New Forests

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 243–270 | Cite as

Establishment of American chestnuts (Castanea dentata) bred for blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) resistance: influence of breeding and nursery grading

  • Stacy L. Clark
  • Scott E. Schlarbaum
  • Arnold M. Saxton
  • Frederick V. Hebard
Article

Abstract

European and American chestnut species (Castanea) have been decimated by exotic species, most notably chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica), since the early nineteenth century. Backcross breeding programs that transfer blight disease resistance from Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima) into American chestnut (C. dentata) offer promise for chestnut restoration, particularly for the American chestnut which was a keystone species in eastern North America. Nursery prescriptions and conformity to desired American chestnut traits following planting must be tested, however, before blight resistance can even be evaluated. We tested early field performance of American and Chinese chestnut and hybrid seedlings from the third backcross generation (e.g., BC3F3) in two-aged regeneration harvests on highly productive sites in the southern Appalachians, USA. We also tested a common nursery prescription of grading seedlings by size prior to planting. BC3F3 seedlings had similar 4-year survival to American chestnut seedlings, but generally had smaller stem heights and ground-line diameters (GLD). Although blight had not yet substantially challenged some sites, the BC3F3 seedlings had blight incidence similar to the Chinese chestnut which was lower than the American chestnut. Visual seedling grading affected planting shock and stem height and GLD by the end of year 4. Large size-class seedlings had more stem dieback and 5 % lower survival compared to small size-class seedlings, but larger trees exhibited the same height in year 3 as small trees in year 4. Advanced breeding material (BC3F3) was successfully established during the stand initiation phase of forest development on highly productive sites, but deviations in desired growth rate of the American chestnut was evident. Visual grading of seedlings affected establishment of breeding material, and should be considered in the restoration process.

Keywords

Artificial regeneration Cryphonectria parasitica Exotic plant disease Genetic family Restoration Visual grading 

References

  1. Anagnostakis SL (1986) Diversity of vegetative compatibility groups of Cryphonectria parasitica in Connecticut and Europe. Plant Dis 70:536–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anagnostakis SL (2001) American chestnut sprout survival with biological control of the chestnut-blight fungus population. For Ecol Manag 152:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anagnostakis SL (2012) Chestnut breeding in the United States for disease and insect resistance. Plant Dis 96:1392–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anagnostakis S, Clark S, McNab H (2011) Resistance of chestnut trees to Asia chestnut gall wasp. In: Fulbright D (ed) 101st Annual Report of the Northern Nut Growers Association. Northern Nut Growers Association, Wooster, pp 15–17Google Scholar
  5. Ashe WW (1911) Chestnut in Tennessee. Tennessee State Geological Survey Bulletin. Baird-Ward Printing Co., NashvilleGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashe WW (1913) Yellow poplar in Tennessee. Tennessee Geological Survey. Baird-Ward Printing Co., NashvilleCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bailey RG, Avers PE, King TWH, McNab WH (1994) Ecoregions and subregions of the United States (map). 1:7,500,000. http://nationalatlas.gov/mld/ecoregp.html. Accessed Dec 6, 2013
  8. Bazzigher B (1981) Selection of blight-resistant chestnut trees in Switzerland. Eur J For Path 11:199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beckjord PR, Cech FC (1980) Effects of various methods of root pruning on the establishment of transplanted oak seedlings. Tree Plant Notes 31:10–11Google Scholar
  10. Bolker BM, Brooks ME, Clark CJ, Geange SW, Poulsen JR, Stevens HH, White JS (2009) Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol Evol 24:127–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buckley DS, Sharik TL, Isebrands JG (1998) Regeneration of northern red oak: positive and negative effects of competitor removal. Ecology 79:65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burke KL (2012) Niche contraction of American chestnut in response to chestnut blight. Can J For Res 42:614–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burnham CR, Rutter PA, French DW (1986) Breeding blight-resistant chestnuts. Plant Breed Rev 4:347–397Google Scholar
