Advertisement

New Forests

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 349–360 | Cite as

Indole-3-butyric acid accelerates adventitious root formation and impedes shoot growth of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis cuttings

  • Mark A. Hunt
  • Stephen J. Trueman
  • Amanda Rasmussen
Article

Abstract

Many plantation tree species are cloned to achieve the growth, disease resistance and wood quality characteristics required for a successful economic venture. However, clonal propagation is limited by declines in adventitious root formation with increasing stock plant age. We examined the effects of immediate or delayed IBA application on adventitious root formation and subsequent root and shoot development of cuttings harvested from 8-year-old clonal hedge plants of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis. IBA applied at the time of setting accelerated root formation, elevating the percentage of cuttings with roots at 13 weeks post-setting from 45 to 78% and from 83 to 93% for a low- and a high-rooting clone, respectively. Final rooting percentages for the same treatments and clones (78 and 85%, and 88 and 100%, respectively, at 20 weeks post-setting) were not significantly affected by IBA application. IBA increased the root:shoot ratio of rooted cuttings by decreasing shoot weight compared with untreated cuttings, without affecting root weight, root length, root surface area or root volume. IBA was only effective when applied at the time of setting. A simple IBA treatment for cuttings from 8-year-old clonal hedges, by accelerating root production, has potential for reducing nursery costs and increasing the root system quality of containerised pine cuttings.

Keywords

Auxin Callus Plant growth regulators Propagation Root growth Shoot growth 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Kate Murray, Rodger Peters, Grant White and Paul Toon (Forestry Plantations Queensland) for providing cuttings and assisting with setting, Tim Smith, Donna Richardson and Dan Foster for helping to establish and assess the experiment, and Paul Ryan, Bruce Hogg, John Simpson, David Osborne, John Oostenbrink, David Lee, Alan Ward, Jaimie Cook, Debra Cook, John Huth, Peter Pomroy and Tony Burridge for assisting with hormone treatments and setting cuttings.

