Skip to main content

Anterograde Episodic Memory in Korsakoff Syndrome

Abstract

A profound anterograde memory deficit for information, regardless of the nature of the material, is the hallmark of Korsakoff syndrome, an amnesic condition resulting from severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Since the late nineteenth century when the Russian physician, S. S. Korsakoff, initially described this syndrome associated with “polyneuropathy,” the observed global amnesia has been a primary focus of neuroscience and neuropsychology. In this review we highlight the historical studies that examined anterograde episodic memory processes in KS, present a timeline and evidence supporting the myriad theories proffered to account for this memory dysfunction, and summarize what is known about the neuroanatomical correlates and neural systems presumed affected in KS. Rigorous study of KS amnesia and associated memory disorders of other etiologies provide evidence for distinct mnemonic component processes and neural networks imperative for normal declarative and nondeclarative memory abilities and for mnemonic processes spared in KS, from whence emerged the appreciation that memory is not a unitary function. Debate continues regarding the qualitative and quantitative differences between KS and other amnesias and what brain regions and neural pathways are necessary and sufficient to produce KS amnesia.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Aggleton, J. P., & Brown, M. W. (1999). Episodic memory, amnesia, and the hippocampal-anterior thalamic axis. Behavioral Brain Science, 22(3), 425–444. discussion 444–89.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Aggleton, J. P., & Saunders, R. C. (1997). The relationships between temporal lobe and diencephalic structures implicated in anterograde amnesia. Memory, 5(1–2), 49–71.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Albert, M. S., Butters, N., & Levin, J. (1979). Temporal gradients in the retrograde amnesia of patients with alcoholic Korsakoff’s disease. Archives of Neurology, 36(4), 211–216.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, V. (1992). Why do intelligent children have learning difficulties? the neuropsychological perspective. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 28(4), 278–280.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arendt, T., Bigl, V., Arendt, A., & Tennstedt, A. (1983). Loss of neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert in Alzheimer’s disease, paralysis agitans, and Korsakoff’s disease. Acta Neuropathol (Berl), 61, 101–108.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baddeley, A., & Wilson, B. A. (1994). When implicit learning fails: Amnesia and the problem of error elimination. Neuropsychologia, 32(1), 53–68.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baddeley, A., & Wilson, B. A. (2002). Prose recall and amnesia: Implications for the structure of working memory. Neuropsychologia, 40(10), 1737–1743.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beaunieux, H., Desgranges, B., Lalevee, C., de la Sayette, V., Lechevalier, B., & Eustache, F. (1998). Preservation of cognitive procedural memory in a case of Korsakoff’s syndrome: Methodological and theoretical insights. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86(3 Pt 2), 1267–1287.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Borsutzky, S., Fujiwara, E., Brand, M., & Markowitsch, H. J. (2008). Confabulations in alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Neuropsychologia, 46(13), 3133–3143.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brand, M., Fujiwara, E., Borsutzky, S., Kalbe, E., Kessler, J., & Markowitsch, H. J. (2005). Decision-making deficits of korsakoff patients in a new gambling task with explicit rules: Associations with executive functions. Neuropsychology, 19(3), 267–277.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brokate, B., Hildebrandt, H., Eling, P., Fichtner, H., Runge, K., & Timm, C. (2003). Frontal lobe dysfunctions in Korsakoff’s syndrome and chronic alcoholism: Continuity or discontinuity? Neuropsychology, 17(3), 420–428.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Butters, N., & Cermak, L. S. (1976). Neuropsychological studies of alcoholic Korsakoff patients. In G. Goldstein & C. Neuringer (Eds.), Empirical studies of alcoholism. Cambridge: Ballinger.