  14. Campbell DR, Waser NM (2001) Genotype-by-environment interation and the fitness of plant hybrids in the wild. Evolution 55:669–676Google Scholar
  15. Carpenter IW, Guard AT (1954) Anatomy and morphology of the seedling roots of four species of the genus Quercus. J For 52:269–274Google Scholar
  16. Case AE, Mayfield AE III, Schlarbaum SE, Clark SL, Saxton AM (2014) Interactions among insect defoliation, insecticide treatments, and growth rate in American and BC3F3 chestnut. In: Groninger JW, Holzmueller EJ, Nielsen CK, Dey DC (eds) Proceedings for 19th central hardwood conference. USDA For Serv Gen Tech Rep North Res Stat NRS-GTR, USA, pp 362–363Google Scholar
  17. Clark SL, Schlarbaum SE, Kormanik PP (2000) Visual grading and quality of 1–0 northern red oak seedlings. South J Appl For 24:93–97Google Scholar
  18. Clark SL, Schweitzer CJ, Schlarbaum SE, Dimov LD, Hebard FV (2009) Nursery quality and first-year response of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings planted in the southeastern United States. Tree Plant Notes 53:13–21Google Scholar
  19. Clark SL, McNab HW, Loftis DL, Zarnoch S (2012a) American chestnut growth and survival five years after planting in two silvicultural treatments in the southern Appalachians, USA. Forests 3:1017–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark SL, Schlarbaum SE, Saxton AM, Hebard FV (2012b) Nursery performance of American and Chinese chestnuts and backcross generations in commercial tree nurseries. For Int J For Res 85:589–600Google Scholar
  21. Clark SL, Schlarbaum SE, Saxton AM, Hebard FV (2014a). The first research plantings of third-generation, third-backcross American Chestnut (Castanea dentata) in the Southeastern United States. In: Double ML, MacDonald WL (eds) Proceedings of the fifth international chestnut symposium, ISHS. Acta Horticulturae, vol 1019, pp 39–44Google Scholar
  22. Clark SL, Schlarbaum SE, Pinchot CC, Anagnostakis SL, Saunders MR, Thomas-Van Gundy M, Schaberg PG et al (2014b) Reintroduction of American Chestnut in the National Forest System. J For 112:502–512Google Scholar
  23. Crandall RS, Gravatt GF, Ryan MM (1945) Root disease of Castanea species and some coniferous and broadleaf nursery stocks caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytopathology 35:162–180Google Scholar
  24. Dalgleish HJ, Swihart RK (2012) American chestnut past and future: implications of restoration for resource pulses and consumer populations of eastern U.S. forests. Restor Ecol 20:490–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. DAWG (2011) Design and analysis web guide. http://dawg.utk.edu/. Accessed June 23, 2013
  26. Delcourt PA, Delcourt HR (1997) The influence of prehistoric human-set fires on oak-chestnut forests in the southern Appalachians. Castanea 63:337–345Google Scholar
  27. Dey DC, Jacobs DF, McNabb K, Miller G, Baldwin V, Foster G (2008) Artificial regeneration of major oak (Quercus) species in the eastern United States—a review of the literature. For Sci 54:77–106Google Scholar
  28. Diamond SJ, Giles RH, Kirkpatrick RL (2000) Hard mast production before and after the chestnut blight. South J Appl For 24:196–201Google Scholar
  29. Diskin M, Steinter KC, Hebard FV (2006) Recovery of American chestnut characteristics following hybridization and backcross breeding to restore blight-ravaged Castanea dentata. For Ecol Manage 223:439–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ellison AM, Bank MS, Clinton BD, Colburn EA, Elliott K, Ford CR et al (2005) Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Front Ecol Environ 3:479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Emerson GB (1846) Report on the trees and shrubs of growing naturally in the forests of Massachusetts. Dutton and Wentworth State Printers, BostonGoogle Scholar
  32. Farmer RE (1975) Dormancy and root regeneration of northern red oak. Can J For Res 5:176–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fei S, Liang L, Paillet FL, Steiner KC, Fang J, Shen Z, Wang Z, Hebard FV (2012) Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration. Divers Distrib 18:754–768Google Scholar