References

  1. Aimers-Halliday J, Burdon RD (2003) Risk management for clonal forestry with Pinus radiata—analysis and review. 2: technical and logistical problems and countermeasures. N Z J For Sci 33:181–204Google Scholar
  2. Aimers-Halliday J, Menzies MI, Faulds T, Holden DG, Low CB, Dibley MJ (2003) Nursery systems to control maturation in Pinus radiata cuttings, comparing hedging and serial propagation. N Z J For Sci 33:135–155Google Scholar
  3. Aminah H, Dick JMcP, Leakey RRB, Grace J, Smith RI (1995) Effect of indole butyric acid (IBA) on stem cuttings of Shorea leprosula. For Ecol Manage 72:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bettinger P, Clutter M, Siry J, Kane M, Pait J (2009) Broad implications of southern United States pine clonal forestry on planning and management of forests. Int For Rev 11:331–345Google Scholar
  5. Blazich FA (1988) Chemicals and formulations used to promote adventitious rooting. In: Davis TD, Haissig BE, Sankhla N (eds) Adventitious root formation in cuttings. Dioscorides Press, Portland, pp 132–149Google Scholar
  6. Brennan EB, Mudge KW (1998) Vegetative propagation of Inga feuillei from shoot cuttings and air layering. New For 15:37–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Browne RD, Davidson CG, Steeves TA, Dunstan DI (1997) Effects of ortet age on adventitious rooting of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) long-shoot cuttings. Can J For Res 27:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burdon RD, Carson MJ, Shelbourne CJA (2008) Achievements in forest tree genetic improvement in Australia and New Zealand. 10. Pinus radiata in New Zealand. Aust For 71:263–279Google Scholar
  9. Centeno ML, Rodriguez R, Berros B, Rodriguez A (1997) Endogenous hormonal content and somatic embryogenic capacity of Corylus avellana L. cotyledons. Plant Cell Rep 17:139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Copes DL, Mandel NL (2000) Effects of IBA and NAA treatments on rooting Douglas-fir stem cuttings. New For 20:249–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Klerk GJ, Keppel M, Ter Brugge J, Meekes H (1995) Timing of the phases in adventitious root formation in apple microcuttings. J Exp Bot 46:965–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Klerk GJ, Van der Kricken W, De Jong JC (1999) The formation of adventitious roots: new concepts, new possibilities. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 35:189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Desrochers A, Thomas BR (2003) A comparison of pre-planting treatments on hardwood cuttings of four hybrid poplar clones. New For 26:17–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Diaz-Sala C, Hutchison KW, Goldfarb B, Greenwood MS (1996) Maturation-related loss in rooting competence by loblolly pine stem cuttings: the role of auxin transport, metabolism and tissue sensitivity. Physiol Plant 97:481–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Flygh G, Grönroos R, Gulin L, von Arnold S (1993) Early and late root formation in epicotyl cuttings of Pinus sylvestris after auxin treatment. Tree Physiol 12:81–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ford YY, Bonham EC, Cameron RWF, Blake PS, Judd HL, Harrison-Murray RS (2002) Adventitious rooting: examining the role of auxin in an easy- and a difficult-to-root plant. Plant Growth Regul 36:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Freitas TAS, Barroso DG, Carneiro JGA, Penchel RM, Coutinho MP (2008) Outplanting performance of Eucalyptus clonal cuttings produced in different containers and substrates. Revista Árvore 32:1019–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldfarb B, Hackett WP, Furnier GR, Mohn CA, Plietzsch A (1998) Adventitious root initiation in hypocotyl and epicotyl cuttings of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) seedlings. Physiol Plant 102:513–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greenwood MS, Hutchison KW (1993) Maturation as a developmental process. In: Ahuja MR, Libby WJ (eds) Clonal Forestry I. Genetics and Biotechnology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 14–33Google Scholar
  20. Greenwood MS, Weir RJ (1995) Genetic variation in rooting ability of loblolly pine cuttings: effects of auxin and family on rooting by hypocotyl cuttings. Tree Physiol 15:41–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Griffin JJ, Blazich FA, Ranney TG (1998) Propagation of Thuja x ‘Green Giant’ by stem cuttings: effects of growth stage, type of cutting, and IBA treatment. J Environ Hortic 16:212–214Google Scholar
  22. Halter MR, Chanway CP, Harper GJ (1993) Growth reduction and root deformation of containerised lodgepole pine saplings 11 years after planting. For Ecol Manage 56:131–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hamann A (1998) Adventitious root formation in cuttings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.): developmental sequence and effects of maturation. Trees 12:175–180Google Scholar
  24. Hartmann HT, Kester DE, Davies FT, Geneve RL (1997) Plant propagation: principles and practices. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, p 770Google Scholar
  25. Henrique A, Campinhos EN, Ono EO, Pinho SZ (2006) Effect of plant growth regulators in the rooting of Pinus cuttings. Braz Arch Biol Tech 49:189–196Google Scholar
  26. Hinesley LE, Snelling LK (1997) Rooting stem cuttings of Atlantic white cedar outdoors in containers. HortSci 32:315–317Google Scholar
  27. Houle G, Babeux P (1998) The effects of collection date, IBA, plant gender, nutrient availability, and rooting volume on adventitious root and lateral shoot formation by Salix planifolia stem cuttings from the Ungava Bay area (Quebec, Canada). Can J Bot 76:1687–1692Google Scholar
  28. Kochhar S, Singh SP, Kochhar VK (2008) Effect of auxins and associated biochemical changes during clonal propagation of the biofuel plant—Jatropha curcas. Biomass Bioenergy 32:1136–1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lal G, Roy PK, Singh YV (2008) Effect of auxins on rooting and sprouting behaviour of stem cuttings of henna (Lawsonia inermis). Indian J Agric Sci 78:1013–1017Google Scholar
  30. Leakey RRB (2004) Physiology of vegetative reproduction. In: Burley J, Evans J, Youngquist JA (eds) Encyclopaedia of forest sciences. Academic Press, London, pp 1655–1668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. LeBude AV, Goldfarb B, Blazich FA, Wright JA, Cazell B, Wise FC, Frampton J (2006) Container type and volume influences adventitious rooting and subsequent field growth of stem cuttings of loblolly pine. South J Appl For 30:123–131Google Scholar
