration over time in healthy volunteers. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(4), 478–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Durston, S., Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Casey, B. J., Giedd, J. N., Buitelaar, J. K., & van Engeland, H. (2001). Anatomical MRI of the developing human brain: what have we learned? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(9), 1012–1020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ehrenreich, H., Rinn, T., Kunert, H. J., Moeller, M. R., Poser, W., Schilling, L., et al. (1999). Specific attentional dysfunction in adults following early start of cannabis use. Psychopharmacology, 142(3), 295–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Elikkottil, J., Gupta, P., & Gupta, K. (2009). The analgesic potential of cannabinoids. Journal of Opioid Management, 5(6), 341–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ellis, R. J., Toperoff, W., Vaida, F., van den Brande, G., Gonzales, J., Gouaux, B., et al. (2009). Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34(3), 672–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Elsohly, M. A., & Slade, D. (2005). Chemical constituents of marijuana: the complex mixture of natural cannabinoids. Life Sciences, 78(5), 539–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fairfield, K. M., Eisenberg, D. M., Davis, R. B., Libman, H., & Phillips, R. S. (1998). Patterns of use, expenditures, and perceived efficacy of complementary and alternative therapies in HIV-infected patients. Archives of Internal Medicine, 158(20), 2257–2264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fattore, L., Spano, M. S., Altea, S., Angius, F., Fadda, P., & Fratta, W. (2007). Cannabinoid self-administration in rats: sex differences and the influence of ovarian function. British Journal of Pharmacology, 152(5), 795–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fernandez-Serrano, M. J., Perez-Garcia, M., Schmidt Rio-Valle, J., & Verdejo-Garcia, A. (2010). Neuropsychological consequences of alcohol and drug abuse on different components of executive functions. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 24(9), 1317–1332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fernandez-Serrano, M. J., Perez-Garcia, M., & Verdejo-Garcia, A. (2011). What are the specific vs. generalized effects of drugs of abuse on neuropsychological performance? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(3), 377–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ferraro, D. P. (1980). Acute effects of marijuana on human memory and cognition. NIDA Research Monograph, 31, 98–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fisk, J. E., & Montgomery, C. (2008). Real-world memory and executive processes in cannabis users and non-users. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(7), 727–736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fontes, M. A., Bolla, K. I., Cunha, P. J., Almeida, P. P., Jungerman, F., Laranjeira, R. R., et al. (2011a). Cannabis use before age 15 and subsequent executive functioning. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 198(6), 442–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fontes, M. A., Bolla, K. I., Cunha, P. J., Almeida, P. P., Jungerman, F., Laranjeira, R. R., et al. (2011b). Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is a simple tool for detecting executive deficits in chronic cannabis users. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(5), 523–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fridberg, D. J., Queller, S., Ahn, W. Y., Kim, W., Bishara, A. J., Busemeyer, J. R., et al. (2010). Cognitive mechanisms underlying risky decision-making in chronic cannabis users. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 54(1), 28–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fusar-Poli, P., & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2012a). Striatal presynaptic dopamine in schizophrenia, Part I: meta-analysis of dopamine active transporter (DAT) density. Schizophrenia Bulletin. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbr111.
  57. Fusar-Poli, P., & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2012b). Striatal presynaptic dopamine in schizophrenia, Part II: meta-analysis of [18F/11C]-DOPA PET studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbr180.
  58. Fusar-Poli, P., Crippa, J. A., Bhattacharyya, S., Borgwardt, S. J., Allen, P., Martin-Santos, R., et al. (2009). Distinct effects of {delta}9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(1), 95–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Fusar-Poli, P., Allen, P., Bhattacharyya, S., Crippa, J. A., Mechelli, A., Borgwardt, S., et al. (2010a). Modulation of effective connectivity during emotional processing by Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 13(4), 421–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fusar-Poli, P., Howes, O. D., Allen, P., Broome, M., Valli, I., Asselin, M. C., et al. (2010b). Abnormal frontostriatal interactions in people with prodromal signs of psychosis: a multimodal imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 683–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fusar-Poli, P., Borgwardt, S., Crescini, A., Deste, G., Kempton, M. J., Lawrie, S., et al. (2011a). Neuroanatomy of vulnerability to psychosis: a voxel-based meta-analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(5), 1175–1185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Fusar-Poli, P., Howes, O. D., Allen, P., Broome, M., Valli, I., Asselin, M. C., et al. (2011b). Abnormal prefrontal activation directly related to pre-synaptic striatal dopamine dysfunction in people at clinical high risk for psychosis. Molecular Psychiatry, 16(1), 67–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fusar-Poli, P., Radua, J., McGuire, P., & Borgwardt, S. (2011c). Neuroanatomical maps of psychosis onset: voxel-wise meta-analysis of antipsychotic-naive VBM studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbr134.
