Skip to main content

Changes in Sleep as a Function of Adolescent Development

Abstract

Adolescence is marked by dramatic changes in sleep. Older adolescents go to bed later, have an increased preference for evening activities, and sleep less than younger adolescents. This behavior change is driven by external factors, notably increased pressures from academic, social, and extracurricular activities and by biological circadian factors. There are also substantial changes in sleep architecture across adolescence, with dramatic declines in slow wave sleep, and slow wave activity (delta, ~ 0.5–4.5 Hz). These changes are associated with underlying changes in brain structure and organization, with a decrease in synaptic density likely underlying the reduction in high amplitude slow waveforms. While changes in sleep across adolescence are a normal part of development, many adolescents are getting insufficient sleep and are consequently, less likely to perform well at school, more likely to develop mood-related disturbances, be obese, and are at greater risk for traffic accidents, alcohol and drug abuse.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Abbreviations

NREM:

non-rapid eye movement sleep

REM:

rapid eye movement sleep

EEG:

electroencephalograph

SWS:

slow wave sleep

SWA:

slow wave activity (~0.5–4.5 Hz). Also referred to as delta power.

MRI:

magnetic resonance imaging

DTI:

diffusion tensor imaging

FA:

fractional anisotropy

References

  • Andrade, M. M., Benedito-Silva, A. A., Domenice, S., Arnhold, I. J., & Menna-Barreto, L. (1993). Sleep characteristics of adolescents: a longitudinal study. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 14(5), 401–406.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Worthman, C. M. (1998). Puberty and depression: the roles of age, pubertal status and pubertal timing. Psychological Medicine, 28(1), 51–61.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Arnedt, J. T., Wilde, G. J., Munt, P. W., & MacLean, A. W. (2001). How do prolonged wakefulness and alcohol compare in the decrements they produce on a simulated driving task? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 33(3), 337–344.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Barnea-Goraly, N., Menon, V., Eckert, M., Tamm, L., Bammer, R., Karchemskiy, A., et al. (2005). White matter development during childhood and adolescence: A cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging study. Cereb Cortex, 15(12), 1848–1854.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bava, S., & Tapert, S. F. (2010). Adolescent brain development and the risk for alcohol and other drug problems. Neuropsychology Review, 20(4), 398–413.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bernhard, L. (1908). Schlafziet ser Kinder. Encyclopade der Mordern Krimilistic II (Vol. 2).

  • Blakemore, S. J., Burnett, S., & Dahl, R. E. (2010). The role of puberty in the developing adolescent brain. Human Brain Mapping, 31(6), 926–933.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bloomfield, E. R., & Shatkin, J. P. (2009). Parasomnias and movement disorders in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18(4), 947–965.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Boord, P. R., Rennie, C. J., & Williams, L. M. (2007). Integrating “brain” and “body” measures: correlations between EEG and metabolic changes over the human lifespan. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 6(1), 205–218.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Buchmann, A., Ringli, M., Kurth, S., Schaerer, M., Geiger, A., Jenni, O. G., et al. (2010). EEG sleep slow-wave activity as a mirror of cortical maturation. Cereb Cortex, (in press).

  • Campbell, I., Darchia, N., Khaw, W. Y., Higgins, L. M., & Feinberg, I. (2005). Sleep EEG evidence of gender differences in adolescent brain maturation. Sleep, 28(5), 637–643.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, I. G., & Feinberg, I. (2009). Longitudinal trajectories of non-rapid eye movement delta and theta EEG as indicators of adolescent brain maturation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(13), 5177–5180.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, I. G., Higgins, L. M., Trinidad, J. M., Richardson, P., & Feinberg, I. (2007). The increase in longitudinally measured sleepiness across adolescence is related to the maturational decline in low-frequency EEG power. Sleep, 30(12), 1677–1687.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Carskadon, M. A. (1982). The second decade. In C. Guilleminault (Ed.), Sleeping and waking disorders: Indications and techniques (pp. 99–125). Menlo Park: Addison Wesley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carskadon, M. A. (1989-1990). Adolescent sleepiness: increased risk in a high-risk population. Alcohol Drugs Driving, 5/6, pp 317–328.

