Root growth is critical to the establishment of planted seedlings. Seedlings can undergo stress just after planting if root growth is not sufficient to couple the seedling to available soil water. Stress occurs when a newly planted seedling’s root system can not supply enough water to transpiring needles to maintain a proper water balance and ensure survival. Thus, a newly planted seedling’s ability to overcome planting stress is affected by its root system size and distribution, root–soil contact, and root hydraulic conductivity. This paper describes how factors of root growth and water status of newly planted seedlings are important in overcoming the phenomenon of planting stress which then allows a newly planted seedling to enter the establishment phase of development.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
D.L. Adams R.T. Graham D.L. Wenny M. Daa (1991) ArticleTitleEffect of fall planting date on survival and growth of three coniferous species of container seedlings in northern Idaho Tree Planters Notes 42 52–55
K.A. Armson (1958) ArticleTitleThe effect of two planting methods on the survival and growth of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in eastern Ontario For. Chron. 34 252–259
J.T. Arnott (1975) ArticleTitleField performance of container-grown and bareroot tree in coastal British Columbia Can. J. For. Res. 5 186–194
G.J. Bacon P.J. Hawkins D. Jermyn (1977) ArticleTitleMorphological grading studies with 1-0 slash pine seedlings Aust. For. 40 293–303
V.C. Baldwin C.W. Barney (1976) ArticleTitleLeaf water potential in planted Ponderosa and lodgepole pines For. Sci. 22 344–350
A.C. Balisky P.J. Burton (1997) ArticleTitlePlanted conifer seedling growth under two soil thermal regimes in high-elevation forest openings in interior British Columbia New For. 14 63–82
P.Y. Bernier (1993) ArticleTitleComparing natural and planted black spruce seedlings Can. J. For. Res. 23 2427–2434
Blake J.I., Teeter L.D. and South D.B. 1989. Analysis of economic benefits from increasing uniformity in Douglas-fir stock. In: Mason W.L., Deans J.D. and Thompson S. (eds), Producing Uniform Conifer Planting Stock. Forest. Suppl. 62: 251–262.
J.C. Brissette J.L. Chambers (1992) ArticleTitleLeaf water status and root system water flux in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) seedlings in relationship to new root growth after transplanting Tree Physiol. 11 289–303 Occurrence Handle14969952
A.N. Burdett (1990) ArticleTitlePhysiological processes in plantation establishment and the development of specifications for forest planting stock Can. J. For. Res. 20 415–427
A.N. Burdett L.J. Herring C.F. Thompson (1984) ArticleTitleEarly growth of planted spruce Can. J. For. Res. 14 644–651
D. Burgess J.A. Baldock S. Wetzell D.G. Brand (1995) ArticleTitleScarification, fertilization and herbicide treatment effects on planted conifers and soil fertility Plant Soil 168–169 513–522
Burr K.E. 1990. The target seedling concept: bud dormancy and cold-hardiness. In: Rose R., Campbell S.J. and Landis T.D. Proceedings, Combined Meeting of the Western Forest Nursery Assoc. Target Seedling SymposiumAugust 13–17, 1990, Roseburg, Oregon. USDA RM For. and Range Exp. Station Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-200. pp. 79–90.
W.C. Carlson (1986) ArticleTitleRoot system considerations in the quality of loblolly pine seedlings S. J. Appl. For. 10 87–92
Carlson W.C. and Miller D.E. 1990. Target seedling root system sizehydraulic conductivity, and water use during seedling establishment. In: Rose R., Campbell S.J. and Landis T.D. Proceedings, Combined Meeting of the Western Forest Nursery Association’s Target Seedling Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-200. Fort Collins, CO. USDA Forest ServiceRocky Mtn. For. and Range Exp. Stn. pp. 79–90.
