Neurochemical Research

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 625–633 | Cite as

Distinct Expression of Various Angiogenesis Factors in Mice Brain After Whole-Brain Irradiation by X-ray

  • Zhezhi Deng
  • Haiwei Huang
  • Xiaohong Wu
  • Mengmeng Wu
  • Guoyong He
  • Junjie Guo
Original Paper


Radiation-induced brain injury (RBI) is the most serious complication after radiotherapy. However, the etiology of RBI remains elusive. In order to evaluate the effect of X-rays on normal brain tissue, adult male BALB/C mice were subjected to whole-brain exposure with a single dose of 10 Gy or sham radiation. The structure and number of mice brain vessels were investigated 1, 7, 30, 90 and 180 days after irradiation by H&E staining and immune-fluorescence staining. Compared with sham control mice, in addition to morphological changes, a significant reduction of microvascular density was detected in irradiated mice brains. Whole-brain irradiation also caused damage in tight junction (TJ). Increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was observed in irradiated mouse brains showed by Western Blot. Immune-fluorescence staining results also verified the co-labeling of GFAP and VEGF after whole-brain irradiation. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of other angiogenesis factors, angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (Tie-2), and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in brain were determined by Western Blot. Increased expression of Ang-2 was shown in irradiated mouse brains. In contrast, whole-brain irradiation significantly decreased Ang-1 and Tie-2 expression. Our data indicated that X-rays induced time-dependent microvascular injury and activation of astrocytes after whole-brain irradiation in mouse brain. Distinct regulation of VEGF/Ang2 and Ang-1/Tie-2 are closely associated with RBI, suggesting that angiogenesis interventions might be beneficial for patients with RBI.


Radiation-induced brain injury Angiogenesis Mice 



The funding was provided by Guangzhou Science and Technology Program (CN) (Grant No. 2014Y2-00155) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81271386).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest


Supplementary material

11064_2016_2118_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 14 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhezhi Deng
    • 1
  • Haiwei Huang
    • 1
  • Xiaohong Wu
    • 1
  • Mengmeng Wu
    • 1
  • Guoyong He
    • 1
  • Junjie Guo
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of NeurologyFirst Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina

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