The Future Vocation of Neural Stem Cells: Lineage Commitment in Brain Development and Evolution
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Understanding the fate commitment of neural stem cells is critical to identify the regulatory mechanisms in developing brains. Genetic lineage-tracing has provided a powerful strategy to unveil the heterogeneous nature of stem cells and their descendants. However, recent studies have reported controversial data regarding the heterogeneity of neural stem cells in the developing mouse neocortex, which prevents a decisive conclusion on this issue. Here, we review the progress that has been made using lineage-tracing analyses of the developing neocortex and discuss stem cell heterogeneity from the viewpoint of comparative and evolutionary biology.
KeywordsNeocortex Neural stem cells Lineage commitment Evolution
We thank Drs. Ei-ichi Izawa, Hideyo Ohuchi and Yoshinori Shichida for providing brains of jungle crow and common marmoset. This review article is based on several research projects that were supported by the Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research Innovative Areas No. 26118510 (to T.N.): “The Evolutionary Origin and Neural Basis of Empathetic Systems”, No. 26118510 (to T.N.): “Integrative understanding of biological phenomena with temperature as a key theme” No. 16H01394, and PRESTO, the Japan Science Technology Agency (JST)(to T.N.).
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