  64. Fusar-Poli, P., Stone, J. M., Broome, M. R., Valli, I., Mechelli, A., McLean, M. A., et al. (2011d). Thalamic glutamate levels as a predictor of cortical response during executive functioning in subjects at high risk for psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(9), 881–890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fusar-Poli, P., Bechdolf, A., Taylor, M. J., Bonoldi, I., Carpenter, W. T., Yung, A. R., et al. (2012). At risk for schizophrenic or affective psychoses? A meta-analysis of DSM/ICD diagnostic outcomes in individuals at high clinical risk. Schizophrenia Bulletin. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbs060.
  66. Fusar-Poli, P., Borgwardt, S., Bechdolf, A., Addington, J., Riecher-Rössler, A., Schultze-Lutter, F., et al. (in press). The psychosis high risk state: a comprehensive state of the art review. Archives of General Psychiatry. Google Scholar
  67. Gfroerer, J. C., & Epstein, J. F. (1999). Marijuana initiates and their impact on future drug abuse treatment need. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 54(3), 229–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Giedd, J. N. (2004). Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 77–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Giedd, J. N., Blumenthal, J., Jeffries, N. O., Castellanos, F. X., Liu, H., Zijdenbos, A., et al. (1999). Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study. Nature Neuroscience, 2(10), 861–863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gogtay, N., Giedd, J. N., Lusk, L., Hayashi, K. M., Greenstein, D., Vaituzis, A. C., et al. (2004). Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(21), 8174–8179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Goldstein, R. Z., & Volkow, N. D. (2002). Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(10), 1642–1652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gonzalez, R. (2007). Acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on brain functioning and neuropsychological performance. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 347–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gonzalez, S., Mauriello-Romanazzi, G., Berrendero, F., Ramos, J. A., Franzoni, M. F., & Fernandez-Ruiz, J. (2000). Decreased cannabinoid CB1 receptor mRNA levels and immunoreactivity in pituitary hyperplasia induced by prolonged exposure to estrogens. Pituitary, 3(4), 221–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., & Grant, I. (2002). Nonacute (residual) neuropsychological effects of cannabis use: a qualitative analysis and systematic review. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 42(11 Suppl), 48S–57S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Gonzalez, R., Rippeth, J. D., Carey, C. L., Heaton, R. K., Moore, D. J., Schweinsburg, B. C., et al. (2004). Neurocognitive performance of methamphetamine users discordant for history of marijuana exposure. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 76(2), 181–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gonzalez, R., Bechara, A., & Martin, E. M. (2007). Executive functions among individuals with methamphetamine or alcohol as drugs of choice: preliminary observations. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 29(2), 155–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gonzalez, R., Vassileva, J., & Scott, J. C. (2009). Neuropsychological consequences of drug abuse. In I. Grant & K. M. Adams (Eds.), Neuropsychological Assessment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders (3rd ed., pp. 455–479). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Gonzalez, R., Schuster, R. M., Vassileva, J., & Martin, E. M. (2011). Impact of HIV and a history of marijuana dependence on procedural learning among individuals with a history of substance dependence. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(7), 735–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gonzalez, R., Schuster, R.M., Crane, N.A., Martin, E.M., Vassileva, J. (2012). Decision-Making Performance Influences the Relationship between Amount of Cannabis use and its Negative Consequences. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 18. doi: 10.1017/S1355617712000549.
  80. Gonzalez, R., Schuster, R. M., Mermelstein, R. J., Vassileva, J., Martin, E. M., & Diviak, K. R. (2012). Performance of young adult cannabis users on neurocognitive measures of impulsive behavior and their relationships to symptoms of cannabis use disorders. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2012.703642
  81. Gorzalka, B. B., Hill, M. N., & Hillard, C. J. (2008). Regulation of endocannabinoid signaling by stress: implications for stress-related affective disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32(6), 1152–1160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C. L., Natarajan, L., & Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: a meta-analytic study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9(5), 679–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Grant, J. E., Chamberlain, S. R., Schreiber, L., & Odlaug, B. L. (2011). Neuropsychological deficits associated with cannabis use in young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 121(1-2), 159–162.Google Scholar
  84. Gruber, S. A., Sagar, K. A., Dahlgren, M. K., Racine, M., & Lukas, S. E. (2012). Age of onset of marijuana use and executive function. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26(3), 496–506.Google Scholar