  34. Gilland KE, Keiffer CH, McCarthy BC (2012) Seed production of mature forest-grown American chestnut (Castanea dentata) (Marsh.) Borkh). J Torrey Bot Soc 139:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Griffin GJ (1992) American chestnut survival in understory mesic sites following the chestnut blight pandemic. Can J Bot 70:1950–1956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Griffin GJ (2000) Blight control and restoration of the American Chestnut. J For 98:22–27Google Scholar
  37. Griffin GJ, Elkins JR (1986) Chestnut blight. In: Roane MK, Griffin GJ, Elkins JR (eds) Chestnut blight, other Endothia diseases and the genus Endothia. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  38. Griffin GJ, Smith HC, Dietz A, Elkins JR (1991) Importance of hardwood competition to American chestnut survival, growth, and blight development in forest clearcuts. Can J Bot 69:1804–1809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Griffin GJ, Khan MA, Griffin SL (1993) Superficial canker instability during winter and virulence of Endothia parasitica associated with managed forest clearcut and plantation American chestnut trees. Can J Plant Path 15:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grossnickle SC (2012) Why seedlings survive: influence of plant attributes. New For 43:711–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grossnickle SC, El-Kassaby YA (2015) Bareroot versus container stocktypes: a performance comparison. New Forest. doi:10.1007/s11056-015-9476-6 Google Scholar
  42. Hebard FV (2001) Backcross breeding program produces blight-resistant American chestnuts (Virginia). Ecol Restor 19:252–254Google Scholar
  43. Hebard FV (2006) The backcross breeding program of the American chestnut Foundation. In: Steiner KC, Carlson JE (eds) Restoration of American chestnut to Forest lands. Proceedings of a conference and workshop. National Park Service, Washington, pp 61–77Google Scholar
  44. Hebard FV (2012) The American Chestnut Foundation Breeding Program. In: Sniezko RA, Yanchuk AD, Kliejunas JT, Palmieri KM, Alexander JM, Frankel SJ (tech. coord.) Proceedings of 4th international workshop on the genetics of host–parasite interactions in forestry, USDA For Serv Gen Tech Rep PSW-GTR-240, pp 221–234Google Scholar
  45. Hebard F, Georgi L, Donahue J, Bevins D, Coalson E (2013) Meadowview notes 2011–2012. J Am Chestnut Found 1(27):19–25Google Scholar
  46. Hough FB (1878) Report upon forestry, vol 1. USDA, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  47. Jacobs DF (2007) Toward development of silvical strategies for forest restoration of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) using blight-resistant hybrids. Biol Conserv 137:497–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jacobs DF, Severeid LR (2004) Dominance of interplanted American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in southwestern Wisconsin, USA. For Ecol Manag 191:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jacobs DF, Salifu KF, Davis AS (2009) Drought susceptibility and recovery of transplanted Quercus rubra seedlings in relation to root system morphology. Ann For Sci 66:504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jacobs DF, Dalgleish HJ, Nelson CD (2013) A conceptual framework for restoration of threatened plants: the effective model of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) reintroduction. New Phytol 197:378–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jeffers SN, James JB, Sisco PH (2009) Screening for resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi in hybrid seedlings of American chestnut. In: Gohee EM, Frankel SJ (tech coords) Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the international union of forest research organizations (IUFRO) working party S07.02.09: phytophthora in forests and natural ecosystems, USDA For Serv Gen Tech Rep. PSW-GTR-221, pp 188–194Google Scholar
  52. Ježic M, Krstin L, Poljak I, Liber Z, Idžojtić M, Jelić M, Meštrović J, Zebec M, Ćurković-Perica M (2014) Castanea sativa: genotype-dependent recovery from chestnut blight. Tree Genet Genomes 10:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Johnson PS, Novinger SL, Mares WG (1984) Root, shoot, and leaf area growth potentials of northern red oak planting stock. For Sci 30:1017–1026Google Scholar
  54. Johnson PS, Dale CD, Davidson KR (1986) Planting northern red oak in the Missouri Ozarks: a prescription. North J Appl For 3:66–68Google Scholar
