In vivo molecular profiling of human glioma using diffusion kurtosis imaging

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic performance of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) for in vivo molecular profiling of human glioma. Normalized mean kurtosis (MKn) and mean diffusivity (MDn) metrics from DKI were assessed in 50 patients with histopathologically confirmed glioma. The results were compared in regard to the WHO-based histological findings and molecular characteristics leading to integrated diagnosis (Haarlem Consensus): isocitrate-dehydrogenase (IDH1/2) mutation status, alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) expression, chromosome 1p/19q loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status. MKn was significantly lower in tumors with IDH1/2 mutation (0.43 ± 0.09) and ATRX loss of expression (0.41 ± 0.11) than in those with IDH1/2 wild type (0.57 ± 0.09, p < 0.001) and ATRX maintained expression (0.51 ± 0.10, p = 0.004), respectively. Regarding the integrated molecular diagnosis, MKn was significantly higher in primary glioblastoma (0.57 ± 0.10) than in astrocytoma (0.39 ± 0.11, p < 0.001) and oligodendroglioma (0.47 ± 0.05, p = 0.003). MK may be used to provide insight into the human glioma molecular profile regarding IDH1/2 mutation status and ATRX expression. Considering the diagnostic and prognostic significance of these molecular markers, MK appears to be a promising in vivo biomarker for glioma. The diagnostic performance of MK seems to fit more with the integrated molecular approach than the conventional histological findings of the current WHO 2007 classification.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Robert Grimm from Siemens (Erlangen, Germany) for support in image post-processing.

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Correspondence to Johann-Martin Hempel.

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The original version of this article was revised: The second author’s family name was incorrect. The name has been updated in this version.

An erratum to this article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-016-2281-z.

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Hempel, J., Bisdas, S., Schittenhelm, J. et al. In vivo molecular profiling of human glioma using diffusion kurtosis imaging. J Neurooncol 131, 93–101 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-016-2272-0

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Keywords

  • Diffusion kurtosis imaging
  • Glioma
  • Isocitrate dehydrogenase
  • IDH1/2
  • ATRX
  • 1p/19q LOH
  • MGMT
  • Integrated diagnosis
  • Haarlem consensus