  • Carskadon, M. A., & Acebo, C. (1993). A self-administered rating scale for pubertal development. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 14(3), 190–195.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Carskadon, M. A., Acebo, C., & Arnedt, J. (2002). Failure to identify pubertally-mediated melatonin sensitvity to light in adolescents. Sleep, 25, A191.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carskadon, M. A., Acebo, C., Richardson, G. S., Tate, B. A., & Seifer, R. (1997). An approach to studying circadian rhythms of adolescent humans. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 12(3), 278–289.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Carskadon, M. A., Labyak, S. E., Acebo, C., & Seifer, R. (1999). Intrinsic circadian period of adolescent humans measured in conditions of forced desynchrony. Neuroscience Letters, 260(2), 129–132.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Carskadon, M. A., Mindell, J. A., & Drake, C. (2006). 2006 Sleep in America Poll:Teens. Washington: National Sleep Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carskadon, M. A., Vieira, C., & Acebo, C. (1993). Association between puberty and delayed phase preference. Sleep, 16(3), 258–262.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chanraud, S., Zahr, N., Sullivan, E. V., & Pfefferbaum, A. (2010). MR diffusion tensor imaging: a window into white matter integrity of the working brain. Neuropsychology Review, 20(2), 209–225.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Coble, P. A., Reynolds, C. F., 3rd, Kupfer, D. J., & Houck, P. (1987). Electroencephalographic sleep of healthy children. Part II: Findings using automated delta and REM sleep measurement methods. Sleep, 10(6), 551–562.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Courchesne, E., Chisum, H. J., Townsend, J., Cowles, A., Covington, J., Egaas, B., et al. (2000). Normal brain development and aging: quantitative analysis at in vivo MR imaging in healthy volunteers. Radiology, 216(3), 672–682.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Crowley, S. J., Acebo, C., & Carskadon, M. A. (2007). Sleep, circadian rhythms, and delayed phase in adolescence. Sleep Medicine, 8(6), 602–612.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Crowley, S. J., & Carskadon, M. A. (2010). Modifications to weekend recovery sleep delay circadian phase in older adolescents. Chronobiology International, 27(7), 1469–1492.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Curcio, G., Ferrara, M., & De Gennaro, L. (2006). Sleep loss, learning capacity and academic performance. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 10(5), 323–337.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Czeisler, C. A., Duffy, J. F., Shanahan, T. L., Brown, E. N., Mitchell, J. F., Rimmer, D. W., et al. (1999). Stability, precision, and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker. Science, 284(5423), 2177–2181.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dang-Vu, T. T., Desseilles, M., Laureys, S., Degueldre, C., Perrin, F., Phillips, C., et al. (2005). Cerebral correlates of delta waves during non-REM sleep revisited. Neuroimage, 28(1), 14–21.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Danner, F., & Phillips, B. (2008). Adolescent sleep, school start times, and teen motor vehicle crashes. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 4(6), 533–535.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dawson, D., & Reid, K. (1997). Fatigue, alcohol and performance impairment. Nature, 388(6639), 235.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • De Bellis, M. D., Keshavan, M. S., Beers, S. R., Hall, J., Frustaci, K., Masalehdan, A., et al. (2001). Sex differences in brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Cerebral Cortex, 11(6), 552–557.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dewald, J. F., Meijer, A. M., Oort, F. J., Kerkhof, G. A., & Bogels, S. M. (2010). The influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14(3), 179–189.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Diaz-Morales, J. F., de Leon, M. C., & Sorroche, M. G. (2007). Validity of the morningness-eveningness scale for children among Spanish adolescents. Chronobiology International, 24(3), 435–447.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dinges, D. F., Pack, F., Williams, K., Gillen, K. A., Powell, J. W., Ott, G. E., et al. (1997). Cumulative sleepiness, mood disturbance, and psychomotor vigilance performance decrements during a week of sleep restricted to 4-5 hours per night. Sleep, 20(4), 267–277.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Drake, C., Nickel, C., Burduvali, E., Roth, T., Jefferson, C., & Pietro, B. (2003). The pediatric daytime sleepiness scale (PDSS): sleep habits and school outcomes in middle-school children. Sleep, 26(4), 455–458.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ducharme, J., & Forest, M. G. (1993). Normal pubertal development (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dukes, C. (1899). Remedies for the needless injury to children. London.

