Neurochemical Research

, Volume 32, Issue 9, pp 1547–1551 | Cite as

Effects of Methylprednisolone and Hyperbaric Oxygen on Oxidative Status after Experimental Spinal Cord Injury: A Comparative Study in Rats

  • Serdar Kahraman
  • Bülent Düz
  • Hakan Kayali
  • Ahmet Korkmaz
  • Sükrü ÖterEmail author
  • Ahmet Aydin
  • Ahmet Sayal
Original Paper


The effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy or methylprednisolone on the oxidative status were evaluated in experimental spinal cord injury. Clip compression method was used to produce acute spinal cord injury rats. Hyperbaric oxygen was administered twice daily for a total of eight 90 min-sessions at 2.8 atmospheres. Methylprednisolone was first injected with a bolus of 30 mg/kg followed with an infusion rate of 5.4 mg/kg/h for 24 h. Five days after clip application animals were sacrificed and their traumatized spinal cord segment were excised. Tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were evaluated to reflect oxidant/antioxidant status. Non-treated clip-operated animals reflected significantly higher SOD, GSH-Px and TBARS levels that were found to be significantly higher than the sham-operated. Methylprednisolone was not able to lower these levels. HBO administration diminished all measured parameters significantly; however, their levels appeared already to be high when compared with sham animals. According to these results obtained on the 5th day after induction, HBO, but not methylprednisolone, seems to procure prevention against oxidative spinal cord injury.


Spinal cord injury Hyperbaric oxygen Methylprednisolone Oxidative stress 


  1. 1.
    Tuzgen S, Kaynar MY, Guner A et al (1998) The effect of epidural cooling on lipid peroxidation after experimental spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 36:654–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ducker TB, Kindt GW, Kempe LG (1971) Pathological findings in acute experimental spinal cord trauma. J Neurosurg 35:700–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson DK, Means ED, Waters TR et al (1982) Microvascular perfusion and metabolism in injured spinal cord after methylprednisolone treatment. J Neurosurg 56:106–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Braughler JM, Hall ED (1983) Lactate and pyruvate metabolism in the injured cat spinal cord before and after a single large intravenous dose of methylprednisolone. J Neurosurg 59:256–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rawe SE, Lee WA, Perot PL (1981) Spinal cord glucose utilization after experimental spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery 9:40–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Young W, Flamm ES (1982) Effect of high-dose corticosteroid therapy on blood flow, evoked potentials, and extracellular calcium in experimental spinal injury. J Neurosurg 57:661–673Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Braughler JM, Hall ED (1989) Central Nervous system trauma and stroke. I. Biochemical considerations for oxygen radical formation and lipid peroxidation. Free Radic Biol Med 6:2289–2301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fujimoto T, Nakamura T, Ikeda T et al (2000) Effects of EPC-K1 on lipid peroxidation in experimental spinal cord injury. Spine 25:24–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lavan FB, Hurt TK (1990) Oxygen and wound healing. Clin Plast Surg 17:463–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Knighton DR, Silver IA, Hunt TK (1981) Regulation of wound-healing angiogenesis-effect of oxygen gradients and inspired oxygen concentration. Surgery 90:262–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kindwall EP, Gottlieb LJ, Larson D (1991) Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in plastic surgery: a review article. Plastic Recons Surg 88:898–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tompach PC, Lew D, Stoll JL (1997) Cell response to hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 26:82–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gamache FW Jr, Myers RA, Ducker TB et al (1981) The clinical application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in spinal cord injury: a preliminary report. Surg Neurol 15:85–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Asamoto S, Sugiyama H, Doi H et al (2000) Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy for acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 38:538–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ishihara H, Kanamori M, Kawaguchi Y et al (2001) Prediction of neurologic outcome in patients with spinal cord injury by using hyperbaric oxygen therapy. J Orthop Sci 6:385–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Huang L, Mehta MP, Eichhorn JH et al (2003) Multiple hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) expands the therapeutic window in acute spinal cord injury in rats. Acta Neurochir Suppl 86:433–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nie H, Xiong L, Lao N et al (2006) Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning induces tolerance against spinal cord ischemia by upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in rabbits. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 26:666–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aydın A, Orhan H, Sayal A et al (2001) Oxidative stress and nitric oxide related parameters in type II diabetes mellitus. Effects of glycemic control. Clin Biochem 34:65–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ildan F, Polat S, Oner A et al (1995) Effects of Naloxon on sodium and potassium activated and Magnesium dependent Adenosine- 5’- Triphosphatase activity and lipid peroxidation and early ultrastructural findings after experimental spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery 36:797–805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Demediuk P, Saunders RD, Clendenon NR et al (1985) Changes in lipid metabolism in traumatized spinal cord. Prog Brain Res 63:1–16Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wrathall JR, Teng YD, Choiniere D (1996) Amelioration of functional deficits from spinal cord trauma with systemically administered NBQX, an antagonist of non-N-methyl- D-aspartate receptors. Exp Neurol 137:119–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schmidley JW (1990) Free radicals in central nervous system ischemia. Stroke 21:1086–1090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Av’eret N, Coussemasq M, Cohadon F (1990) Thiobarbituric acid reactive material content and enzymatic protection against peroxidative damage during the course of cryogenic rabbit brain edema. Neurochem Res 15:791–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chan PH, Longar S, Fishman RA (1983) Phospholipid degradation and edema development in cold injured rat brain. Brain Res 277:329–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Inci S, Ozcan OE, Kilinç K (1998) Time-level relationship for lipid peroxidation and the protective effect of alpha-tocopherol in experimental mild and severe brain injury. Neurosurgery 43:330–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bracken MB, Shephard MJ, Collins WF et al (1990) A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the tratment of acute spinal cord injury. New Engl J Med 322:1405–1411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hall ED, Braughler JM (1989) Central nervous system trauma and stroke. II. Physiological and pharmacological evidence for the involvement of oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation. Free Radic Biol Med 6:303–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Braughler JM, Hall ED (1983) Uptake and elimination of methylprednisolone from contused cat spinal cord following intravenous injection of the sodium succinate ester. J Neurosurg 58:538–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Feldmeier JJ (2003) Hyperbaric oxygen: indications and results; the hyperbaric oxygen therapy committee report. Undersea & Hyperbaric Medical Society, Kensington, MDGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1989) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yusa T, Beckman JS, Crapo JD et al (1987) Hyperoxia increases H2O2 production by brain in vivo. J Appl Physiol 63:353–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hink J, Jansen E (2001) Superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide responsible for some of the beneficial effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy? Med Hypotheses 57:764–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ozden TA, Uzun H, Bohloli M et al (2004) The effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on oxidant and antioxidants levels during liver regeneration in rats. Tohoku J Exp Med 203:253–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Oter S, Edremitlioglu M, Korkmaz A et al (2005) Effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on liver functions, oxidative status and histology in septic rats. Intensive Care Med 31:1262–1268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Oter S, Korkmaz A, Topal T et al (2005) Correlation between hyperbaric oxygen exposure pressures and oxidative parameters in rat lung, brain, and erythrocytes. Clin Biochem 38:706–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serdar Kahraman
    • 1
  • Bülent Düz
    • 1
  • Hakan Kayali
    • 1
  • Ahmet Korkmaz
    • 2
  • Sükrü Öter
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ahmet Aydin
    • 3
  • Ahmet Sayal
    • 3
  1. 1.Gülhane Askeri Tip AkademisiAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Gülhane Askeri Tip AkademisiAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Gülhane Askeri Tip AkademisiAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations