High Glucose Enhances Isoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity by Regulating TRPC-Dependent Calcium Influx


Isoflurane is a commonly used inhalational anesthetic that can induce neurotoxicity via elevating cytosolic calcium (Ca2+). High glucose regulates the expression of a family of non-selective cation channels termed transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels that may contribute to Ca2+ influx. In the present study, we investigated whether high glucose enhances isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by regulating TRPC-dependent Ca2+ influx. First, we evaluated toxic damage in mice primary cultured hippocampal neurons and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cells) after hyperglycemia and isoflurane exposure. Next, we investigated cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, TRPC mRNA expression levels and tested the effect of the TRPC channel blocker SKF96365 on cytosolic Ca2+ levels in cells treated with high glucose or/and isoflurane. Finally, we employed knocked down TRPC6 to demonstrate the role of TRPC in high glucose-mediated enhancement of isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. The results showed that high glucose could enhance isoflurane-induecd toxic damage in primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. High glucose enhanced the isoflurane-induced increase of cytosolic Ca2+ in SH-SY5Y cells. High glucose elevated TRPC mRNA expression, especially that of TRPC6. SKF96365 and knock down of TRPC6 were able to inhibit the high glucose-induced increase of cytosolic Ca2+ and decrease isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells cultured with high glucose. Our findings indicate that high glucose could elevate TRPC expression, thus increasing Ca2+ influx and enhancing isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.

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Endoplasmic reticulum


Lactate dehydrogenase


Postoperative cognitive dysfunction


Transient receptor potential canonical channels


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This study was supported by Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2016A020215111) and the National Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81471272). None of the authors have financial relationships with biotechnology manufacturers, pharmaceutical companies, or other commercial entities with an interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscripts.

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Correspondence to ShiYuan Xu.

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ZhongJie Liu, ChangQing Ma and Wei Zhao have contributed equally to this work.

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Liu, Z., Ma, C., Zhao, W. et al. High Glucose Enhances Isoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity by Regulating TRPC-Dependent Calcium Influx. Neurochem Res 42, 1165–1178 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-016-2152-1

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  • Hyperglycemia
  • Isoflurane
  • Neurotoxicity
  • TRPC channels