  • Eaton, D. K., McKnight-Eily, L. R., Lowry, R., Perry, G. S., Presley-Cantrell, L., & Croft, J. B. (2010). Prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal hours of sleep among high school students—United States, 2007. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(4), 399–401.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eisenmann, J. C., Ekkekakis, P., & Holmes, M. (2006). Sleep duration and overweight among Australian children and adolescents. Acta Paediatrica, 95(8), 956–963.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Feinberg, I. (1977). Changes in EEG amplitude during sleep with age. In K. Nandy & I. Sherwin (Eds.), The aging brain and senile dementia (pp. 85–98). New York: Plenum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Feinberg, I., & Campbell, I. G. (2010). Sleep EEG changes during adolescence: an index of a fundamental brain reorganization. Brain and Cognition, 72(1), 56–65.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Feinberg, I., de Bie, E., Davis, N. M., & Campbell, I. G. (2010). Topographic differences in the adolescent maturation of the slow wave EEG during NREM sleep. Sleep, (in press).

  • Feinberg, I., Higgins, L. M., Khaw, W. Y., & Campbell, I. G. (2006). The adolescent decline of NREM delta, an indicator of brain maturation, is linked to age and sex but not to pubertal stage. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 291(6), R1724–1729.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Feinberg, I., March, J., Flach, K., Maloney, T., Chern, W.-J., & Travis, F. (1990). Maturational changes in amplitude, incidence, and cyclic pattern of the 0 to 3 Hz (delta) electroencephalogram of human sleep. Brain Dysfunct, 3, 183–192.