    Google Scholar 

  • Butters, N., & Cermak, L. S. (1980). Alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome: an information processing approach to amnesia. New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Butters, N., Stuss, D. T. (1989). Diencephalic amnesia, in Handbook of Neuropsychology, Vol. 3, (Boller F, Grafman J eds), vol 4, pp 107–148. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

  • Caine, D., Halliday, G. M., Kril, J. J., & Harper, C. G. (1997). Operational criteria for the classification of chronic alcoholics: Identification of Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 62(1), 51–60.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cave, C. B., & Squire, L. R. (1992). Intact and long-lasting repetition priming in amnesia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18, 509–520.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cermak, L. S. (1987). Models of memory loss in Korsakoff and alcoholic patients. In O. A. Parsons, N. Butters, & P. E. Nathan (Eds.), Neuropsychology of alcoholism (pp. 207–226). New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cermak, L. S., & Butters, N. (1972). The role of interference and encoding in the short-term memory deficits of Korsakoff patients. Neuropsychologia, 10(1), 89–95.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cermak, L. S., & Butters, N. (1973). Information processing deficits of alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 34(4), 1110–1132.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cermak, L. S., Butters, N., & Goodglass, H. (1971). The extent of memory loss in Korsakoff patients. Neuropsychologia, 9(3), 307–315.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cermak, L. S., & Reale, L. (1978). Depth of processing and retention of words by alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning, 4(2), 165–174.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cermak, L. S., Reale, L., & Baker, E. (1978). Alcoholic Korsakoff patients’ retrieval from semantic memory. Brain and Language, 5(2), 215–226.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cermak, L. S., Reale, L., & De Luca, D. (1977). Korsakoff patients’ nonverbal vs. verbal memory: effects of interference and mediation on rate of information loss. Neuropsychologia, 15, 303–310.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cermak, L. S., & Uhly, B. (1975). Short-term motor memory in Korsakoff patients. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40(1), 275–281.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cermak, L. S., Verfaellie, M., Milberg, W., Letourneau, L., & Blackford, S. (1991). A further analysis of perceptual identification priming in alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Neuropsychologia, 29(8), 725–736.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chalfonte, B. L., Verfaellie, M., Johnson, M. K., & Reiss, L. (1996). Spatial location memory in amnesia: binding item and location information under incidental and intentional encoding conditions. Memory, 4(6), 591–614.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Charness, M. E., & DeLaPaz, R. L. (1987). Mammillary body atrophy in Wernicke’s encephalopathy: Antemortem identification using magnetic resonance imaging. Annals of Neurology, 22, 595–600.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clare, L., & Jones, R. S. (2008). Errorless learning in the rehabilitation of memory impairment: a critical review. Neuropsychology Review, 18(1), 1–23.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, N. J., & Squire, L. R. (1980). Preserved learning and retention of pattern-analyzing skill in amnesia: dissociation of knowing how and knowing that. Science, 210, 207–210

  • Colchester, A., Kingsley, D., Lasserson, D., Kendall, B., Bello, F., Rush, C., et al. (2001). Structural MRI volumetric analysis in patients with organic amnesia, 1: methods and comparative findings across diagnostic groups. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 71(1), 13–22.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corkin, S., Cohen, N. J., Sullivan, E. V., Clegg, R. A., Rosen, T. J., & Ackerman, R. H. (1985). Analyses of global memory impairment of different etiologies. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 44, 10–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • d’Ydewalle, G., & Van Damme, I. (2007). Memory and the Korsakoff syndrome: not remembering what is remembered. Neuropsychologia, 45(5), 905–920.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dickerson, B. C., & Eichenbaum, H. (2010). The episodic memory system: neurocircuitry and disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35(1), 86–104.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fahle, M., & Daum, I. (2002). Perceptual learning in amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 40, 1167–1172.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fama, R., Marsh, L., & Sullivan, E. V. (2004). Dissociation of remote and anterograde memory impairment and neural correlates in alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Association, 10, 427–441.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fama, R., Pfefferbaum, A., & Sullivan, E. V. (2006). Visuoperceptual priming in alcoholic Korsakoff Syndrome. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 30, 680–687.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gardiner, J. M., Ramponi, C., & Richardson-Klavehn, A. (2002). Recognition memory and decision processes: a meta-analysis of remember, know, and guess responses. Memory, 10(2), 83–98.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gilboa, A., Alain, C., Stuss, D. T., Melo, B., Miller, S., & Moscovitch, M. (2006). Mechanisms of spontaneous confabulations: a strategic retrieval account. Brain, 129(Pt 6), 1399–1414.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harding, A., Halliday, G., Caine, D., & Kril, J. (2000). Degeneration of anterior thalamic nuclei differentiates alcoholics with amnesia. Brain, 123(Pt 1), 141–154.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harper, C. (2006). Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency and associated brain damage is still common throughout the world and prevention is simple and safe! European Journal of Neurology, 13(10), 1078–1082.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harper, C., Matsumoto, I., Pfefferbaum, A., Adalsteinsson, E., Sullivan, E. V., Lewoh, L. J., et al. (2005). The pathophysiology of ‘brain shrinkage’ in alcoholics structural and molecular changes and clinical implications. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 29, 1106–1115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harper, C. G., Giles, M., & Finlay-Jones, R. (1986). Clinical signs in the Wernicke-Korsakoff complex: a retrospective analysis of 131 cases diagnosed at necropsy. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 49(4), 341–345.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hayes, S. M., Fortier, C. B., Levine, A., Milberg, W. P., & McGlinchey, R. (2012). Implicit memory in Korsakoff’s syndrome: a review of procedural learning and priming studies. Neuropsychology Review, 22(2).

