Skip to main content

Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of an Extract of Fadogia agrestis in Rats

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous extract produced from Fadogia agrestis (family Rubiaceae) stem bark were investigated using animal models. Significant dose-dependent increases in the reaction time in the tail-flick test and inhibition of writhing in the visceral pain test (i.p. injections of acetic acid) with P up to < 0.001, when compared with the control, were observed. In an anti-inflammatory investigation, we also found significant dose-dependent inhibitions in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton-pellet granuloma tests. The extract in the highest non-sedative dose tested (200 mg/kg) demonstrated a potency comparable with that of a reference analgesic anti-inflammatory drug, acetylsalicylate (Aspirin, 100 mg/kg). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins in the extract. The relieving effects of Fadogia are probably mediated by the influences of active components of the extract on both central and peripheral nociceptive/antinociceptive neural mechanisms. Therefore, our investigation explains the rationale behind the ethnomedicinal usage of the mentioned plant to relieve pain and inflammation, as claimed by local users, and shows that further studies of the mechanisms underlying the effects of the remedy tested are expedient.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    A. E. Baue, R. Durham, and E. Faist, “Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), multiple organ failure (MOF): Are we winning the battle?” Shock, 10, No. 2, 79-89 (1998).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    F. R. Irvin, Woody Plants of Ghana, Oxford Univ. Press, London (1961).

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    M. T. Yakubu, M. A. Akanji, and A. T. Oladiji, “Aphrodisiac potentials of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. ex Hiern) stem in male albino rat,” Asian J. Androl., 7, No. 4, 399-404 (2005).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    J. B. Harborne, Phytochemical Methods, Chapman and Hall, London, New York (1984).

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    O. A. Oyekunle, G. F. Ibironke, S. F. Ige, et al., “Relationship between the plasma testosterone level and pain reaction times in male rats,” Neurophysiology, 41, No. 3, 193-195 (2009).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    J. B. Periyanayagam, S. K. Sharma, A. Joseph, and A. J. Christina, “Evaluation of antipyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn.),” J. Ethnopharmacol., 95, 83 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    H. O. Collier, L. C. Dinneen, C. A. Johnson, and C. Scheider, “The abdominal contraction response and its suppression by antinociceptive drugs in the mouse,” Br. J. Pharm. Chemother., 32, 295 (1968).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    C. A. Winter and G. W. Risely, “Carrageenan-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drug,” Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 111, 544 (1963).

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    H. Hosseinzadeh and G. Salamani, “Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Zataria multiflora (Boiss) extracts in mice and rats,” J. Ethnopharmacol., 73, 379-385 (2000).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    L. Vyklicky, “Techniques for the study of pain in animals,” in: Bonica, J. J. Liebeskind and J. C. Albe-Fessard (eds.), Adv. Pain Res. Ther., Raven Press, New York (1979), pp. 727-745.

  11. 11.

    A. H. Atta and A. Alkofahi, “Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts,” J. Ethnopharmacol., 60, 117-124 (1997).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    E. T. Wei, J. G. Kiang, P. Buchan, and T. W. Smith, “Corticotrophin-releasing factor inhibits neurogenic plasma extravasation in the rat paw,” J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 238, 783-787 (1986).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    S. W. Hajare, C. Suresh, S. K. Tandan, et al., “Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Dalbergia sissoo leaves,” Indian J. Pharmacol., 32, 357-360 (2000).

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    N. G. Maria Elena, S. E. Jose Arthur Da, С. Souccar, and J. L. Antonio, “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of Plantango major L.,” Int. J. Pharmacognosy, 35, 99-104 (1997).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    R. N. Takahashi and M. M. Paz, “Influence of naloxone on the analgesic effects of antidepressants,” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 20, 607-610 (1987).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    S. Y. Yeh, “Potentiation of pentazocine antinociception by tripelennamine in rat,” J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 235, 683-689 (1985).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    R. A. Turner, Screening Methods in Pharmacology, Academic Press, New York (1965).

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    G. Ciarino, “Multiple controls in inflammation: extracellular and intracellular phospholipase A2, inducible and constitutive cyclooxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase,” Biochem. Pharmacol., 55, 111 (1988).

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    J. R. Vane, “Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs,” Nature, 231, 232 (1979).

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    L. B. Fernanda, A. K. Vitor, T. H. Amelia, and E. Elaine, “Analgesic properties of Umbellatine from Pschotria umbellata,” Pharm. Biol., 40, No. 5, 336-341 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    R. E. Schultes and R. F. Raffauf, The Healing Forest: Medicinal and Toxic Plants of the Northwest Amazonia, Dioscorides Press, Portland (1990).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to O. A. Oyekunle.

Additional information

Neirofiziologiya/Neurophysiology, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 147-152, March-April, 2010.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Oyekunle, O.A., Okojie, A.K. & Udoh, U.S. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of an Extract of Fadogia agrestis in Rats. Neurophysiology 42, 124–129 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11062-010-9140-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. ex Hiern)
  • analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects
  • tail-flick test
  • writhing
  • edema
  • granuloma