  55. Johnson PS, Shifley SR, Rogers R (2002) The ecology and silviculture of oaks. CABI Publishing, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jules ES, Carroll AL, Garcia AM, Steenbock CM, Kauffman MJ (2014) Host heterogeneity influences the impact of a non-native disease invasion on populations of a foundation tree species. Ecosphere 5:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Keever C (1953) Present composition of some stands of the former oak-chestnut forest in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains. Ecology 34:44–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Knapp BO, Wang GG, Clark SL, Pile LS, Schlarbaum SE (2014) Leaf physiology and morphology of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh., Castanea mollissima Blume, and three backcross breeding generations planted in the southern Appalachians, USA. New For 45:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kormanik PP, Sung SS, Kormanik TL (1994) Towards a single nursery protocol for oak seedlings. In: Lantz CW, Moorhead D (eds) Proceedings of the 22nd southern forest tree improvement conference. Southern Forest Tree Improvement Committee, pp 89–98Google Scholar
  60. Korstian CF (1927) Factors controlling germination and early survival in oaks. Yale University School Forestry Bulletin, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  61. Kriebel HB, Bagley WT, Deneke FJ, Funsch RW, Roth P, Jokela JJ et al (1976) Geographic variation in Quercus rubra in North Central United States plantations. Silvae Genet 25:118–122Google Scholar
  62. Kriebel HB, Merritt C, Stadt Th (1988) Genetics of growth rate in Quercus rubra: provenance and family effects by the early third decade in the north central USA. Silvae Genet 37:193–198Google Scholar
  63. Larson MM (1975) Pruning northern red oak nursery seedlings: effects on root regeneration and early growth. Can J For Res 5:381–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Latham RE (1992) Co-occurring tree species change rank in seedling performance with resources varied experimentally. Ecology 73:2129–2144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Liebhold AM, McCullough DG, Blackburn LM, Frankel SJ, Von Holle B, Aukema JE (2013) A highly aggregated geographical distribution of forest pest invasions in the USA. Divers Distrib 19:1208–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Littell RC, Henry PR, Ammerman CB (1998) Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures. J Anim Sci 76:1216–1231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Loftis DL (1979) Northern red oak performs poorly in North Carolina planting. USDA For Serv Res Note, Southeastern For Exp Sta, Asheville, NC. SE-277Google Scholar
  68. Loftis DL (1990) A shelterwood method for regenerating red oak in the southern Appalachians. For Sci 36:917–929Google Scholar
  69. Lovett GM, Canham CD, Arthur MA, Weather KA, Fitzhugh RD (2006) Forest ecosystem response to exotic pests and pathogens in eastern North America. Bioscience 56:395–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mattoon WR (1909) The origin and early development of chestnut sprouts. For Q 7:34–47Google Scholar
  71. McCament CL, McCarthy BC (2005) Two-year response of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings to shelterwood harvesting and fire in a mixed-oak forest ecosystem. Can J For Res 35:740–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McEwan RW, Dyer JM, Pederson N (2011) Multiple interacting ecosystem drivers: toward an encompassing hypothesis of oak forest dynamics across eastern North America. Ecography 34:244–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Merkle SA, Andrade GM, Nairn CJ, Powell WA, Maynard CA (2007) Restoration of threatened species: a noble cause for transgenic trees. Tree Genet Genomes 3:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Míguez-Soto B, Fernández-López J (2012) Genetic parameters and predicted selection responses for timber production traits in a Castanea sativa progeny trial: developing a breeding program. Tree Genet Genomes 8:409–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Míguez-Soto B, Fernández-López J (2015) Variation in adaptive traits among and within Spanish and European populations of Castanea sativa: selection of trees for timber production. New For 46:23–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Milgroom MC, Cortesi P (2004) Biological control of chestnut blight with hypovirulence: a critical analysis. Annu Rev Phytopathol 42:311–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Miller AC, Woeste KE, Anagnostakis SL, Jacobs DF (2014) Exploration of a rare population of Chinese chestnut in North America: stand dynamics, health, and genetic relationships. AOB Plants. doi:10.1093/aobpla/plu065 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Minter WF, Myers RK, Fischer BC (1992) Effects of tree shelters on northern red oak seedlings planted in harvested forest openings. North J Appl For 9:58–63Google Scholar