  • He, X., Sullivan, E. V., Stankovic, R. K., Harper, C. G., & Pfefferbaum, A. (2007). Interaction of thiamine deficiency and voluntary alcohol consumption disrupts rat corpus callosum ultrastructure. Neuropsychopharmacology, 32, 2207–2216.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hirst, W. (1982). The amnesic syndrome: descriptions and explanations. Psychological Bulletin, 91(3), 435–460.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Irle, E., Kaiser, P., & Naumann-Stoll, G. (1990). Differential patterns of memory loss in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and Korsakoff’s disease. International Journal of Neuroscience, 52, 67–77.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jacobson, R. R., Acker, C. F., & Lishman, W. A. (1990). Patterns of neuropsychological deficit in alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome. Psychological Medicine, 20(2), 321–334.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Joyce, E. M., Rio, D. E., Ruttimann, U. E., Rohrbaugh, J. W., Martin, P. R., Rawlings, R. R., et al. (1994). Decreased cingulate and precuneate glucose utilization in alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome. Psychiatry Research, 54(3), 225–239.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jung, Y. C., Chanraud, S., Sullivan, E. V. (2012). Neuroimaging of Wernicke’s encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome. Neuropsychology Review 22(2).

  • Kapur, N., & Butters, N. (1977). Visuoperceptive deficits in long-term alcoholics and alcoholics with Korskakoff’s psychosis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 11, 2025–2035.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kessels, R. P., van Loon, E., & Wester, A. J. (2007). Route learning in amnesia: a comparison of trial-and-error and errorless learning in patients with the Korsakoff syndrome. Clinical Rehabilitation, 21(10), 905–911.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kessels, R. P. C., & Kopelman, M. D. (2012). Context memory in Korsakoff’s syndrome. Neuropsychology Review, 22(2).

  • Komatsu, S., Mimura, M., Kato, M., Wakamatsu, N., & Kashima, H. (2000). Errorless and effortful processes involved in the learning of face-name associations by patients with alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. Neuropsychological rehabilitation: an international journal, 10(2), 113–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kopelman, M. D. (1985). Rates of forgetting in Alzheimer-type dementia and Korsakoff’s syndrome. Neuropsychologia, 23, 623–638.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kopelman, M. D. (1987). Two types of confabulation. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 50(11), 1482–1487.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kopelman, M. D. (1989). Remote and autobiographical memory, temporal context memory and frontal atrophy in Korsakoff and Alzheimer patients. Neuropsychologia, 27(4), 437–460.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kopelman, M. D. (1995a). The Korsakoff syndrome. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 154–173.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kopelman, M. D. (1995b). The Korsakoff syndrome. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 166(2), 154–173.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kopelman, M. D., & Stanhope, N. (2002). Anterograde and retrograde amnesia following frontal lobe, temporal lobe and diencephalic lesions. In L. R. Squire & D. L. Schecter (Eds.), Neuropsychology of memory (3rd ed., pp. 47–60). New York: Guildford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kopelman, M. D., Stanhope, N., & Kingsley, D. (1997). Temporal and spatial context memory in patients with focal frontal, temporal lobe, and diencephalic lesions. Neuropsychologia, 35(12), 1533–1545.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Korsakoff, S. S. (1887). Disturbance of psychic function in alcoholic paralysis and its relation to the disturbance of the psychic sphere in multiple neuritis of non-alcoholic origin. Vestnik Psichiatrii IV.