    Google Scholar 

  • Finelli, L. A., Borbely, A. A., & Achermann, P. (2001). Functional topography of the human nonREM sleep electroencephalogram. The European Journal of Neuroscience, 13(12), 2282–2290.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gabriel, S. M., Roncancio, J. R., & Ruiz, N. S. (1992). Growth hormone pulsatility and the endocrine milieu during sexual maturation in male and female rats. Neuroendocrinology, 56(5), 619–625.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gangwisch, J. E., Babiss, L. A., Malaspina, D., Turner, J. B., Zammit, G. K., & Posner, K. (2010). Earlier parental set bedtimes as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation. Sleep, 33(1), 97–106.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gau, S. F., & Soong, W. T. (2003). The transition of sleep-wake patterns in early adolescence. Sleep, 26(4), 449–454.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gaudreau, H., Carrier, J., & Montplaisir, J. (2001). Age-related modifications of NREM sleep EEG: from childhood to middle age. Journal of Sleep Research, 10(3), 165–172.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Giannotti, F., Cortesi, F., Sebastiani, T., & Ottaviano, S. (2002). Circadian preference, sleep and daytime behaviour in adolescence. Journal of Sleep Research, 11(3), 191–199.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gibson, E. S., Powles, A. C., Thabane, L., O’Brien, S., Molnar, D. S., Trajanovic, N., et al. (2006). “Sleepiness” is serious in adolescence: two surveys of 3235 Canadian students. BMC Public Health, 6, 116.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Giedd, J. N. (2004). Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 77–85.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Giedd, J. N., Blumenthal, J., Jeffries, N. O., Castellanos, F. X., Liu, H., Zijdenbos, A., et al. (1999). Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study. Nature Neuroscience, 2(10), 861–863.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Giedd, J. N., Blumenthal, J., Jeffries, N. O., Rajapakse, J. C., Vaituzis, A. C., Liu, H., et al. (1999). Development of the human corpus callosum during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 23(4), 571–588.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Giedd, J. N., Stockman, M., Weddle, C., Liverpool, M., Alexander-Bloch, A., Wallace, G. L., et al. (2010). Anatomic magnetic resonance imaging of the developing child and adolescent brain and effects of genetic variation. Neuropsychology Review, 20(4), 349–361.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gogtay, N., Giedd, J. N., Lusk, L., Hayashi, K. M., Greenstein, D., Vaituzis, A. C., et al. (2004). Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(21), 8174–8179.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gray, E. K., & Watson, D. (2002). General and specific traits of personality and their relation to sleep and academic performance. Journal of Personality, 70(2), 177–206.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gupta, N. K., Mueller, W. H., Chan, W., & Meininger, J. C. (2002). Is obesity associated with poor sleep quality in adolescents? American Journal of Human Biology, 14(6), 762–768.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hagenauer, M. H., Perryman, J. I., Lee, T. M., & Carskadon, M. A. (2009). Adolescent changes in the homeostatic and circadian regulation of sleep. Developmental Neuroscience, 31(4), 276–284.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Huttenlocher, P. R. (1979). Synaptic density in human frontal cortex—developmental changes and effects of aging. Brain Research, 163(2), 195–205.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Iber, C., Ancoli-Israel, S., Chesson, A., & Quan, S. F. (2007). The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: Rules, terminology and technical specifications (1st ed.). Westchester: American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jenni, O. G., Achermann, P., & Carskadon, M. A. (2005). Homeostatic sleep regulation in adolescents. Sleep, 28(11), 1446–1454.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jenni, O. G., & Carskadon, M. A. (2004). Spectral analysis of the sleep electroencephalogram during adolescence. Sleep, 27(4), 774–783.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jenni, O. G., van Reen, E., & Carskadon, M. A. (2005). Regional differences of the sleep electroencephalogram in adolescents. Journal of Sleep Research, 14(2), 141–147.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jernigan, T. L., Trauner, D. A., Hesselink, J. R., & Tallal, P. A. (1991). Maturation of human cerebrum observed in vivo during adolescence. Brain, 114(Pt 5), 2037–2049.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kahn, A., Van de Merckt, C., Rebuffat, E., Mozin, M. J., Sottiaux, M., Blum, D., et al. (1989). Sleep problems in healthy preadolescents. Pediatrics, 84(3), 542–546.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kauffman, A. S. (2010). Coming of age in the kisspeptin era: sex differences, development, and puberty. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 324(1–2), 51–63.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kelly, W. E., Kelly, K. E., & Clanton, R. C. (2001). The relationship between sleep length and grade point average among college students. College Studies Journal, 35, 84–86.

    Google Scholar 

  • Knutson, K. L. (2005). Sex differences in the association between sleep and body mass index in adolescents. Jornal de Pediatria, 147(6), 830–834.

    Google Scholar 

  • Knutson, K. L., Spiegel, K., Penev, P., & Van Cauter, E. (2007). The metabolic consequences of sleep deprivation. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 11(3), 163–178.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Knutson, K. L., & Van Cauter, E. (2008). Associations between sleep loss and increased risk of obesity and diabetes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1129, 287–304.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kurth, S., Jenni, O. G., Riedner, B. A., Tononi, G., Carskadon, M. A., & Huber, R. (2010). Characteristics of sleep slow waves in children and adolescents. Sleep, 33(4), 475–480.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kurth, S., Ringli, M., Geiger, A., LeBourgeois, M., Jenni, O. G., & Huber, R. (2010). Mapping of cortical activity in the first two decades of life: a high-density sleep electroencephalogram study. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30(40), 13211–13219.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Laberge, L., Petit, D., Simard, C., Vitaro, F., Tremblay, R. E., & Montplaisir, J. (2001). Development of sleep patterns in early adolescence. Journal of Sleep Research, 10(1), 59–67.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Laberge, L., Tremblay, R. E., Vitaro, F., & Montplaisir, J. (2000). Development of parasomnias from childhood to early adolescence. Pediatrics, 106(1 Pt 1), 67–74.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lazaratou, H., Dikeos, D. G., Anagnostopoulos, D. C., Sbokou, O., & Soldatos, C. R. (2005). Sleep problems in adolescence. A study of senior high school students in Greece. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(4), 237–243.