  32. Lemay V, Gâteblé G, McCoy S (2009) Vegetative propagation of two endemic species of Cloezia Brongn. & Gris for conservation and mining revegetation activities in New Caledonia. New For 37:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lindström A, Rune G (1999) Root deformation in plantations of container-grown Scots pine trees: effects on root growth, tree stability and stem straightness. Plant Soil 217:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Luckman GA, Menary RS (2002) Increased root initiation in cuttings of Eucalyptus nitens by delayed auxin application. Plant Growth Regul 38:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McGranahan MF, Boralho NMG, Greaves BL (1999) Genetic control of propagation effects and the importance of stock plant age and source on early growth in cuttings of Pinus radiata. Silvae Genet 48:267–272Google Scholar
  36. Mitchell RG, Zwolinski J, Jones NB (2004a) A review on the effects of donor maturation on rooting and field performance of conifer cuttings. South Afr For J 201:53–63Google Scholar
  37. Mitchell RG, Zwolinski J, Jones NB (2004b) The effects of ontogenetic maturation in Pinus patula—Part I: nursery performance. South Afr For J 202:29–36Google Scholar
  38. Mitchell RG, Zwolinski J, Jones NB, Bayley AD (2005) Root volume and raising period affect field performance of Pinus patula cuttings in South Africa. South Afr For J 204:15–21Google Scholar
  39. Negash L (2003) Vegetative propagation of the threatened East African yellowwood (Podocarpus falcatus). S Afr J Bot 69:170–175Google Scholar
  40. Ngo Mpeck M-L, Atangana AR, Omgba AM (2009) Temporal variation in rooting of Annickia chlorantha leafy stem cuttings. New For 38:273–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Noland TL, Mohammed GH, Wagner RG (2001) Morphological characteristics associated with tolerance to competition from herbaceous vegetation for seedlings of jack pine, black spruce, and white pine. New For 21:199–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ortega U, Majada J, Mena-Petite A, Sanchez-Zabala J, Rodriguez-Iturrizar N, Txarterina K, Azpitarte J, Duñabeitia M (2006) Field performance of Pinus radiata D. Don produced with different types of containers. New For 31:97–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Panetsos K, Scaltsoyiannes A, Alizoti P (1994) Effect of genotype and cutting type on the vegetative propagation of the pine hybrid (Pinus brutia (Ten) × Pinus halepensis (Mill)). Ann Sci For 51:447–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Perry F, Trueman SJ (1999) Cutting propagation of Victorian smokebush, Conospermum mitchellii (Proteaceae). S Afr J Bot 65:243–244Google Scholar
  45. Pohio KE, Wallace HM, Peters RF, Smith TE, Trueman SJ (2005) Cuttings of Wollemi pine tolerate moderate photoinhibition and remain highly capable of root formation. Trees 19:587–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Proebsting WM (1984) Rooting of Douglas-fir stem cuttings: relative activity of IBA and NAA. HortSci 19:854–856Google Scholar
  47. Rasmussen A, Hunt MA (2010) Ageing delays the cellular stages of adventitious root formation in pine. Aust For 73(1):41–46Google Scholar
  48. Rasmussen A, Smith TE, Hunt MA (2009) Cellular stages of root formation, root system quality and survival of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis cuttings in different temperature environments. New For 38:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ricci A, Rolli E, Dramis L, Diaz-Sala C (2008) N, N’-bis-(2, 3-Methylenedioxyphenyl)urea and N, N’-bis-(3, 4-Methylenedioxyphenyl)urea enhance adventitious rooting in Pinus radiata and affect expression of genes induced during adventitious rooting in the presence of exogenous auxin. Plant Sci 175:356–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ritchie GA (1991) The commercial use of conifer rooted cuttings in forestry: a world overview. New For 5:247–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ritchie GA, Tanaka Y, Meade R, Duke SD (1993) Field survival and early height growth of Douglas-fir rooted cuttings: relationship to stem diameter and root system quality. For Ecol Manage 60:237–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rosier CL, Frampton J, Goldfarb B, Wise FC, Blazich FA (2004) Growth stage, auxin type, and concentration influence rooting of Virginia pine stem cuttings. HortSci 39:1392–1396Google Scholar
  53. Saranga J, Cameron R (2007) Adventitious root formation in Anacardium occidentale L. in response to phytohormones and removal of roots. Sci Hortic 111:164–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shiembo PN, Newton AC, Leakey RRB (1996) Vegetative propagation of Irvingia gabonensis, a West African fruit tree. For Ecol Manage 87:185–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Smith DR, Thorpe TA (1975) Root initiation in cuttings of Pinus radiata seedlings: II growth regulator interactions. J Exp Bot 26:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stein A, Fortin JA, Vallée G (1990) Enhanced rooting of Picea mariana cuttings by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Can J Bot 68:468–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Stubbs HL, Blazich FA, Ranney TA, Warren SL (1997) Propagation of ‘Carolina Sapphire’ smooth Arizona cypress by stem cuttings: effects of growth stage, type of cutting, and IBA treatment. J Environ Hortic 15:61–64Google Scholar
  58. Tchigio I, Duguma B (1998) Vegetative propagation of Calliandra calothyrsus (Meissner). Agrofor Syst 40:275–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tchoundjeu Z, Avana ML, Leakey RRB, Simons AJ, Asaah E, Duguma B, Bell JM (2002) Vegetative propagation of Prunus Africana: effects of rooting medium, auxin concentrations and leaf area. Agrofor Syst 54:183–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Trueman SJ (2006) Clonal propagation and storage of subtropical pines in Queensland, Australia. South Afr For J 208:49–52Google Scholar
  61. Trueman SJ, Peters RF (2006) Propagation of Wollemi pine from tip cuttings and lower segment cuttings does not require rooting hormones. Sci Hortic 109:394–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Trueman SJ, Richardson DM (2008) Relationships between indole-3-butyric acid, photoinhibition and adventitious rooting of Corymbia torelliana, C. citriodora and F1 hybrid cuttings. Tree For Sci Biotechnol 2:26–33Google Scholar
  63. Trueman SJ, Pegg GS, King J (2007) Domestication for conservation of an endangered species: the case of the Wollemi pine. Tree For Sci Biotechnol 1:1–10Google Scholar
  64. Valdes AE, Centeno ML, Espinel S, Fernandez B (2002) Could plant hormones be the basis of maturation indices in Pinus radiata? Plant Phys Biochem 40:211–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wendling I, Xavier A, Gomes JM, Pires IE, Andrade HB (2000) Efeito do regulador de crescimento AIB na propagaçâo de clones de Eucalyptus spp. por miniestaquia. Revista Árvore 24:187–192Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark A. Hunt
    • 1
  • Stephen J. Trueman
    • 2
  • Amanda Rasmussen
    • 3
  1. 1.University of the Sunshine Coast, and Agriscience QueenslandGympieAustralia
  2. 2.University of the Sunshine Coast, and Agriscience QueenslandMaroochydore DCAustralia
  3. 3.The University of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia

Personalised recommendations