Postoperative outcomes following glioblastoma resection using a robot-assisted digital surgical exoscope: a case series



Maximal extent of resection (EOR) of glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with greater progression free survival (PFS) and improved patient outcomes. Recently, a novel surgical system has been developed that includes a 2D, robotically-controlled exoscope and brain tractography display. The purpose of this study was to assess outcomes in a series of patients with GBM undergoing resections using this surgical exoscope.


A retrospective review was conducted for robotic exoscope assisted GBM resections between 2017 and 2019. EOR was computed from volumetric analyses of pre- and post-operative MRIs. Demographics, pathology/MGMT status, imaging, treatment, and outcomes data were collected. The relationship between these perioperative variables and discharge disposition as well as progression-free survival (PFS) was explored.


A total of 26 patients with GBM (median age = 57 years) met inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 28 cases. Of these, 22 (79%) tumors were in eloquent regions, most commonly in the frontal lobe (14 cases, 50%). The median pre- and post-operative volumes were 24.0 cc and 1.3 cc, respectively. The median extent of resection for the cohort was 94.8%, with 86% achieving 6-month PFS. The most common neurological complication was a motor deficit followed by sensory loss, while 8 patients (29%) were symptom-free.


The robotic exoscope is safe and effective for patients undergoing GBM surgery, with a majority achieving large-volume resections. These patients experienced complication profiles similar to those undergoing treatment with the traditional microscope. Further studies are needed to assess direct comparisons between exoscope and microscope-assisted GBM resection.

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Correspondence to Constantinos G. Hadjipanayis.

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Conflict of interest

Constantinos Hadjipanayis is a consultant for NX Development Corp. (NXDC) and Synaptive Medical Inc. He receives royalties from NXDC.

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Baron, R.B., Lakomkin, N., Schupper, A.J. et al. Postoperative outcomes following glioblastoma resection using a robot-assisted digital surgical exoscope: a case series. J Neurooncol 148, 519–527 (2020).

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  • Complications
  • Exoscope
  • Extent of resection
  • Progression-free survival
  • Robotics