Journal of Neuro-Oncology

, Volume 138, Issue 1, pp 83–97 | Cite as

Pediatric neuro-oncology survival disparities in California

  • Tabitha Cooney
  • Paul G. Fisher
  • Li Tao
  • Christina A. Clarke
  • Sonia Partap
Clinical Study


The objective of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic differences in survival for pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG) and medulloblastoma in the state of California. We obtained data from the California Cancer Registry on 552 high-grade glioma patients (110 brainstem, 442 non-brainstem) and 648 medulloblastoma patients ages 0–19 years from 1988 to 2012. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the impact of individual and neighborhood characteristics on survival. Socioeconomic quintile and insurance status differed significantly by race for both diagnoses. Hispanic children with non-brainstem HGG had worse survival than non-Hispanic white children: hazard ratio (HR) 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24–2.11, but the difference was mitigated some by accounting for socioeconomic status (HR 1.48, CI 1.10–1.99). Racial/ethnic differences in survival exist for children with high-grade glioma, particularly Hispanic children with non-brainstem high-grade glioma, and are likely related to sociologic factors.


Pediatric Survival Disparity High-grade glioma Medulloblastoma 



Dr. Cooney’s work was supported by the Children’s Health Research Institute. Dr. Tao and Dr. Clarke’s work was supported by the Stanford Cancer Institute and the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program under Contract HHSN261201000140C.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Dr. Cooney declares that she has no conflict of interest. Dr. Fisher declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dr. Tao declares that she has no conflict of interest. Dr. Clarke reports employment by GRAIL, Inc, outside the submitted work. Dr. Partap declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Child Neurology, Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at StanfordPalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.Cancer Prevention Institute of CaliforniaFremontUSA
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyStanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA

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