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Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 93–104 | Cite as

Anterograde Episodic Memory in Korsakoff Syndrome

  • Rosemary Fama
  • Anne-Lise Pitel
  • Edith V. Sullivan
Review

Abstract

A profound anterograde memory deficit for information, regardless of the nature of the material, is the hallmark of Korsakoff syndrome, an amnesic condition resulting from severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Since the late nineteenth century when the Russian physician, S. S. Korsakoff, initially described this syndrome associated with “polyneuropathy,” the observed global amnesia has been a primary focus of neuroscience and neuropsychology. In this review we highlight the historical studies that examined anterograde episodic memory processes in KS, present a timeline and evidence supporting the myriad theories proffered to account for this memory dysfunction, and summarize what is known about the neuroanatomical correlates and neural systems presumed affected in KS. Rigorous study of KS amnesia and associated memory disorders of other etiologies provide evidence for distinct mnemonic component processes and neural networks imperative for normal declarative and nondeclarative memory abilities and for mnemonic processes spared in KS, from whence emerged the appreciation that memory is not a unitary function. Debate continues regarding the qualitative and quantitative differences between KS and other amnesias and what brain regions and neural pathways are necessary and sufficient to produce KS amnesia.

Keywords

Korsakoff syndrome Amnesia Episodic memory Anterograde memory 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by grants from AA010723, AA017168, and AA017923.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosemary Fama
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anne-Lise Pitel
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Edith V. Sullivan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesStanford University School of Medicine (MC5723)StanfordUSA
  2. 2.Neuroscience ProgramSRI InternationalMenlo ParkUSA
  3. 3.INSERMCaenFrance
  4. 4.EPHECaenFrance
  5. 5.Université de Caen/Basse-NormandieCaenFrance
  6. 6.CHU de CaenCaenFrance

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