    Google Scholar 

  • Le Bihan, D. (2003). Looking into the functional architecture of the brain with diffusion MRI. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 4(6), 469–480.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Leproult, R., & Van Cauter, E. (2010). Role of sleep and sleep loss in hormonal release and metabolism. Endocrine Development, 17, 11–21.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Loessl, B., Valerius, G., Kopasz, M., Hornyak, M., Riemann, D., & Voderholzer, U. (2008). Are adolescents chronically sleep-deprived? An investigation of sleep habits of adolescents in the Southwest of Germany. Child: Care, Health and Development, 34(5), 549–556.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lopes Da Silva, F., & van Rotterdam, A. (2005). Biophysical Aspects of EEG and Magnetoencephalogram Generation. In F. Lopes Da Silva & E. Niedermeyer (Eds.), Electroencephaolography: Basic principles, clinical applications, and related fields (5th ed., pp. 107–125). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manni, R., Ratti, M. T., Marchioni, E., Castelnovo, G., Murelli, R., Sartori, I., et al. (1997). Poor sleep in adolescents: a study of 869 17-year-old Italian secondary school students. Journal of Sleep Research, 6(1), 44–49.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Massimini, M., Huber, R., Ferrarelli, F., Hill, S., & Tononi, G. (2004). The sleep slow oscillation as a traveling wave. The Journal of Neuroscience, 24(31), 6862–6870.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Matsumoto, K., Kaku, R., Nakagawa, K., & Kaneko, Z. (1975). Private school activities and psychosomatic problems in Japanese children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 5(3), 161–165.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nagy, Z., Westerberg, H., & Klingberg, T. (2004). Maturation of white matter is associated with the development of cognitive functions during childhood. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(7), 1227–1233.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Noland, H., Price, J. H., Dake, J., & Telljohann, S. K. (2009). Adolescents’ sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep. The Journal of School Health, 79(5), 224–230.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ohayon, M. M., Carskadon, M. A., Guilleminault, C., & Vitiello, M. V. (2004). Meta-analysis of quantitative sleep parameters from childhood to old age in healthy individuals: developing normative sleep values across the human lifespan. Sleep, 27(7), 1255–1273.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Olds, T., Blunden, S., Petkov, J., & Forchino, F. (2010a). The relationships between sex, age, geography and time in bed in adolescents: a meta-analysis of data from 23 countries. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14(6), 371–378.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Olds, T., Maher, C., Blunden, S., & Matricciani, L. (2010b). Normative data on the sleep habits of Australian children and adolescents. Sleep, 33(10), 1381–1388.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Orzel-Gryglewska, J. (2010). Consequences of sleep deprivation. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 23(1), 95–114.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pack, A. I., Pack, A. M., Rodgman, E., Cucchiara, A., Dinges, D. F., & Schwab, C. W. (1995). Characteristics of crashes attributed to the driver having fallen asleep. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 27(6), 769–775.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Paus, T. (2010). Growth of white matter in the adolescent brain: myelin or axon? Brain and Cognition, 72(1), 26–35.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Peper, J. S., Brouwer, R. M., Schnack, H. G., van Baal, G. C., van Leeuwen, M., van den Berg, S. M., et al. (2009). Sex steroids and brain structure in pubertal boys and girls. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(3), 332–342.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Perrin, J. S., Herve, P. Y., Leonard, G., Perron, M., Pike, G. B., Pitiot, A., et al. (2008). Growth of white matter in the adolescent brain: role of testosterone and androgen receptor. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28(38), 9519–9524.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Perrin, J. S., Leonard, G., Perron, M., Pike, G. B., Pitiot, A., Richer, L., et al. (2009). Sex differences in the growth of white matter during adolescence. Neuroimage, 45(4), 1055–1066.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pfefferbaum, A., Mathalon, D. H., Sullivan, E. V., Rawles, J. M., Zipursky, R. B., & Lim, K. O. (1994). A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study of changes in brain morphology from infancy to late adulthood. Archives of Neurology, 51(9), 874–887.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pfefferbaum, A., & Sullivan, E. V. (2010). Diffusion MR imaging in neuropsychiatry and aging. In J. H. Gillard, A. D. Waldman, & P. B. Barker (Eds.), Clinical MR neuroimaging: Diffusion, perfusion and spectroscopy (2nd ed., pp. 593–617). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Philips, A. J., Chen, P. Y., & Robinson, P. A. (2010). Probing the mechanisms of chronotype using quantitative modeling. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 25(3), 217–227.

    Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, B. A., Collop, N. A., Drake, C., Consens, F., Vgontzas, A. N., & Weaver, T. E. (2008). Sleep disorders and medical conditions in women. Proceedings of the women & sleep workshop, national sleep foundation, Washington, DC, March 5-6, 2007. J Womens Health (Larchmt), 17(7), 1191–1199.

    Google Scholar 

  • Randler, C. (2008). Morningness-eveningness comparison in adolescents from different countries around the world. Chronobiology International, 25(6), 1017–1028.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ravenhill, A. (1910). Some results of an investigation among children in the elementary schools of England. Archiv. fur Schulhygiene, 5.

  • Reid, A., Maldonado, C. C., & Baker, F. C. (2002). Sleep behavior of South African adolescents. Sleep, 25(4), 423–427.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Reiss, A. L., Abrams, M. T., Singer, H. S., Ross, J. L., & Denckla, M. B. (1996). Brain development, gender and IQ in children. A volumetric imaging study. Brain, 119(Pt 5), 1763–1774.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, R. E., Roberts, C. R., & Chen, I. G. (2001). Functioning of adolescents with symptoms of disturbed sleep. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(1), 1–18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, R. E., Roberts, C. R., & Duong, H. T. (2009). Sleepless in adolescence: prospective data on sleep deprivation, health and functioning. Journal of Adolescence, 32(5), 1045–1057.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Roenneberg, T., Kuehnle, T., Pramstaller, P. P., Ricken, J., Havel, M., Guth, A., et al. (2004). A marker for the end of adolescence. Current Biology, 14(24), R1038–1039.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Romeo, R. D., Waters, E. M., & McEwen, B. S. (2004). Steroid-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity: sex differences and similarities. Neuron Glia Biology, 1(3), 219–229.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Russo, P. M., Bruni, O., Lucidi, F., Ferri, R., & Violani, C. (2007). Sleep habits and circadian preference in Italian children and adolescents. Journal of Sleep Research, 16(2), 163–169.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Saarenpaa-Heikkila, O. A., Rintahaka, P. J., Laippala, P. J., & Koivikko, M. J. (1995). Sleep habits and disorders in Finnish schoolchildren. Journal of Sleep Research, 4(3), 173–182.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sadeh, A., Dahl, R. E., Shahar, G., & Rosenblat-Stein, S. (2009). Sleep and the transition to adolescence: a longitudinal study. Sleep, 32(12), 1602–1609.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schmithorst, V. J., & Yuan, W. (2010). White matter development during adolescence as shown by diffusion MRI. Brain and Cognition, 72(1), 16–25.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schulenberg, J. E., Sameroff, A. J., & Cicchetti, D. (2004). The transition to adulthood as a critical juncture in the course of psychopathology and mental health. Development and Psychopathology, 16(4), 799–806.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schulz, K. M., Molenda-Figueira, H. A., & Sisk, C. L. (2009). Back to the future: the organizational-activational hypothesis adapted to puberty and adolescence. Hormones and Behavior, 55(5), 597–604.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schulz, K. M., & Sisk, C. L. (2006). Pubertal hormones, the adolescent brain, and the maturation of social behaviors: lessons from the Syrian hamster. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 254–255, 120–126.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Seeman, P. (1999). Images in neuroscience. Brain development, X: pruning during development. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(2), 168.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Segalowitz, S. J., Santesso, D. L., & Jetha, M. K. (2010). Electrophysiological changes during adolescence: a review. Brain and Cognition, 72(1), 86–100.