Neural Processing Letters

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 745–764 | Cite as

Competitive Brain Emotional Learning

  • E. Lotfi
  • O. Khazaei
  • F. Khazaei


Brain emotional learning (BEL) methods are a recently developed class of emotional brain-inspired algorithms, that enjoy feed-forward computational complexity on the order of O(n). BEL methods suffer from a major drawback related to the non-linear problem solving ability, i.e. they cannot solve n-bit parity problems in which \(\hbox {n} \ge 3\). The present paper proposes a competitive BEL (C-BEL) capable of accommodating a higher number of bits in the parity problem. The proposed C-BEL is inspired by the competitive property of neucortex’s neurocircuits. The method is tested on n-bit parity, function approximation and a pattern recognition problem. Various comparisons with the reinforcement BEL (R-BEL), supervised BEL (S-BEL), evolutionary BEL (E-BEL), a Boltzmann machine and a convolutional neural network indicate the superiority of the approach in terms of its higher ability in non-linear problem solving, function approximation and pattern recognition.


Amygdala OFC BELBIC Emotional neural network 



The author greatly acknowledge support by the Islamic Azad University of Torbat-e-Jam under grant SAL-E-1394.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Engineering, Torbat-e Jam BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTorbat-e JamIran
  2. 2.Department of Psychology, Quchan BranchIslamic Azad UniversityQuchanIran
  3. 3.Department of Psychology, Torbat-e Jam BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTorbat-e JamIran

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