H.H. Chung P.J. Kramer (1975) ArticleTitleAbsorption of water and 32 P through suberized and unsuberized roots of loblolly pine Can. J. For. Res. 5 229–235
K.D. Coates W.H. Emmingham S.R. Radosevich (1991) ArticleTitleConifer-seedling success and microclimate at different levels of herb and shrub cover in a Rhododendron-Vaccinium-Menziesia community of south central British Columbia Can. J. For. Res. 21 858–866
S.J. Colombo M.F. Asselstine (1989) ArticleTitleRoot hydraulic conductivity of black spruce container seedlings Tree Physiol. 5 73–81 Occurrence Handle14973000
A.B. Darlington A. Halinska J.F. Dat T.J. Blake (1997) ArticleTitleEffects of increasing saturation vapour pressure deficit on growth and ABA levels in black spruce and jack pine Trees 11 223–228 Occurrence Handle10.1007/s004680050079
R.J. Day G.R. MacGillivray (1975) ArticleTitleRoot regeneration of fall-lifted white spruce nursery stock in relation to soil moisture content For. Chron. 51 196–199
T.A. Day E.H. DeLucia W.K. Smith (1990) ArticleTitleEffect of soil temperature on stem sap flow, shoot gas exchange and water potential of Picea engelmannii (Parry) during snowmelt Oecologia 84 474–481
R.K. Dixon S.G. Pallardy H.E. Garrett G.S. Cox (1983) ArticleTitleComparative water relations of container-grown and bare-root ectomycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal Quercus velutina seedlings Can. J. Bot. 61 1559–1565
M.G. Dosskey T.M. Ballard (1980) ArticleTitleResistance to water uptake by Douglas-fir seedlings in soils of different texture Can. J. For. Res. 10 530–534
D. Draper W. Binder R. Fahlman D. Spittlehouse (1985) Post-planting ecophysiology of interior spruce Interior Spruce Seedling Performance Northern Silviculture CommitteeMinistry of Forests, Research Branch VictoriaBC 18
S. Eis (1966) ArticleTitleSurvival and growth of white spruce wildlings and coastal nursery seedlings in the interior of British Columbia For. Chron. 42 346–349
C.C. Elfving M.R. Kaufmann A.E. Hall (1972) ArticleTitleInterpreting leaf water potential measurements with a model of the SPAC Physiol. Plant. 27 161–168
R.S. Folk S.C. Grossnickle (1997) ArticleTitleDetermining field performance potential with the use of limiting environmental conditions New For. 13 121–138
L.H. Fuchigami C.-C. Nee (1987) ArticleTitleDegree growth stage model and rest-breaking mechanisms in temperate woody perennials Hort. Sci. 22 836–845
D.M. Gates (1980) Biophysical Ecology Springer-Verlag New York, NY 611
R. Geiger (1980) The Climate Near the Ground Harvard Univ. Press CambridgeMass 611
S. Girard A. Clement H. Cochard B. Boulet-Gercourt J.M. Guehl (1997) ArticleTitleEffects of desiccation on post-planting stress in bare-root Corsican pine seedlings Tree Physiol. 17 429–435 Occurrence Handle14759834
Groot A., Carlson D.W., Fleming R.L. and Wood J.E. 1997. Small openings in trembling aspen forest: Microclimate and regeneration of white spruce and trembling aspen. Nat. Res. Can. Canadian Forest ServiceGreat Lakes Forestry CentreSault Ste. MarieON. NODA/NFP Tech. Rep. TR-47.
Grossnickle S.C. 1983. Growthdevelopment and water relation patterns of conifer seedlings on a high-elevation mine site. Ph.D. Thesis, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, pp.252.
S.C. Grossnickle (1988a) ArticleTitlePlanting stress in newly planted jack pine and white spruce. I. Factors influencing water uptake Tree Physiol. 4 71–83
S.C. Grossnickle (1988b) ArticleTitlePlanting stress of bare-root jack pine and white spruce seedlings. II. Changes in tissue water potential components Tree Physiol. 4 85–97
S.C. Grossnickle (1993) ArticleTitleShoot water relations and gas exchange of western hemlock and western red cedar seedlings during establishment on a reforestation site Trees 7 148–155 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00199615
S.C. Grossnickle (2000) Ecophysiology of Northern Spruce Species: The Performance of Planted Seedlings NRC Research Press OttawaOntarioCanada 409
S.C. Grossnickle T.J. Blake (1985) ArticleTitleAcclimation of cold-stored jack pine and white spruce seedlings: effect of soil temperature on water relation patterns Can. J. For. Res. 15 544–550
S.C. Grossnickle T.J. Blake (1987) ArticleTitleComparison of water relation patterns for newly planted bare-root and container jack pine and black spruce seedlings on boreal cut-over sites New For. 1 101–116
S.C. Grossnickle R.S. Folk (1993) ArticleTitleStock quality assessment: forecasting survival or performance on a reforestation site Tree Planters Notes 44 113–121
S.C. Grossnickle J. Heikurinen (1989) ArticleTitleSite preparation: water relations and growth of outplanted jack pine and white spruce New For. 3 99–123
S.C. Grossnickle C.P.P. Reid (1982) ArticleTitleThe use of ectomycorrhizal conifer seedlings in the revegetation of a high-elevation mine site Can. J. For. Res. 12 354–361
S.C. Grossnickle C.P.P. Reid (1983) ArticleTitleEctomycorrhiza formation and root development patterns of conifer seedlings on a high elevation mine site Can. J. For. Res. 13 1145–1158
S.C. Grossnickle C.P.P. Reid (1984) ArticleTitleWater relations of Engelmann spruce seedlings on a high-elevation mine site: an example of how reclamation techniques can alter microclimate and edaphic conditions Reclam. Reveg. Res. 3 199–221
S.C. Grossnickle J.H. Russell (1990) ArticleTitleWater movement characterization of yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) seedlings and rooted cuttings Tree Physiol. 6 57–68 Occurrence Handle14972960
J.M. Guehl G. Aussenac P. Kaushal (1989) ArticleTitleThe effects of transplanting stress on photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential in Cedrus atlantica: role of root regeneration Ann. Sci. For. 46S 464–468
J.M. Guehl A. Clement P. Kaushal G. Aussenac (1993) ArticleTitlePlanting stress, water status and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations in Corsican pine seedlings Tree Physiol. 12 173–184 Occurrence Handle14969927
D.L. Haase R. Rose (1993) ArticleTitleSoil moisture stress induces transplant shock in stored and unstored 2+0 Douglas-fir seedlings of varying root volumes For. Sci. 39 275–294
C.A. Häussling C.A. Jorn G. Lehmbecker C. Hecht-Buchholz H. Marschner (1988) ArticleTitleIon and water uptake in relation to root development in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) J. Plant Physiol. 133 486–491
J. Hellkvist G.P. Richards P.G. Jarvis (1974) ArticleTitleVertical gradients of water potential and tissue water relations in Sitka spruce trees measured with the pressure chamber J. Appl. Ecol. 11 637–668
D. Hillel (1971) Soil and Water; Physical Principles and Processes Academic Press New York 224
T.M. Hinckley D.M. Bruckerhoff (1975) ArticleTitleThe effects of drought on water relations and stem shrinkage of Quercus alba Can. J. Bot. 53 62–72
T.M. Hinckley J.P. Lassoie S.W. Running (1978) ArticleTitleTemporal and spatial variations in the water status of forest trees For. Sci. Monogr 20 70
F.D. Hines J.N. Long (1986) ArticleTitleFirst- and second-year survival of containerized Engelmann spruce in relation to initial seedling size Can. J. For. Res. 16 668–670
S.D. Hobbs (1984) The influence of species and stocktype selection on stand establishment: an ecophysiological perspective M.L. Duryea G.D. Brown (Eds) Seedling Physiology and Reforestation Success Martinus Nijhoff/ Dr W. Junk Publishers Dordrecht/Boston/Lancaster 179–224
S.D. Hobbs K.A. Wearstler SuffixJr. (1983) ArticleTitlePerformance of three Douglas-fir stocktypes on a skeletal soil Tree Planters Notes 34 11–14
E.H. Hoog V.J. Lieffers (1991) ArticleTitleThe impact of Calamagrostis canadensis on soil thermal regimes after logging in northern Alberta Can. J. For. Res. 21 387–394
T.C. Hsiao (1973) ArticleTitlePlant response to water stress Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 24 519–570 Occurrence Handle10.1146/annurev.pp.24.060173.002511
E.V. Hunt G. Gilmore (1967) ArticleTitleEffect of initial height on loblolly pine seedling growth and survival J. For. 65 632–634
M. Imo V.R. Timmer (2001) ArticleTitleGrowth and nitrogen retranslocation of nutrient loaded Picea mariana seedlings planted on boreal mixedwood sites Can. J. For. Res. 31 1357–1366 Occurrence Handle10.1139/cjfr-31-8-1357
Jacobs D.F., Rose R., Haase D.L. and Alzugaray P.O. 2004. Fertilization at planting impairs root system development and drought avoidance of Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga manziesii) seedlings. Ann. For. Sci. (in press). 61: 643–652.