  85. Gruber, S. A., Dahlgren, M. K., Sagar, K. A., Gonenc, A., & Killgore, W. D. (2012). Age of onset of marijuana use impacts inhibitory processing. Neuroscience Letters, 511(2), 89–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gur, R. C., Richard, J., Calkins, M. E., Chiavacci, R., Hansen, J. A., Bilker, W. B., et al. (2012). Age group and sex differences in performance on a computerized neurocognitive battery in children age 8–21. Neuropsychology, 26(2), 251–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hadjiefthyvoulou, F., Fisk, J. E., Montgomery, C., & Bridges, N. (2011). Prospective memory functioning among ecstasy/polydrug users: evidence from the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT). Psychopharmacology, 215(4), 761–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hampson, A. J., Grimaldi, M., Axelrod, J., & Wink, D. (1998). Cannabidiol and (−)Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(14), 8268–8273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hanson, K. L., Winward, J. L., Schweinsburg, A. D., Medina, K. L., Brown, S. A., & Tapert, S. F. (2010). Longitudinal study of cognition among adolescent marijuana users over three weeks of abstinence. Addictive Behaviors, 35(11), 970–976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hart, C. L., Ilan, A. B., Gevins, A., Gunderson, E. W., Role, K., Colley, J., et al. (2010). Neurophysiological and cognitive effects of smoked marijuana in frequent users. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 96(3), 333–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Harte, L. C., & Dow-Edwards, D. (2010). Sexually dimorphic alterations in locomotion and reversal learning after adolescent tetrahydrocannabinol exposure in the rat. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 32(5), 515–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Harvey, M. A., Sellman, J. D., Porter, R. J., & Frampton, C. M. (2007). The relationship between non-acute adolescent cannabis use and cognition. Drug and Alcohol Review, 26(3), 309–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hermann, D., Sartorius, A., Welzel, H., Walter, S., Skopp, G., Ende, G., et al. (2007). Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) loss in male recreational cannabis users. Biological Psychiatry, 61(11), 1281–1289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hermann, D., Lemenager, T., Gelbke, J., Welzel, H., Skopp, G., & Mann, K. (2009). Decision making of heavy cannabis users on the Iowa Gambling Task: stronger association with THC of hair analysis than with personality traits of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. European Addiction Research, 15(2), 94–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hernandez-Avila, C. A., Rounsaville, B. J., & Kranzler, H. R. (2004). Opioid-, cannabis- and alcohol-dependent women show more rapid progression to substance abuse treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 74(3), 265–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hester, R., Nestor, L., & Garavan, H. (2009). Impaired error awareness and anterior cingulate cortex hypoactivity in chronic cannabis users. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34(11), 2450–2458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Huestegge, L., Kunert, H. J., & Radach, R. (2010). Long-term effects of cannabis on eye movement control in reading. Psychopharmacology, 209(1), 77–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hunault, C. C., Mensinga, T. T., Bocker, K. B., Schipper, C. M., Kruidenier, M., Leenders, M. E., et al. (2009). Cognitive and psychomotor effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Psychopharmacology, 204(1), 85–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Indlekofer, F., Piechatzek, M., Daamen, M., Glasmacher, C., Lieb, R., Pfister, H., et al. (2009). Reduced memory and attention performance in a population-based sample of young adults with a moderate lifetime use of cannabis, ecstasy and alcohol. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 23(5), 495–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Iversen, L. (2003). Cannabis and the brain. Brain, 126(6), 1252–1270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Jacobsen, L. K., Mencl, W. E., Westerveld, M., & Pugh, K. R. (2004). Impact of cannabis use on brain function in adolescents. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 384–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Jacobsen, L. K., Pugh, K. R., Constable, R. T., Westerveld, M., & Mencl, W. E. (2007). Functional correlates of verbal memory deficits emerging during nicotine withdrawal in abstinent adolescent cannabis users. Biological Psychiatry, 61(1), 31–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Jacobus, J., McQueeny, T., Bava, S., Schweinsburg, B. C., Frank, L. R., Yang, T. T., et al. (2009). White matter integrity in adolescents with histories of marijuana use and binge drinking. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 31(6), 349–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Jager, G., & Ramsey, N. F. (2008). Long-term consequences of adolescent cannabis exposure on the development of cognition, brain structure and function: an overview of animal and human research. Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 1(2), 114–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Jager, G., Kahn, R. S., Van Den Brink, W., Van Ree, J. M., & Ramsey, N. F. (2006). Long-term effects of frequent cannabis use on working memory and attention: an fMRI study. Psychopharmacology, 185(3), 358–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Jager, G., Van Hell, H. H., De Win, M. M., Kahn, R. S., Van Den Brink, W., Van Ree, J. M., et al. (2007). Effects of frequent cannabis use on hippocampal activity during an associative memory task. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 17(4), 289–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Jager, G., Block, R. I., Luijten, M., & Ramsey, N. F. (2010). Cannabis use and memory brain function in adolescent boys: a cross-sectional multicenter functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(6), 561–572, 572 e561-563.Google Scholar
