New Forests

, 38:285 | Cite as

Cellular stages of root formation, root system quality and survival of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis cuttings in different temperature environments

  • Amanda RasmussenEmail author
  • Timothy E. Smith
  • Mark A. Hunt


Time to first root in cuttings varies under different environmental conditions and understanding these differences is critical for optimizing propagation of commercial forestry species. Temperature environment (15, 25, 30 or 35 ± 2°C) had no effect on the cellular stages in root formation of the Slash × Caribbean Pine hybrid over 16 weeks as determined by histology. Initially callus cells formed in the cortex, then tracheids developed and formed primordia leading to external roots. However, speed of development followed a growth curve with the fastest development occurring at 25°C and slowest at 15°C with rooting percentages at week 12 of 80 and 0% respectively. Cutting survival was good in the three cooler temperature regimes (>80%) but reduced to 59% at 35°C. Root formation appeared to be dependant on the initiation of tracheids because all un-rooted cuttings had callus tissue but no tracheids, irrespective of temperature treatment and clone.


Propagation Stem anatomy Root anatomy Callus Cuttings Cortex Abiotic Pinus 



We wish to thank Forestry Plantations Queensland for supporting this work with both cash and in kind resources and Santi Krisantini for providing valuable assistance with the preparation of the manuscript.


  1. Aimers-Halliday J, Menzies MI, Faulds T et al (2003) Nursery systems to control maturation in Pinus radiata cuttings comparing hedging and serial propagation. N Z J Sci 33:135–155Google Scholar
  2. Alegre J, Toledo JL, Martinez A et al (1998) Rooting ability of Dorycnium spp under different conditions. Sci Hortic 76:123–129. doi: 10.1016/S0304-4238(98)00129-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bredmose N, Kristiansen K, Nielsen B (2004) Propagation temperature, PPFD, auxin treatment, cutting size and cutting position affect root formation axillary bud growth and shoot development in miniature rose (Rosa hybrida L.) plants and alter homogeneity. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 79:458–465Google Scholar
  4. Callaway RM, King L (1996) Temperature-driven variation in substrate oxygenation and the balance of competition and facilitation. Ecol 77:1189–1195. doi: 10.2307/2265588 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cameron RJ, Thomson GV (1969) The vegetative propagation of Pinuc radiata: root initiation in cuttings. Bot Gaz 130:242–251. doi: 10.1086/336498 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Correa LDR, Fett-Neto AG (2004) Effects of temperature on adventitious root development in micro cuttings of Eucalyptus saligna Smith and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. J Therm Biol 29:315–325. doi: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2004.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dungey HS (2001) Pine hybrids—a review of their use performance and genetics. For Ecol and Manag 148:243–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Garrido G, Cano EA, Acosta M, Sanchez-Bravo J (1998) Formation and growth of roots in carnation cuttings: influence of cold storage period and auxin treatment. Sci Hortic 74:219–231. doi: 10.1016/S0304-4238(98)00078-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garrido G, Ramon Guerrero J, Angel Cano E et al (2002) Origin and basipetal transport of the IAA responsible for rooting of carnation cuttings. Physiol Plant 114:303–312. doi: 10.1034/j.1399-3054.2002.1140217.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Geneve RL, Hackett WP, Swanson BT (1998) Adventitious root formation in de-bladed petiols from juvenile and mature phases in English Ivy. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 113:6310–6635Google Scholar
  11. Ginzburg C (1967) Organization of the adventitious root apex in Tamarix aphylla. Am J Bot 54:4–8. doi: 10.2307/2440882 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Harding KJ, Copley TR (2000) Review of wood property variation in queensland grown trials of Pinus elliottii var elliottii × Pinus caribaea var hondurensis hybrids. In: Dungey HS, Dieters MJ, Nikles DG (eds) Symposium on hybrid breeding and genetics. QFRI/CRC-SPF, Noosa Lakes Resort, Queensland, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  13. Horgan K, Skudder D, Holden G (1997) Clonal storage and rejuvenation. IUFRO 97 genetics of radiata pine, vol 203. FRI Bulletin, Rotorua, New Zealand, pp 273–280Google Scholar
  14. Howard BW, Nahlawi N (1965) Factors affecting the rooting of plum hardwood cuttings. J Hortic Sci 44:303–310Google Scholar
  15. Kristiansen K, Bredmose N, Nielsen B (2005) Influence of propagation temperature, photosynthetic photon flux density, auxin treatment and cutting position on root formation, axillary bud growth and shoot development in Schlumbergera ‘Russian Dancer’. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 80:297–302Google Scholar
  16. Maini JS, Horton KW (1966) Vegetative propagation of Populus Spp1. Influence of temperature on formation and initial growth of aspen suckers. Can J Bot 44:1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mitchell RG (2002) The effect of bottom heat on rooting Pinus patula and Pinus elliottii × Pinus caribaea stem cuttings in South Africa. Sth Afr For J 2:1–25Google Scholar
  18. Nikles DG (1996) The first 50 years of the evolution of forest tree improvement in Queensland. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM (eds) Tree improvement for sustainable tropical forestry. QFRI-IUFRO, Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, pp 51–64Google Scholar
  19. Nikles DG (2000) Experience with some Pinus hybrids in Queensland, Australia. In: Dungey HS, Dieters MJ, Nikles DG (eds) Hybrid breeding and genetics of forest trees. Proceedings of QFRI/CRC-SPF Symposium, Noosa, Queensland, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  20. Santelices R, Cabello A (2006) Effect of indolebutyric acid, bottom heat, substrate and parent tree on rooting capacity of Nothofagus glauca (Phil.) Krasser stem cuttings. Rev Chil Hist Nat 79:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schier GA (1974) Vegetative propagation of aspen: clonal variation in suckering from root cuttings and in rooting of sucker cuttings. Can J Res 4:565–567. doi: 10.1139/x74-084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Stenvall N, Haapala T, Aarlahti S, Pulkkinen P (2005) The effect of soil temperature and light on sprouting and rooting of root cuttings of hybrid aspen clones. Can J Res 35:2671–2678. doi: 10.1139/x05-183 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tsipouridis C, Thomidis T (2004) Rooting of ‘GF677’ (almond × peach hybrid) hardwood cuttings in relation to hydrogen hyperoxide, moisture content, oxygen concentration, temperature and pH of substrate. J Exp Ag 44:801–805. doi: 10.1071/EA03059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ying CC, Bagley WT (1977) Variation in rooting capabilities of Populus deltoides. Silvae Genet 26:204–207Google Scholar
  25. Zhou J, Wu H, Collet GF (1992) Histological study of initiation and development in vitro of adventitious roots in mini cuttings of apple rootstocks of M 26 and EMLA 9. Physiol Plant 84:433–440. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1992.tb04687.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda Rasmussen
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Timothy E. Smith
    • 1
  • Mark A. Hunt
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Primary Industries and FisheriesGympieAustralia
  2. 2.The University of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia
  3. 3.School of Science and EducationUniversity of the Sunshine CoastMaroochydore DCAustralia
  4. 4.Cooperative Research Centre for Forestry

Personalised recommendations