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shaw, P., Kabani, N. J., Lerch, J. P., Eckstrand, K., Lenroot, R., Gogtay, N., et al. (2008). Neurodevelopmental trajectories of the human cerebral cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28(14), 3586–3594.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Siegel, J. M. (2009). Sleep viewed as a state of adaptive inactivity. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 10(10), 747–753.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sisk, C. L., & Foster, D. L. (2004). The neural basis of puberty and adolescence. Nature Neuroscience, 7(10), 1040–1047.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Song, S. K., Sun, S. W., Ramsbottom, M. J., Chang, C., Russell, J., & Cross, A. H. (2002). Dysmyelination revealed through MRI as increased radial (but unchanged axial) diffusion of water. Neuroimage, 17(3), 1429–1436.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sowell, E. R., Thompson, P. M., & Toga, A. W. (2004). Mapping changes in the human cortex throughout the span of life. The Neuroscientist, 10(4), 372–392.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sowell, E. R., Trauner, D. A., Gamst, A., & Jernigan, T. L. (2002). Development of cortical and subcortical brain structures in childhood and adolescence: a structural MRI study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 44(1), 4–16.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Spiegel, K., Knutson, K., Leproult, R., Tasali, E., & Van Cauter, E. (2005). Sleep loss: a novel risk factor for insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(5), 2008–2019.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Spiegel, K., Tasali, E., Leproult, R., Scherberg, N., & Van Cauter, E. (2010). Twenty-four-hour profiles of acylated and total Ghrelin: Relationship with glucose levels and impact of time of day and sleep. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, Epub ahead of print.

  • Spiegel, K., Tasali, E., Leproult, R., & Van Cauter, E. (2009). Effects of poor and short sleep on glucose metabolism and obesity risk. Nature Reviews Endrocrinology, 5(5), 253–261.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Steen, R. G., Ogg, R. J., Reddick, W. E., & Kingsley, P. B. (1997). Age-related changes in the pediatric brain: quantitative MR evidence of maturational changes during adolescence. AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 18(5), 819–828.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stiles, J., & Jernigan, T. L. (2010). The basics of brain development. Neuropsychology Review, 20(4), 327–348.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Strauch, I., & Meier, B. (1988). Sleep need in adolescents: a longitudinal approach. Sleep, 11(4), 378–386.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Strausz, T., Ahlberg, J., Lobbezoo, F., Restrepo, C. C., Hublin, C., Ahlberg, K., et al. (2010). Awareness of tooth grinding and clenching from adolescence to young adulthood: a nine-year follow-up. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 37(7), 497–500.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan, E. V., & Pfefferbaum, A. (2010). Diffusion tensor imaging in aging and age-related disorders. In D. K. Jones (Ed.), Diffusion MRI: Theory, methods and applications (pp. In Press). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Sun, S. W., Liang, H. F., Trinkaus, K., Cross, A. H., Armstrong, R. C., & Song, S. K. (2006). Noninvasive detection of cuprizone induced axonal damage and demyelination in the mouse corpus callosum. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 55(2), 302–308.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Szymczak, J. T., Jasinska, M., Pawlak, E., & Zwierzykowska, M. (1993). Annual and weekly changes in the sleep-wake rhythm of school children. Sleep, 16(5), 433–435.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Talbot, L. S., McGlinchey, E. L., Kaplan, K. A., Dahl, R. E., & Harvey, A. G. (2010). Sleep deprivation in adolescents and adults: Changes in affect. Emotion, Epub ahead of print.