  • Korsakoff, S. S. (1889a). A few cases of peculiar cerebropathy in the course of multiple neuritis. Ejenedelnaja Klinicheskaja Gazeta, 5, 6, 7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Korsakoff, S. S. (1889b). Psychic disorder in conjunction with multiple neuritis (Psychosis Polyneuritica S. Cerebropathia Psychica Toxaemica). Medizinskoje Obozrenije 31(13).

  • Korsakoff, S. S. (1955). Psychic disorder in conjunction with multiple neuritis (psychosis polyneuritica s. cerebropathia psychica toxaemica). Neurology, 5, 396–406.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kril, J. J., & Harper, C. G. (2012). Neuroanatomy and neuropathology associated with Korsakoff’s syndrome. Neuropsychology Review.

  • Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. (2002). Aging and autobiographical memory: dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17(4), 677–689.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lishman, W. A. (1990). Alcohol and the brain. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 635–644.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lough, M. E. (2012). Wernicke’s encephalopathy: expanding the diagnostic toolbox. Neuropsychology Review, 22(2).

  • Mair, W. G., Warrington, E. K., & Weiskrantz, L. (1979). Memory disorder in Korsakoff’s psychosis: a neuropathological and neuropsychological investigation of two cases. Brain, 102(4), 749–783.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Teuber, H. L. (1975). Memory for remote events in anterograde amnesia: recognition of public figures from newsphotographs. Neuropsychologia, 13(3), 353–364.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mayes, A. R., Meudell, P. R., & MacDonald, C. (1991). Disproportionate intentional spatial-memory impairments in amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 29(8), 771–784.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mayes, A. R., Meudell, P. R., Mann, D., & Pickering, A. (1988). Location of lesions in Korsakoff’s syndrome: neuropsychological and neuropathological data on two patients. Cortex, 24(3), 367–388.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mayes, A. R., Meudell, P. R., & Pickering, A. (1985). Is organic amnesia caused by a selective deficit in remembering contextual information? Cortex, 21(2), 167–202.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McDowall, J. (1981). Effects of encoding instructions on recall and recognition in Korsakoff patients. Neuropsychologia, 19(1), 43–48.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • McKone, E., & French, B. (2001). In what sense is implicit memory “episodic”? the effect of reinstating environmental context. Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 8(4), 806–811.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mimura, M., Komatsu, S., Kato, M., Yashimasu, H., Wakamatsu, N., & Kashima, H. (1998). Memory for subject performed tasks in patients with Korsakoff syndrome. Cortex, 34(2), 297–303.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nadel, L., Samsonovich, A., Ryan, L., & Moscovitch, M. (2000). Multiple trace theory of human memory: computational, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological results. Hippocampus, 10(4), 352–368.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Noel, X., Schmidt, N., Van der Linden, M., Sferrazza, R., Hanak, C., De Mol, J., et al. (2001). An atypical neuropsychological profile of a Korsakoff syndrome patient throughout the follow-up. European Neurology, 46(3), 140–147.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oscar-Berman, M. (1990). Learning and memory deficits in detoxified alcoholics. NIDA Research Monograph, 101, 136–155.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Oscar-Berman, M. (2012). Function and dysfunction of prefrontal brain circuitry in alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome. Neuropsychology Review.

  • Oscar-Berman, M., Kirkley, S. M., Gansler, D. A., & Couture, A. (2004). Comparisons of Korsakoff and non-Korsakoff alcoholics on neuropsychological tests of prefrontal brain functioning. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 28(4), 667–675.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pfefferbaum, A., Adalsteinsson, E., Bell, R. L., & Sullivan, E. V. (2007). Development and resolution of brain lesions caused by pyrithiamine- and dietary-induced thiamine deficiency and alcohol exposure in the alcohol-preferring rat: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy study. Neuropsychopharmacology, 32(5), 1159–1177.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pitel, A. L., Aupee, A. M., Chetelat, G., Mezenge, F., Beaunieux, H., de la Sayette, V., et al. (2009a). Morphological and glucose metabolism abnormalities in alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome: group comparisons and individual analyses. PLoS One, 4(11), e7748.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pitel, A. L., Beaunieux, H., Guillery-Girard, B., Witkowski, T., de la Sayette, V., Viader, F., et al. (2009b). How do Korsakoff patients learn new concepts? Neuropsychologia, 47(3), 879–886.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pitel, A. L., Beaunieux, H., Witkowski, T., Vabret, F., de la Sayette, V., Viader, F., et al. (2008a). Episodic and working memory deficits in alcoholic Korsakoff patients: the continuity theory revisited. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 32(7), 1229–1241.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pitel, A. L., Beaunieux, H., Witkowski, T., Vabret, F., de la Sayette, V., Viader, F., Desgranges, B., Eustache, F. (2008b). Neuropsychological deficit in Korsakoff and non-Korsakoff alcoholics: The continuum theory revisited. In preparation.

