Tetrahydrobiopterin Availability in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Disease; Potential Pathogenic Mechanisms
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Within the central nervous system, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for dopamine and serotonin synthesis. In addition, BH4 is now established to be an essential cofactor for all isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Inborn errors of metabolism affecting BH4 availability are well documented and the clinical presentation can be attributed to a paucity of dopamine, serotonin, and nitric oxide (NO) generation. In this article, we have focussed upon the sensitivity of BH4 to oxidative catabolism and the observation that when BH4 is limiting some cellular sources of NOS may generate superoxide whilst other BH4 saturated NOS enzymes may be generating NO. Such a scenario could favor peroxynitrite generation. If peroxynitrite is not scavenged, e.g., by antioxidants such as reduced glutathione, irreversible damage to critical cellular enzymes could ensue. Such targets include components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and possibly pyruvate dehydrogenase. Such a cascade of events is hypothesized, in this article, to occur in neurodegerative conditions such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.
KeywordsTetrahydrobiopterin Parkinson’s Alzheimers Nitric oxide Nitrosative stress
We are grateful to the Brain Research Trust and Medical Research Council (UK) who have supported our research into BH4 metabolism.
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