  108. Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2012). Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2011. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  109. Kalant, H. (2004). Adverse effects of cannabis on health: an update of the literature since 1996. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 28(5), 849–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. King, G. R., Ernst, T., Deng, W., Stenger, A., Gonzales, R. M., Nakama, H., et al. (2011). Altered brain activation during visuomotor integration in chronic active cannabis users: relationship to cortisol levels. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(49), 17923–17931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Korver, N., Nieman, D. H., Becker, H. E., van de Fliert, J. R., Dingemans, P. H., de Haan, L., et al. (2010). Symptomatology and neuropsychological functioning in cannabis using subjects at ultra-high risk for developing psychosis and healthy controls. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(3), 230–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kramer, J. H., Delis, D. C., & Daniel, M. (1988). Sex-differences in verbal-learning. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44(6), 907–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lane, S. D., Cherek, D. R., Tcheremissine, O. V., Lieving, L. M., & Pietras, C. J. (2005). Acute marijuana effects on human risk taking. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30(4), 800–809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lane, S. D., Cherek, D. R., Tcheremissine, O. V., Steinberg, J. L., & Sharon, J. L. (2007). Response perseveration and adaptation in heavy marijuana-smoking adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 32(5), 977–990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Lastres-Becker, I., Molina-Holgado, F., Ramos, J. A., Mechoulam, R., & Fernandez-Ruiz, J. (2005). Cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity in vivo and in vitro: relevance to Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiology of Disease, 19(1–2), 96–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lenroot, R. K., Gogtay, N., Greenstein, D. K., Wells, E. M., Wallace, G. L., Clasen, L. S., et al. (2007). Sexual dimorphism of brain developmental trajectories during childhood and adolescence. NeuroImage, 36(4), 1065–1073.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Li, M. C., Brady, J. E., DiMaggio, C. J., Lusardi, A. R., Tzong, K. Y., & Li, G. (2012). Marijuana use and motor vehicle crashes. Epidemiologic Reviews, 34(1), 65–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Looby, A., & Earleywine, M. (2010). Gender moderates the impact of stereotype threat on cognitive function in cannabis users. Addictive Behaviors, 35(9), 834–839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Lopez, H. H. (2010). Cannabinoid-hormone interactions in the regulation of motivational processes. Hormones and Behavior, 58(1), 100–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mackie, K. (2005). Distribution of cannabinoid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous system. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, 168, 299–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mahmood, O. M., Jacobus, J., Bava, S., Scarlett, A., & Tapert, S. F. (2010). Learning and memory performances in adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana: interactive effects. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71(6), 885–894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Makela, P., Wakeley, J., Gijsman, H., Robson, P. J., Bhagwagar, Z., & Rogers, R. D. (2006). Low doses of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have divergent effects on short-term spatial memory in young, healthy adults. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31(2), 462–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Malone, D. T., Hill, M. N., & Rubino, T. (2010). Adolescent cannabis use and psychosis: epidemiology and neurodevelopmental models. British Journal of Pharmacology, 160(3), 511–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Martin-Santos, R., Fagundo, A. B., Crippa, J. A., Atakan, Z., Bhattacharyya, S., Allen, P., Fusar-Poli, P., Borgwardt, S., Seal, M., Busatto, G. F., & McGuire, P. (2010). Neuroimaging in cannabis use: a systematic review of the literature. Psychological Medicine, 40(3), 383–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Martin-Soelch, C., Kobel, M., Stoecklin, M., Michael, T., Weber, S., Krebs, B., et al. (2009). Reduced response to reward in smokers and cannabis users. Neuropsychobiology, 60(2), 94–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Mason, B. J., Crean, R., Goodell, V., Light, J. M., Quello, S., Shadan, F., et al. (2012). A proof-of-concept randomized controlled study of gabapentin: effects on cannabis use, withdrawal and executive function deficits in cannabis-dependent adults. Neuropsychopharmacology, 37(7), 1689–1698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mateos, B., Borcel, E., Loriga, R., Luesu, W., Bini, V., Llorente, R., et al. (2011). Adolescent exposure to nicotine and/or the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 induces gender-dependent long-lasting memory impairments and changes in brain nicotinic and CB(1) cannabinoid receptors. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(12), 1676–1690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. McDonald, J., Schleifer, L., Richards, J. B., & de Wit, H. (2003). Effects of THC on behavioral measures of impulsivity in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28(7), 1356–1365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. McHale, S., & Hunt, N. (2008). Executive function deficits in short-term abstinent cannabis users. Human Psychopharmacology, 23(5), 409–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. McQueeny, T., Padula, C. B., Price, J., Medina, K. L., Logan, P., & Tapert, S. F. (2011). Gender effects on amygdala morphometry in adolescent marijuana users. Behavioural Brain Research, 224(1), 128–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Mechoulam, R., Spatz, M., & Shohami, E. (2002). Endocannabinoids and neuroprotection. Science Signaling, 2002(129), re5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mechoulam, R., Peters, M., Murillo-Rodriguez, E., & Hanus, L. O. (2007). Cannabidiol–recent advances. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 4(8), 1678–1692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Medina, K. L., Hanson, K. L., Schweinsburg, A. D., Cohen-Zion, M., Nagel, B. J., & Tapert, S. F. (2007). Neuropsychological functioning in adolescent marijuana users: subtle deficits detectable after a month of abstinence. