New Forests

, Volume 43, Issue 4, pp 457–472 | Cite as

Twenty year site preparation effects on sub-boreal lodgepole pine performance

  • Jacob O. BoatengEmail author
  • Jean L. Heineman
  • Lorne Bedford
  • Amanda F. Linnell Nemec
  • John McClarnon
  • R. Allan Powelson


We examined the effects of various mechanical site preparation methods and windrow burning on container-grown planted lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) survival and growth for 20 years after treatment at a sub-boreal site in north-central British Columbia, Canada. Survival was uniformly high (≥80%) regardless of treatment, indicating that site preparation was not necessary to establish pine on this site. Significant treatment effects on height, diameter, and stem volume were present at all assessment dates, but only the windrow burning treatment was associated with growth gains over the untreated control after two decades. Pine planted at the disk trench hinge were significantly larger than control pine only until year five. Of the mechanical treatments, only coarse mixing (by bedding plow) continued to have a significant effect on pine growth for as many as 9 years after treatment. Despite the disappearance of significant differences between mechanical treatments and the untreated control by year 20, the magnitude of stand volume increases suggests the potential for mechanical site preparation to have a beneficial effect on future timber supply. Repeated measures analysis confirmed that trends in early diameter growth differed between the untreated control and the windrow burning or coarse mixing treatments. These data are also potentially valuable for verifying growth and yield or carbon budgeting modelling tools.


Mechanical site preparation Windrow burning Pinus contorta var. latifolia Repeated measures Survival and growth 



We thank Dr. Robert McMinn, Marvin Grismer, BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations staff, and contractors who were involved in the installation, measurement, and maintenance of the study sites and Linda Stordeur for work on early data compilation and statistical analysis. We are grateful to Phil Comeau, Francesco Cortini, George Harper, Richard Kabzems, and Torsten Kaffanke for guidance during preparation of the manuscript, review comments, and field data collection. Funding for the study was provided by the BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations, Canada-British Columbia Economic and Regional Development Agreements (FRDA), Forest Renewal British Columbia (FRBC), and BC Forest Investment Account: Forest Science Program (FIA-FSP). Funding assistance does not imply endorsement of any statement or information in this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacob O. Boateng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jean L. Heineman
    • 2
  • Lorne Bedford
    • 1
  • Amanda F. Linnell Nemec
    • 3
  • John McClarnon
    • 1
  • R. Allan Powelson
    • 1
  1. 1.BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations, Resource Practices BranchVictoriaCanada
  2. 2.J. Heineman Forestry ConsultingVancouverCanada
  3. 3.International Statistics and Research Corp.Brentwood BayCanada

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