  • Pitel, A. L., Chetelat, G., Le Berre, A. P., Desgranges, B., Eustache, F., & Beaunieux, H. (2012). Macrostructural abnormalities in Korsakoff syndrome compared with uncomplicated alcoholism. Neurology, 78(17), 1330–1333.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pitel, A. L., Zahr, N. M., Jackson, K., Sassoon, S. A., Rosenbloom, M. J., Pfefferbaum, A., et al. (2011). Signs of preclinical Wernicke’s encephalopathy and thiamine levels as predictors of neuropsychological deficits in alcoholism without Korsakoff’s syndrome. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36(3), 580–588.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Postma, A., Van Asselen, M., Keuper, O., Wester, A. J., & Kessels, R. P. (2006). Spatial and temporal order memory in Korsakoff patients. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 12(3), 327–336.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Race, E., & Verfaellie, M. (2012). Remote memory function and dysfunction in Korsakoff’s syndrome. Neuropsychology Review.

  • Reed, L. J., Lasserson, D., Marsden, P., Stanhope, N., Stevens, T., Bello, F., et al. (2003). FDG-PET findings in the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Cortex, 39(4–5), 1027–1045.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Riley, J. N., & Walker, D. W. (1978). Morphological alterations in hippocampus after long-term alcohol consumption in mice. Science, 201, 646–648.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ryan, C., & Butters, N. (1980). Further evidence for a continuum-of-impairment encompassing male alcoholic Korsakoff patients and chronic alcoholic men. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 4(2), 190–198.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ryan, C., & Butters, N. (1986). The neuropsychology of alcoholism. In D. Wededing, A. M. Horton, & J. Webster (Eds.), The neuropsychology handbook: Behavioral and clinical perspectives (pp. 376–409). New York: Springer Publishing Co.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ryback, R. (1971). The continuum and specificity of the effects of alcohol on memory: A review. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 32, 995–1016.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sanders, H. I., & Warrington, E. K. (1971). Memory for remote events in amnesic patients. Brain, 94(4), 661–668.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Savage, L. M., Hall, J. M., & Resende, L. S. (2012). Translational rodent models of Korsakoff syndrome reveal the critical neuroanatomical substrates of memory dysfunction and recovery. Neuropsychogy Review, 22(2).