M.R. Kaufmann (1968) ArticleTitleWater relations of pine seedlings in relation to root and shoot growth Plant Physiol. 43 281–288
M.R. Kaufmann (1975) ArticleTitleLeaf water stress in Engelmann spruce: influence of the root and shoot environments Plant Physiol. 58 841–844
M.R. Kaufmann (1979) ArticleTitleStomatal control and the development of water deficit in Engelmann spruce seedlings during drought Can. J. For. Res. 9 297–304
P. Kaushal G. Aussenac (1989) ArticleTitleTransplanting shock in Corsican Pine and Cedar of Atlas Seedlings: internal water deficits, growth and root regeneration For. Ecol. Manage. 27 29–40 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0378-1127(89)90080-7
R.J. Keenan J.P. Kimmins (1993) ArticleTitleThe ecological effects of clear-cutting Environ. Rev. 1 121–144
Y.T. Kim S.J. Colombo D.F. Hickie T.D. Noland (1999) ArticleTitleAmino acidcarbohydrateglutathionemineral nutrient and water potential changes in non-water stressed Picea mariana seedlings after transplanting Scand. J. For. Res. 14 416–424 Occurrence Handle10.1080/02827589950154122
T.T. Kozlowski W.J. Davies (1975) ArticleTitleControl of water balance in transplanted trees Arboriculture 1 1–10
P.J. Kramer (1942) ArticleTitleSpecies differences with respect to water absorption at low soil temperatures Amer. J. Bot. 29 828–832
P.J. Kramer (1983) Water Relations of Plants Academic Press New York, NY 489
S. Landhäusser A. DesRochers V.J. Lieffers (2001) ArticleTitleA comparison of growth and physiology in Picea glaucaPopulus tremuloides at different soil temperatures Can. J. For. Res. 31 1922–1929 Occurrence Handle10.1139/cjfr-31-11-1922
H.S. Larsen D.B. South J.N. Boyer (1988) ArticleTitleFoliar nitrogen content at lifting correlates with early growth of loblolly pine seedlings from 20 nurseries South. J. Appl. For. 12 181–185
M.M. Larson (1980) ArticleTitleEffects of atmospheric humidity and zonal soil water stress on initial growth of planted northern red oak seedlings Can. J. For. Res. 10 549–554
B. Leshman (1970) ArticleTitleResting roots in Pinus halipensis: structurefunction, and reaction to water stress Bot. Gaz. 131 99–104 Occurrence Handle10.1086/336518
W. Lopushinsky M.R. Kaufmann (1984) ArticleTitleEffects of cold soil on water relations and spring growth of Douglas-fir seedlings For. Sci. 30 628–634
W. Lopushinsky T.A. Max (1990) ArticleTitleEffect of soil temperature on root and shoot growth and on budburst timing in conifer seedling transplants New For. 4 107–124
H. Lyr G. Hoffman (1967) Growth rates and periodicity of tree roots J.A. Romberger P. Mikola (Eds) International Review of Forest Research 2 Academic Press New York 181–236
H.A. Margolis D.G. Brand (1990) ArticleTitleAn ecophysiological basis for understanding plantation establishment Can. J. For. Res. 20 375–390
McGilvray J.M. and Barnett J.P. 1982. Relating seedling morphology to field performance of containerized southern pines. In: Guldin R.W. and Barnett J.P. Proc. Southern Forest Tree Seedling ConferenceUSDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-37, pp. 39–46.
McMinn R.G. 1982. Ecology of site preparation to improve performance of planted white spruce in northern latitudes. In: Murray M. (ed.), Forest Regeneration at High Latitudes: Experiences from Northern British Columbia. USDA For. Serv. PNW Misc. Rep. 82–1. pp. 25–32.
Mexal J.G. and Landis T.D. 1990. Target seedling concepts: height and diameter. In: Rose R., Campbell S.J. and Landis T.D. Proceedings, Combined Meeting of the Western Forest Nursery Assoc. Target Seedling SymposiumAugust 13–17, 1990, Roseburg, Oregon. USDA RM For. and Range Exp. Station Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-200. pp. 17–36.