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13(5), 807–820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Medina, K. L., Schweinsburg, A. D., Cohen-Zion, M., Nagel, B. J., & Tapert, S. F. (2007). Effects of alcohol and combined marijuana and alcohol use during adolescence on hippocampal volume and asymmetry. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 29(1), 141–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Medina, K. L., McQueeny, T., Nagel, B. J., Hanson, K. L., Yang, T. T., & Tapert, S. F. (2009). Prefrontal cortex morphometry in abstinent adolescent marijuana users: subtle gender effects. Addiction Biology, 14(4), 457–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Moeller, F. G., Barratt, E. S., Dougherty, D. M., Schmitz, J. M., & Swann, A. C. (2001). Psychiatric aspects of impulsivity. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(11), 1783–1793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Montgomery, C., Seddon, A. L., Fisk, J. E., Murphy, P. N., & Jansari, A. (2012). Cannabis-related deficits in real-world memory. Human Psychopharmacology, 27(2), 217–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Morgan, C. J., Gardener, C., Schafer, G., Swan, S., Demarchi, C., Freeman, T. P., et al. (2012). Sub-chronic impact of cannabinoids in street cannabis on cognition, psychotic-like symptoms and psychological well-being. Psychological Medicine, 42(2), 391–400.Google Scholar
  139. Morgan, C. J., Schafer, G., Freeman, T. P., & Curran, H. V. (2010). Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: naturalistic study: naturalistic study [corrected]. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 197(4), 285–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Morrison, P. D., Zois, V., McKeown, D. A., Lee, T. D., Holt, D. W., Powell, J. F., et al. (2009). The acute effects of synthetic intravenous Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on psychosis, mood and cognitive functioning. Psychological Medicine, 39(10), 1607–1616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Mura, P., Kintz, P., Ludes, B., Gaulier, J. M., Marquet, P., Martin-Dupont, S., et al. (2003). Comparison of the prevalence of alcohol, cannabis and other drugs between 900 injured drivers and 900 control subjects: results of a French collaborative study. Forensic Science International, 133(1–2), 79–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Murphy, L. L., Steger, R. W., Smith, M. S., & Bartke, A. (1990). Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol and cannabidiol, alone and in combinations, on luteinizing hormone and prolactin release and on hypothalamic neurotransmitters in the male rat. Neuroendocrinology, 52(4), 316–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Murphy, L. L., Newton, S. C., Dhali, J., & Chavez, D. (1991). Evidence for a direct anterior pituitary site of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol action. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 40(3), 603–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Murphy, L. L., Rodriguez de Fonseca, F., & Steger, R. W. (1991). delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol antagonism of the anterior pituitary response to estradiol in immature female rats. Steroids, 56(2), 97–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Murphy, L. L., Gher, J., Steger, R. W., & Bartke, A. (1994). Effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on copulatory behavior and neuroendocrine responses of male rats to female conspecifics. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 48(4), 1011–1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Murphy, L. L., Adrian, B. A., & Kohli, M. (1999). Inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the ovariectomized rat: effect of pretreatment with neurotransmitter or neuropeptide receptor antagonists. Steroids, 64(9), 664–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Murphy, P. N., Erwin, P. G., Maciver, L., Fisk, J. E., Larkin, D., Wareing, M., et al. (2011). The relationships of ‘ecstasy’ (MDMA) and cannabis use to impaired executive inhibition and access to semantic long-term memory. Human Psychopharmacology, 26(7), 460–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Narimatsu, S., Watanabe, K., Yamamoto, I., & Yoshimura, H. (1991). Sex difference in the oxidative metabolism of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat. Biochemical Pharmacology, 41(8), 1187–1194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Nestor, L., Roberts, G., Garavan, H., & Hester, R. (2008). Deficits in learning and memory: parahippocampal hyperactivity and frontocortical hypoactivity in cannabis users. NeuroImage, 40(3), 1328–1339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Newman, J. L., & Mello, N. K. (2009). Neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones and drug addiction in women. In K. T. Brady, S. E. Back, & S. F. Greenfield (Eds.), Women and Addiction: A Comprehensive Textbook (pp. 35–64). New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  151. Nixon, S. J., Paul, R., & Phillips, M. (1998). Cognitive efficiency in alcoholics and polysubstance abusers. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 22(7), 1414–1420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. O’Connell, T. J., & Bou-Matar, C. B. (2007). Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001–2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants. Harm Reduction Journal, 4, 16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. O’Leary, D. S., Block, R. I., Koeppel, J. A., Schultz, S. K., Magnotta, V. A., Ponto, L. B., et al. (2007). Effects of smoking marijuana on focal attention and brain blood flow. Human Psychopharmacology, 22(3), 135–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. O’Shea, M., Singh, M. E., McGregor, I. S., & Mallet, P. E. (2004). Chronic cannabinoid exposure produces lasting memory impairment and increased anxiety in adolescent but not adult rats. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 18(4), 502–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. O’Shea, M., McGregor, I. S., & Mallet, P. E. (2006). Repeated cannabinoid exposure during perinatal, adolescent or early adult ages produces similar longlasting deficits in object recognition and reduced social interaction in rats. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20(5), 611–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Overman, W. H., Frassrand, K., Ansel, S., Trawalter, S., Bies, B., & Redmond, A. (2004). Performance on the IOWA card task by adolescents and adults. Neuropsychologia, 42(13), 1838–1851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Padula, C. B., Schweinsburg, A. D., & Tapert, S. F. (2007). Spatial working memory performance and fMRI activation interaction in abstinent adolescent marijuana users. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 21(4), 478–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Perkins, K. A., Levine, M., Marcus, M., Shiffman, S., D’Amico, D., Miller, A., et al. (2000). Tobacco withdrawal in women and menstrual cycle phase. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 176–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Pertwee, R. G. (2008). Ligands that target cannabinoid receptors in the brain: from THC to anandamide and beyond. Addiction Biology, 13(2), 147–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Piechatzek, M., Indlekofer, F., Daamen, M., Glasmacher, C., Lieb, R., Pfister, H., et al. (2009). Is moderate substance use associated with altered executive functioning in a population-based sample of young adults? Human Psychopharmacology, 24(8), 650–665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Pillay, S. S., Rogowska, J., Kanayama, G., Gruber, S., Simpson, N., Pope, H. G., et al. (2008). Cannabis and motor function: fMRI changes following 28 days of discontinuation. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 16(1), 22–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Piomelli, D. (2003). The molecular logic of endocannabinoid signalling. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4(11), 873–884.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Pope, H. G., Jr., Gruber, A. J., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. (1995). The residual neuropsychological effects of cannabis: the current status of research. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 38(1), 25–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Pope, H. G., Jr., Jacobs, A., Mialet, J. P., Yurgelun-Todd, D., & Gruber, S. (1997). Evidence for a sex-specific residual effect of cannabis on visuospatial memory. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 66(4), 179–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Pope, H. G., Jr., Gruber, A. J., Hudson, J. I., Cohane, G., Huestis, M. A., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2003). Early-onset cannabis use and cognitive deficits: what is the nature of the association? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 69(3), 303–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Quinn, H. R., Matsumoto, I., Callaghan, P. D., Long, L. E., Arnold, J. C., Gunasekaran, N., et al. (2008). Adolescent rats find repeated Delta(9)-THC less aversive than adult rats but display greater residual cognitive deficits and changes in hippocampal protein expression following exposure. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33(5), 1113–1126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Ramaekers, J. G., Berghaus, G., van Laar, M., & Drummer, O. H. (2004). Dose related risk of motor vehicle crashes after cannabis use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 73(2), 109–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Ramaekers, J. G., Kauert, G., Theunissen, E. L., Toennes, S. W., & Moeller, M. R. (2009). Neurocognitive performance during acute THC intoxication in heavy and occasional cannabis users. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 23(3), 266–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Ramaekers, J. G., Theunissen, E. L., de Brouwer, M., Toennes, S. W., Moeller, M. R., & Kauert, G. (2011). Tolerance and cross-tolerance to neurocognitive effects of THC and alcohol in heavy cannabis users. Psychopharmacology, 214(2), 391–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Ranganathan, M., & D’Souza, D. C. (2006). The acute effects of cannabinoids on memory in humans: a review. Psychopharmacology, 188(4), 425–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Realini, N., Rubino, T., & Parolaro, D. (2009). Neurobiological alterations at adult age triggered by adolescent exposure to cannabinoids. Pharmacological Research, 60(2), 132–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Reavis, R., & Overman, W. H. (2001). Adult sex differences on a decision-making task previously shown to depend on the orbital prefrontal cortex. Behavioral Neuroscience, 115(1), 196–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Reich, C. G., Taylor, M. E., & McCarthy, M. M. (2009). Differential effects of chronic unpredictable stress on hippocampal CB1 receptors in male and female rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 203(2), 264–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Roberts, G. M., & Garavan, H. (2010). Evidence of increased activation underlying cognitive control in ecstasy and cannabis users. NeuroImage, 52(2), 429–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Rodriguez de Fonseca, F., Cebeira, M., Ramos, J. A., Martin, M., & Fernandez-Ruiz, J. J. (1994). Cannabinoid receptors in rat brain areas: sexual differences, fluctuations during estrous cycle and changes after gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement. Life Sciences, 54(3), 159–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Rogers, R. D., Wakeley, J., Robson, P. J., Bhagwagar, Z., & Makela, P. (2007). The effects of low doses of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol on reinforcement processing in the risky decision-making of young healthy adults. Neuropsychopharmacology, 32(2), 417–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Roser, P., Gallinat, J., Weinberg, G., Juckel, G., Gorynia, I., & Stadelmann, A. M. (2009). Psychomotor performance in relation to acute oral administration of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract in healthy human subjects. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 259(5), 284–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Rubino, T., Vigano, D., Realini, N., Guidali, C., Braida, D., Capurro, V., et al. (2008). Chronic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol during adolescence provokes sex-dependent changes in the emotional profile in adult rats: behavioral and biochemical correlates. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33(11), 2760–2771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Rubino, T., Realini, N., Braida, D., Alberio, T., Capurro, V., Vigano, D., et al. (2009). The depressive phenotype induced in adult female rats by adolescent exposure to THC is associated with cognitive impairment and altered neuroplasticity in the prefrontal cortex. Neurotoxicity Research, 15(4), 291–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Rubino, T., Realini, N., Braida, D., Guidi, S., Capurro, V., Vigano, D., et al. (2009). Changes in hippocampal morphology and neuroplasticity induced by adolescent THC treatment are associated with cognitive impairment in adulthood. Hippocampus, 19(8), 763–772.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. SAMSHA. (2011). Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH. Rockville: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
  182. Schepis, T. S., Desai, R. A., Smith, A. E., Cavallo, D. A., Liss, T. B., McFetridge, A., et al. (2008). Impulsive sensation seeking, parental history of alcohol problems, and current alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 2(4), 185–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Scholes, K. E., & Martin-Iverson, M. T. (2009). Alterations to pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) in chronic cannabis users are secondary to sustained attention deficits. Psychopharmacology, 207(3), 469–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Scholes, K. E., & Martin-Iverson, M. T. (2010). Cannabis use and neuropsychological performance in healthy individuals and patients with schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 40(10), 1635–1646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Scholes-Balog, K. E., & Martin-Iverson, M. T. (2011). Cannabis use and sensorimotor gating in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Human Psychopharmacology, 26(3), 373–385.Google Scholar
  186. Schuster, R. M., Crane, N. A., Mermelstein, R., & Gonzalez, R. (2012). The influence of inhibitory control and episodic memory on the risky sexual behavior of young adult cannabis users. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 18(5), 827–833.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Schweinsburg, A. D., Brown, S. A., & Tapert, S. F. (2008). The influence of marijuana use on neurocognitive functioning in adolescents. Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 1(1), 99–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Schweinsburg, A. D., Schweinsburg, B. C., Medina, K. L., McQueeny, T., Brown, S. A., & Tapert, S. F. (2010). The influence of recency of use on fMRI response during spatial working memory in adolescent marijuana users. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 42(3), 401–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Schweinsburg, A. D., Schweinsburg, B. C., Nagel, B. J., Eyler, L. T., & Tapert, S. F. (2011). Neural correlates of verbal learning in adolescent alcohol and marijuana users. Addiction, 106(3), 564–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Scorticati, C., Mohn, C., De Laurentiis, A., Vissio, P., Fernandez Solari, J., Seilicovich, A., et al. (2003). The effect of anandamide on prolactin secretion is modulated by estrogen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(4), 2134–2139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Scorticati, C., Fernandez-Solari, J., De Laurentiis, A., Mohn, C., Prestifilippo, J. P., Lasaga, M., et al. (2004). The inhibitory effect of anandamide on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone secretion is reversed by estrogen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(32), 11891–11896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Sofuoglu, M., Dudish-Poulsen, S., Nelson, D., Pentel, P. R., & Hatsukami, D. K. (1999). Sex and menstrual cycle differences in the subjective effects from smoked cocaine in humans. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7(3), 274–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Solowij, N., & Battisti, R. (2008). The chronic effects of cannabis on memory in humans: a review. Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 1(1), 81–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Solowij, N., & Pesa, N. (2010). Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 32(Suppl 1), S31–S40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Solowij, N., Jones, K. A., Rozman, M. E., Davis, S. M., Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. C., et al. (2011). Verbal learning and memory in adolescent cannabis users, alcohol users and non-users. Psychopharmacology, 216(1), 131–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Solowij, N., Jones, K. A., Rozman, M. E., Davis, S. M., Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. C., et al. (2012). Reflection impulsivity in adolescent cannabis users: a comparison with alcohol-using and non-substance-using adolescents. Psychopharmacology, 219(2), 575–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Steger, R. W., Silverman, A. Y., Siler-Khodr, T. M., & Asch, R. H. (1980). The effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the positive and negative feedback control of luteinizing hormone release. Life Sciences, 27(20), 1911–1916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Steger, R. W., DePaolo, L., Asch, R. H., & Silverman, A. Y. (1983). Interactions of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with hypothalamic neurotransmitters controlling luteinizing hormone and prolactin release. Neuroendocrinology, 37(5), 361–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Sugarman, D. E., Poling, J., & Sofuoglu, M. (2011). The