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Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 229–251 | Cite as

The Default Mode Network and Recurrent Depression: A Neurobiological Model of Cognitive Risk Factors

  • Igor Marchetti
  • Ernst H. W. Koster
  • Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke
  • Rudi De Raedt
Review

Abstract

A neurobiological account of cognitive vulnerability for recurrent depression is presented based on recent developments of resting state neural networks. We propose that alterations in the interplay between task positive (TP) and task negative (TN) elements of the Default Mode Network (DMN) act as a neurobiological risk factor for recurrent depression mediated by cognitive mechanisms. In the framework, depression is characterized by an imbalance between TN-TP components leading to an overpowering of TP by TN activity. The TN-TP imbalance is associated with a dysfunctional internally-focused cognitive style as well as a failure to attenuate TN activity in the transition from rest to task. Thus we propose the TN-TP imbalance as overarching neural mechanism involved in crucial cognitive risk factors for recurrent depression, namely rumination, impaired attentional control, and cognitive reactivity. During remission the TN-TP imbalance persists predisposing to vulnerability of recurrent depression. Empirical data to support this model is reviewed. Finally, we specify how this framework can guide future research efforts.

Keywords

Depression Default mode network Vulnerability Rumination Attention Cognitive reactivity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by a Grant of the Special Research Fund (BOF) of Ghent University (BOF 10/2JO/061) awarded to Ernst Koster and Grant BOF10/GOA/014 for a Concerted Research Action of Ghent University (awarded to Rudi De Raedt and Ernst Koster).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Igor Marchetti
    • 1
  • Ernst H. W. Koster
    • 1
  • Edmund J. Sonuga-Barke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rudi De Raedt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Experimental-Clinical and Health PsychologyGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Institute for Disorders of Impulse and Attention, Developmental Brain-Behaviour Laboratory, School of PsychologyUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK

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