  • Tanner, J. M. (1962). Growth at adolescence (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tarokh, L., & Carskadon, M. A. (2010). Developmental changes in the human sleep EEG during early adolescence. Sleep, 33(6), 801–809.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, D. J., Jenni, O. G., Acebo, C., & Carskadon, M. A. (2005). Sleep tendency during extended wakefulness: insights into adolescent sleep regulation and behavior. Journal of Sleep Research, 14(3), 239–244.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Terman, L. M., & Hocking, A. (1913). The sleep of school children; its distribution according to age, and its relation to physical and mental efficiency. J. Educational Psychology, 4, 138–147.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, P. M., Giedd, J. N., Woods, R. P., MacDonald, D., Evans, A. C., & Toga, A. W. (2000). Growth patterns in the developing brain detected by using continuum mechanical tensor maps. Nature, 404(6774), 190–193.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tononi, G., & Cirelli, C. (2006). Sleep function and synaptic homeostasis. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 10(1), 49–62.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Trockel, M. T., Barnes, M. D., & Egget, D. L. (2000). Health-related variables and academic performance among first-year college students: implications for sleep and other behaviors. Journal of American College Health, 49(3), 125–131.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tynjala, J., Kannas, L., & Levalahti, E. (1997). Perceived tiredness among adolescents and its association with sleep habits and use of psychoactive substances. Journal of Sleep Research, 6(3), 189–198.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Urner, M., Tornic, J., & Bloch, K. E. (2009). Sleep patterns in high school and university students: a longitudinal study. Chronobiology International, 26(6), 1222–1234.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Van Cauter, E., & Knutson, K. L. (2008). Sleep and the epidemic of obesity in children and adults. European Journal of Endocrinology, 159(Suppl 1), S59–66.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Van Cauter, E., Spiegel, K., Tasali, E., & Leproult, R. (2008). Metabolic consequences of sleep and sleep loss. Sleep Medicine, 9(Suppl 1), S23–28.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vignau, J., Bailly, D., Duhamel, A., Vervaecke, P., Beuscart, R., & Collinet, C. (1997). Epidemiologic study of sleep quality and troubles in French secondary school adolescents. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 21(5), 343–350.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Walker, M. P. (2008). Cognitive consequences of sleep and sleep loss. Sleep Medicine, 9(Suppl 1), S29–34.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Weiss, A., Xu, F., Storfer-Isser, A., Thomas, A., Ievers-Landis, C. E., & Redline, S. (2010). The association of sleep duration with adolescents' fat and carbohydrate consumption. Sleep, 33(9), 1201–1209.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Whitford, T. J., Rennie, C. J., Grieve, S. M., Clark, C. R., Gordon, E., & Williams, L. M. (2007). Brain maturation in adolescence: concurrent changes in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. Human Brain Mapping, 28(3), 228–237.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wolfson, A. R., & Carskadon, M. A. (1998). Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents. Child Development, 69(4), 875–887.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yakovlev, P., & Lecours, A. (1967). The myelogenetic cycles of regional maturation in the brain. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang, C. K., Kim, J. K., Patel, S. R., & Lee, J. H. (2005). Age-related changes in sleep/wake patterns among Korean teenagers. Pediatrics, 115(1 Suppl), 250–256.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Supported by

NIH grants AA017320, AA005965 and HL088088

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ian M. Colrain.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Colrain, I.M., Baker, F.C. Changes in Sleep as a Function of Adolescent Development. Neuropsychol Rev 21, 5–21 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-010-9155-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-010-9155-5

Keywords

  • Sleep
  • Adolescence
  • Sleepiness
  • Circadian