  • Scoville, W. B., & Milner, B. (1957). Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 20, 11–21.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seltzer, B., & Benson, D. F. (1974). The temporal pattern of retrograde amnesia in Korsakoff’s disease. Neurology, 24(6), 527–530.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sheedy, D., Lara, A., Garrick, T., & Harper, C. (1999). Size of mamillary bodies in health and disease: useful measurements in neuroradiological diagnosis of Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 23(10), 1624–1628.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shimamura, A. P., Jernigan, T. L., & Squire, L. R. (1988). Korsakoff’s syndrome: radiological (CT) findings and neuropsychological correlates. Journal of Neuroscience, 8, 4400–4410.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shoqeirat, M. A., & Mayes, A. R. (1991). Disproportionate incidental spatial-memory and recall deficits in amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 29(8), 749–769.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Squire, L. R. (1982). Comparisons between forms of amnesia: some deficits are unique to Korsakoff’s syndrome. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 8, 560–571.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Squire, L. R., & Alvarez, P. (1995). Retrograde amnesia and memory consolidation: a neurobiological perspective. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 5(2), 169–177.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Squire, L. R., Amaral, D. G., & Press, G. A. (1990). Magnetic resonance imaging of the hippocampal formation and mammillary nuclei distinguish medial temporal lobe and diencephalic amnesia. Journal of Neuroscience, 10(9), 3106–3117.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Squire, L. R., & Zola, S. M. (1997). Amnesia, memory and brain systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 352(1362), 1663–1673.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan, E. V., Deshmukh, A., Desmond, J. E., Lim, K. O., & Pfefferbaum, A. (2000). Cerebellar volume decline in normal aging, alcoholism, and Korsakoff’s syndrome: Relation to ataxia. Neuropsychology, 14(3), 341–352.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan, E. V., Lane, B., Deshmukh, A., Rosenbloom, M. J., Desmond, J. E., Lim, K. O., et al. (1999). In vivo mammillary body volume deficits in amnesic and nonamnesic alcoholics. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 23(10), 1629–1636.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan, E. V., & Marsh, L. (2003). Hippocampal volume deficits in alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome. Neurology, 61, 1716–1719.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan, E. V., Marsh, L., Mathalon, D. H., Lim, K. O., & Pfefferbaum, A. (1995). Anterior hippocampal volume deficits in nonamnesic, aging chronic alcoholics. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 19, 110–122.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan, E. V., & Pfefferbaum, A. (2009). Neuroimaging of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 44(2), 155–165.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Talland, G. A. (1959). The interference theory of forgetting and the amnesic syndrome. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59(1), 10–16.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Talland, G. A. (1960). Psychological studies of Korsakoff’s psychosis. VI. Memory and learning. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 130, 366–385.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Talland, G. A. (1965). Deranged memory; A psychonomic study of the amnesic syndrome. New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Talland, G. A. (1968). Disorders of memory and learning. vol Penguin. Harmondsworth.

  • Thomson, A. D., Guerrini, I., & Marshall, E. J. (2012). The evolution and treatment of Korsakoff’s syndrome. Neuropsychology Review, 22(2).

  • Ungerleider, L. G. (1995). Functional brain imaging studies of cortical mechanisms for memory. Science, 270(5237), 769–775.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • van Asselen, M., Kessels, R. P., Wester, A. J., & Postma, A. (2005). Spatial working memory and contextual cueing in patients with Korsakoff amnesia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27(6), 645–655.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vann, S. D., & Aggleton, J. P. (2004). The mammillary bodies: two memory systems in one? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5(1), 35–44.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Verfaellie, M., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Vaidya, C. J., Croce, P., & Reminger, S. L. (1996). Implicit memory for pictures in amnesia: Role of etiology and priming task. Neuropsychology, 10(4), 517–528.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vetreno, R. P., Ramos, R. L., Anzalone, S., & Savage, L. M. (2012). Brain and behavioral pathology in an animal model of Wernicke’s encephalopathy and Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. Brain Research, 1436, 178–192.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Victor, M., Adams, R. D., & Collins, G. H. (1971). The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co.

    Google Scholar 

  • Victor, M., Adams, R. D., & Collins, G. H. (1989). The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and related neurologic disorders due to alcoholism and malnutrition (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co.

    Google Scholar 

  • Visser, P., Krabbendam, L., Verhey, F., Hofman, P., Verhoeven, W., Tuinier, S., et al. (1999). Brain correlates of memory dysfunction in alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome. Journal Of Neurology Neurosurgery And Psychiatry, 67(6), 774–778.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warrington, E. K., & Weiskrantz, L. (1968). New method of testing long-term retention with special reference to amnesic patients. Nature, 217, 972–974.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warrington, E. K., & Weiskrantz, L. (1970). The amnesic syndrome: Consolidation or retrieval? Nature, 228, 628–630.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wheeler, M. A., Stuss, D. T., & Tulving, E. (1997). Toward a theory of episodic memory: The frontal lobes and autonoetic consciousness. Psychological Bulletin, 121(3), 331–354.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by grants from AA010723, AA017168, and AA017923.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rosemary Fama.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Fama, R., Pitel, AL. & Sullivan, E.V. Anterograde Episodic Memory in Korsakoff Syndrome. Neuropsychol Rev 22, 93–104 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-012-9207-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-012-9207-0

Keywords

  • Korsakoff syndrome
  • Amnesia
  • Episodic memory
  • Anterograde memory