safety of modafinil in combination with oral 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 98(1), 94–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Tait, R. J., Mackinnon, A., & Christensen, H. (2011). Cannabis use and cognitive function: 8-year trajectory in a young adult cohort. Addiction, 106(12), 2195–2203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Tapert, S. F., Schweinsburg, A. D., Drummond, S. P., Paulus, M. P., Brown, S. A., Yang, T. T., et al. (2007). Functional MRI of inhibitory processing in abstinent adolescent marijuana users. Psychopharmacology, 194(2), 173–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Theunissen, E. L., Kauert, G. F., Toennes, S. W., Moeller, M. R., Sambeth, A., Blanchard, M. M., et al. (2011). Neurophysiological functioning of occasional and heavy cannabis users during THC intoxication. Psychopharmacology, 220(2), 341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Tulving, E. (2001). Episodic memory and common sense: how far apart? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 356(1413), 1505–1515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes. (2011). World Drug Report, United Nations Publications, Sales No. E.11.XI.10.Google Scholar
  205. Vadhan, N. P., Hart, C. L., van Gorp, W. G., Gunderson, E. W., Haney, M., & Foltin, R. W. (2007). Acute effects of smoked marijuana on decision making, as assessed by a modified gambling task, in experienced marijuana users. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 29(4), 357–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Vaidya, J. G., Block, R. I., O’Leary, D. S., Ponto, L. B., Ghoneim, M. M., & Bechara, A. (2012). Effects of chronic marijuana use on brain activity during monetary decision-making. Neuropsychopharmacology, 37(3), 618–629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Van Laere, K., Goffin, K., Casteels, C., Dupont, P., Mortelmans, L., de Hoon, J., et al. (2008). Gender-dependent increases with healthy aging of the human cerebral cannabinoid-type 1 receptor binding using [(18)F]MK-9470 PET. NeuroImage, 39(4), 1533–1541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Viveros, M. P., Llorente, R., Suarez, J., Llorente-Berzal, A., Lopez-Gallardo, M., & Rodriguez de Fonseca, F. (2012). The endocannabinoid system in critical neurodevelopmental periods: sex differences and neuropsychiatric implications. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 26(1), 164–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Wadsworth, E. J., Moss, S. C., Simpson, S. A., & Smith, A. P. (2006). Cannabis use, cognitive performance and mood in a sample of workers. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20(1), 14–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Wagner, D., Becker, B., Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E., & Daumann, J. (2010). Interactions between specific parameters of cannabis use and verbal memory. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 34(6), 871–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Ware, M. A., Adams, H., & Guy, G. W. (2005). The medicinal use of cannabis in the UK: results of a nationwide survey. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 59(3), 291–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Watson, S. J., Benson, J. A., Jr., & Joy, J. E. (2000). Marijuana and medicine: assessing the science base: a summary of the 1999 Institute of Medicine report. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(6), 547–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Weinstein, A., Brickner, O., Lerman, H., Greemland, M., Bloch, M., Lester, H., et al. (2008a). Brain imaging study of the acute effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on attention and motor coordination in regular users of marijuana. Psychopharmacology, 196(1), 119–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Weinstein, A., Brickner, O., Lerman, H., Greemland, M., Bloch, M., Lester, H., et al. (2008b). A study investigating the acute dose–response effects of 13 mg and 17 mg Delta 9- tetrahydrocannabinol on cognitive-motor skills, subjective and autonomic measures in regular users of marijuana. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(4), 441–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Weller, J. A., Levin, I. P., & Bechara, A. (2010). Do individual differences in Iowa Gambling Task performance predict adaptive decision making for risky gains and losses? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32(2), 141–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Wenger, T., Fernandez-Ruiz, J. J., & Ramos, J. A. (1999). Immunocytochemical demonstration of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 11(11), 873–878.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Wert, R. C., & Raulin, M. L. (1986). The chronic cerebral effects of cannabis use. II. Psychological findings and conclusions. The International Journal of the Addictions, 21(6), 629–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Wesley, M. J., Hanlon, C. A., & Porrino, L. J. (2011). Poor decision-making by chronic marijuana users is associated with decreased functional responsiveness to negative consequences. Psychiatry Research, 191(1), 51–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Winton-Brown, T. T., Allen, P., Bhattacharyya, S., Borgwardt, S. J., Fusar-Poli, P., Crippa, J. A., et al. (2011). Modulation of auditory and visual processing by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol: an FMRI study. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36(7), 1340–1348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Yucel, M., Solowij, N., Respondek, C., Whittle, S., Fornito, A., Pantelis, C., et al. (2008). Regional brain abnormalities associated with long-term heavy cannabis use. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(6), 694–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natania A. Crane
    • 1
  • Randi Melissa Schuster
    • 1
  • Paolo Fusar-Poli
    • 2
  • Raul Gonzalez
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of PsychiatryKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations