Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Activities of Mogami-benibana (Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius Linne)
- 537 Downloads
Free radical scavenging activity of the extracts of petals (bud, early stage, full blooming and ending stage), leaf, stem, root and seeds of Mogami-benibana (safflower, Carthamus tinctorius Linne), the contents of the major active components of carthamin and polyphenols, and neuroprotective effect of the petal extracts and carthamin in the brain of mice and rats were examined. Water extracts of Mogami-benibana petals scavenged superoxide, hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and singlet oxygen. The scavenging activities of the extract of safflower petals with various colors showed the order of orange, yellow and white from high to low. This order is consistent with the contents of carthamin, which is a pigment of orange color and is found highest in orange petals and lowest in white petals. There was also a relationship between DPPH radical scavenging activity and carthamin content in the petal extracts of safflower. The neuroprotective effects were examined in cellular and animal models. Mogami-benibana petal extract inhibited glutamate-induced C6 glia cell death, significantly decreased the formation of malondialdehyde in mouse cerebrum, and inhibited the increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the cerebral cortex of rats subjected to an injection of FeCl3 solution into the sensory motor cortex. Carthamin showed similar effects in inhibiting 8-OHdG by the petal extract in rats. These results suggest that the petal extract of Mogami-benibana has free radical scavenging activity and neuroprotective effect and carthamin is one of the major active components.
KeywordsMogami-benibana (safflower, Carthamus tinctorius Linne) Petals Free radical Carthamin Polyphenol Mice Rats Brain oxidative damage
The authors thank Dr. Feng Liu at the University of California, Irvine and Dr. Jiankang Liu at University of Kentucky College of Medicine for their critical reading and comments for this manuscript. This study was supported by grants-in-aid of Tohoku University of Community Service and Science in 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2005, and Nissin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Yamagata, Japan.
- 1.Hiramatsu M (2006) Free radicals scavengers and neuroprotection. In: Hiramatsu M, Yoshikawa T, Packer L (eds) Molecular interventions in lifestyle-related diseases. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 107–115Google Scholar
- 2.Packer L, Hiramatsu M, Yoshikawa T (eds) (1996) Free radicals in brain physiology and disorders. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 3.Todoki K, Okabe E, Ogawa H et al (1983) The increase in peripheral blood flow induced by Carthamus t. and Arnica m. Kanagawa Shigaku 18:64–69 (in Japansese)Google Scholar
- 4.Ogata K, Kimura T, Hosoya E, Sato T (1990) Mutagenicity and antibacterial activity of Carthamus tinctorius L. I. Yamagata Eiken-Shoho 23:43–48Google Scholar
- 6.Huang X, Hattori M, Namba T (1992) Effects of a carthami flos extract and its constituents on the beating amplitude of cultured myocardial cells sheets. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 46:210–216Google Scholar
- 7.Kasahara Y (1988) Studies on physiologically active, natural products in Yamagata prefecture—pharamacological actions of Carthamus tinctrius. Yamagata Eiken-Shoho 21:9–15Google Scholar
- 8.Kasahara Y (1991) Pharmacological studies on flower petals of Carthamus tinctrius (II) antiinflammatory effect. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 45:306–315Google Scholar
- 13.Obara H, Onodera J, Sato S (1993) Carthamin, the red pigment of safflower. Bull Yamagata Univ 22:91–104Google Scholar
- 17.Hiramatsu M, Komatsu M, Imao K (2001) Determination of antioxidant effect by ESR-CT imaging of rat brain tissue damage formed during iron-induced epileprogenesis in rats. In: Nesaretnam K, Packer L et al (eds) Micronutrients and health: molecular biological mechanisms. AOCS, Urbana, pp 247–253Google Scholar
- 20.Koyama N, Kuribayashi K, Seki T et al (2006) Serotonin derivatives, major safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed antioxidants, inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Agric Food Chem 12:4970–4976. doi: 10.1021/jf060254p CrossRefGoogle Scholar