  79. Na SJ, Lee DH, Kim IS (2013) Influence of initial seedling size and root pruning intensity on growth of transplanting seedling of Quercus acutissma. Korean J Plan Res 26:709–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Newhouse AE, Polin-McGuigan LD, Baier KA, Valletta KER, Pottmann WH, Tschaplinski TJ, Maynard CA, Powell WA (2014) Transgenic American chestnuts show enhanced blight reisstance and transmit the trait to T1 progeny. Plant Sci 228:88–97Google Scholar
  81. Nyland RD (1996) Silviculture: concepts and applications. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Oliver CD (1981) Forest development in North America following major disturbances. For Ecol Manag 3:153–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Opler PA (1978) Insects of American chestnut: possible importance and conservation concern. In: McDonald W (ed) Proceedings of the American chestnut symposium. West Virginia University Press, Morgantown, pp 83–85Google Scholar
  84. Orwig DA (2002) Ecosystem to regional impacts of introduced pests and pathogens: historical context, questions and issues. J Biogeogr 29:1471–1474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Oswalt CM, Clatterbuck WK, Houston AE (2006) Impacts of deer herbivory and visual grading on the early performance of high-quality oak planting stock in Tennessee, USA. For Ecol Manag 229:128–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Paillet FL (1982) The ecological significance of American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) in the Holocene forests of Connecticut. Bull Torrey Bot Club 109:457–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Paillet FL (1988) Character and distribution of American chestnut sprouts in southern New England woodlands. Bull Torrey Bot Club 115:32–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pinchot CC, Schlarbaum SE, Saxton AM, Clark SL, Schweitzer CJ, Smith et al (2011) Incidence of Craesus castaneae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) of chestnut seedlings planted in the Daniel Boone National Forest, Kentucky. J Entomol Sci 46:265–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pinto JR, Dumroese RK, Davis AS, Landis TD (2011) Conducting seedling stocktype trials: a new approach to an old question. J For 109:293–299Google Scholar
  90. Ponder F Jr (1995) Shoot and root growth of northern red oak planted in forest openings and protected by tree shelters. North J Appl For 12:36–41Google Scholar
  91. Reynolds DL, Burke KL (2011) The effect of growth rate, age, and chestnut blight on American chestnut mortality. Castanea 76:129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rhoades CC (2007) The influence of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) on nitrogen availability, organic matter and chemistry of silty and sandy loams soils. Pedobiologia 50:553–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rhoades CC, Loftis D, Lewis J, Clark S (2009) The influence on silvicultural treatments and site conditions on American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedling establishment in eastern Kentucky, USA. For Ecol Manag 258:1211–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Santinia A, Ghelardini L, De Pace C, Desprez-Loustau ML, Capretti P, Chandelier A, Cech T et al (2012) Biogeographical patterns and determinants of invasion by forest pathogens in Europe. New Phytol 197:238–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Santos C, Machado H, Correia I, Gomes F, Gomes-Laranjo J, Costa R (2015) Phenotyping Castanea hybrids for Phytophthora cinnamomi resistance. Plant Path 64:901–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. SAS Institute (2012) SAS/STAT 12.3 User’s Guide. Cary, NC, USAGoogle Scholar
  97. Saucier JR (1973) American chestnut—an American wood. USDA For Ser FS 230:3–6Google Scholar
  98. Schlarbaum SE (1993) Growth trends and geographic variation in a Quercus alba progeny test. Ann Sci For 50:425s–429sCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schlarbaum SE, Bagley WT (1981) Intraspecific genetic variation of Quercus rubra L., northern red oak. Silvae Genet 30:50–56Google Scholar
  100. Schlarbaum S, Anagnostakis S, Morton MC (1994) Evaluation of experimental chestnut plantings in eastern North America. In: MacDonald WL, Cech FC, Luchok J, Smith C (eds) Proceedings of the American chestnut symposium. West Virginia University Press Morgantown, West Virginia, pp 52–56Google Scholar
  101. Schuler JL, Robison DJ (2010) Performance of Northern Red Oak enrichment plantings in naturally regenerating Southern Appalachian hardwood stands. New For 40:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schweitzer CJ, Dey DC (2011) Forest structure, composition, and tree diversity response to a gradient of regeneration harvests in the mid-Cumberland Plateau escarpment region, USA. For Ecol Manage 262:1729–1741Google Scholar
  103. Spetich MA, Dey DC, Johnson PS, Graney DL (2002) Competitive capacity of Quercus rubra L. planted in Arkansas Boston Mountains. For Sci 48:504–517Google Scholar
  104. Spetich M, Dey D, Johnson P (2009) Shelterwood-planted northern red oaks: integrated costs and options. South J Appl For 33:182–187Google Scholar
  105. Stephenson SL, Adams HS, Lipford ML (1991) The present distribution of American chestnut in the upland forest communities of Virginia. Bull Torrey Bot Club 118:24–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Stroup WW (2014) Rethinking the analysis of non-normal data in plant and soil science. Agron J 106:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Struve DK (1990) Root regeneration in transplanted deciduous nursery stock. HortScience 25:266–270Google Scholar
  108. Struve DK, Joly RC (1992) Transplanted red oak seedlings mediate transplant shock by reducing leaf surface area and altering carbon allocation. Can J For Res 22:1441–1448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Struve DK, Burchfield L, Maupin C (2000) Survival and growth of transplanted large and small-caliper red oaks. J Arborcult 36:162–169Google Scholar
  110. Thompson JR, Schultz RC (1995) Root system morphology of Quercus rubra L. planting stock and 3-year field performance in Iowa. New For 9:225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tsakaldimi M, Ganatsas P, Jacobs DF (2013) Prediction of planted seedling survival of five Mediterranean species based on initial seedling morphology. New For 44:327–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Van Fleet W (1914) Chestnut breeding experience. J Hered 5:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Villar-Salvador P, Planelles R, Enríquez E, Peñuelas Rubira J (2004) Nursery cultivation regimes, plant functional attributes, and field performance relationships in the Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex L. For Ecol Manag 196:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ward JS, Martin PN, Gent GRS (2000) Effects of planting stock quality and browse protection-type on height growth of northern red oak and eastern white pine. For Ecol Manag 124:205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wareing PF (1951) Growth studies in woody species IV. The initiation of cambial activity in ring-porous species. Physiolog Planet 4:546–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wilson BC, Jacobs DF (2006) Quality assessment of temperate zone deciduous hardwood seedlings. New For 31:417–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Woolery PO, Jacobs DF (2014) Planting stock type and seasonality of simulated browsing affect regeneration establishment of Quercus rubra. Can J For Res 44:732–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stacy L. Clark
    • 1
  • Scott E. Schlarbaum
    • 2
  • Arnold M. Saxton
    • 3
  • Frederick V. Hebard
    • 4
  1. 1.Southern Research Station, Forest ServiceU.S. Department of AgricultureKnoxvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Forestry, Wildlife, and FisheriesThe University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  3. 3.Animal Science DepartmentThe University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  4. 4.The American Chestnut FoundationMeadowviewUSA

Personalised recommendations