Cellular stages of root formation, root system quality and survival of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis cuttings in different temperature environments

Abstract

Time to first root in cuttings varies under different environmental conditions and understanding these differences is critical for optimizing propagation of commercial forestry species. Temperature environment (15, 25, 30 or 35 ± 2°C) had no effect on the cellular stages in root formation of the Slash × Caribbean Pine hybrid over 16 weeks as determined by histology. Initially callus cells formed in the cortex, then tracheids developed and formed primordia leading to external roots. However, speed of development followed a growth curve with the fastest development occurring at 25°C and slowest at 15°C with rooting percentages at week 12 of 80 and 0% respectively. Cutting survival was good in the three cooler temperature regimes (>80%) but reduced to 59% at 35°C. Root formation appeared to be dependant on the initiation of tracheids because all un-rooted cuttings had callus tissue but no tracheids, irrespective of temperature treatment and clone.

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Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Forestry Plantations Queensland for supporting this work with both cash and in kind resources and Santi Krisantini for providing valuable assistance with the preparation of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Amanda Rasmussen.

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Rasmussen, A., Smith, T.E. & Hunt, M.A. Cellular stages of root formation, root system quality and survival of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis cuttings in different temperature environments. New Forests 38, 285 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-009-9147-6

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Keywords

  • Propagation
  • Stem anatomy
  • Root anatomy
  • Callus
  • Cuttings
  • Cortex
  • Abiotic
  • Pinus