P.C. Miller (1983) Comparison of water balance characteristics of plant species in “natural” versus modified ecosystems H.A. Mooney M. Godron (Eds) Disturbance and Ecosystems. Components of Response Springer-Verlag New York 188–212
R.E. Mullin (1963) ArticleTitlePlant check in spruce For. Chron. 39 252–259
R.E. Mullin (1964) ArticleTitleReduction in growth of white spruce after out-planting For. Chron. 40 488–493
A.D. Munson P.Y. Bernier (1993) ArticleTitleComparing natural and planted black spruce seedlings. II. Nutrient uptake and efficiency of use Can. J. For. Res. 23 2435–2442
E.K.S. Nambiar (1984) ArticleTitleSignificance of first-order lateral roots on the growth of young radiata pine under environmental stress Aust. For. Res. 14 187–199
E.K.S. Nambiar D.N. Fife (1991) ArticleTitleNutrient retranslocation in temperate conifers Tree Physiol. 9 185–207 Occurrence Handle14972864
E.K.S. Nambiar G.D. Bowen R. Sands (1979) ArticleTitleRoot regeneration and plant water status of Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings transplanted to different soil temperatures J. Exp. Bot. 30 1119–1131
M. Newton P.G. Comeau (1990) Control of competing vegetation D.P. Lavender R. Parish C.M. Johnson G. Montgomery A. Vyse R.A. Willis D. Winston (Eds) Regenerating British Columbia’s Forests University of British Columbia Press VancouverBC 257–265
U. Nilsson G. Örlander (1995) ArticleTitleEffects of regeneration methods on drought damage to newly planted Norway spruce seedlings Can J. For. Res. 25 790–802
S.K. Omi B. Yoder R. Rose (1991) ArticleTitleFall lifting and long-term freezer storage of ponderosa pine seedlings: effect on post-storage leaf water potential, stomatal conductanceand root growth potential Tree Physiol. 8 315–325 Occurrence Handle14972882
G. Örlander K. Due (1986) ArticleTitleLocation of hydraulic resistance in the soil-plant pathway in seedlings of Pinus sylvestris L. grown in peat Can. J. For. Res. 16 115–123
G. Örlander P. Gemmel J. Hunt (1990) Site Preparation: An Overview Forestry Canada and BC, Ministry of Forests VictoriaBC
Owston P.W. 1990. Target seedling specifications: are stocktype designations useful? In: Rose R., Campbell S.J. and Landis T.D. Proceedings, Combined Meeting of the Western Forest Nursery Assoc. Target Seedling SymposiumAugust 13–17, 1990, Roseburg, Oregon. USDA RM For. and Range Exp. Station Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-200. pp. 9–16.
S.G. Pallardy J. Cermák F.W. Ewers M.R. Kaufmann W.C. Parker J.S. Sperry (1995) Water transport dynamics in trees and stands W.K. Smith T.M. Hinckley (Eds) Resource Physiology of Conifers: Acquisition, Allocation and Utilization Academic Press New York 301–389
P. Puttonen (1986) ArticleTitleCarbohydrate reserves in Pinus sylvestris seedling needles as an attribute of seedling vigor Scand. J. For. Res. 1 181–193
P.E. Reynolds J.A. Simpson R.A. Lautenschlager F.W. Bell A.M. Gordon D.A. Buckley D.A. Gresch (1997) ArticleTitleAlternative conifer release treatments affect below- and near-ground microclimate For. Chron. 73 75–82
W.J. Rietveld (1989) ArticleTitleTransplanting stress in bareroot conifer seedlings: its development and progression to establishment North. J. Appl. For. 6 99–107
G.A. Ritchie (1982) ArticleTitleCarbohydrate reserves and root growth potential in Douglas-fir seedlings before and after cold storage Can. J. For. Res. 12 905–912
G.A. Ritchie (1984) Assessing seedling quality M.L. Duryea T.D. Landis (Eds) Forest Nursery Manual: Production of Bareroot Seedlings Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers The Hague 243–266
G.A. Ritchie J.R. Dunlap (1980) ArticleTitleRoot growth potential: its development and expression in forest tree seedlings New Zeal. J. For. Sci. 10 218–248
G.A. Ritchie T.M. Hinckley (1975) ArticleTitleThe pressure chamber as an instrument for ecological research Adv. Ecol. Res. 9 165–254
Ritchie G.A. and Tanaka Y. 1990. Root growth potential and the target seedling. In: Rose R., Campbell S.J. and Landis T.D. Proceedings, Combined Meeting of the Western Forest Nursery Assoc. Target Seedling SymposiumAugust 13–17, 1990, Roseburg, Oregon. USDA RM For. and Range Exp. Station Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-200. pp. 37–51.
R. Rose M. Atkinson J. Gleason T. Sabin (1991a) ArticleTitleRoot volume as a grading criterion to improve field performance of Douglas-fir seedlings New For. 5 195–209
R. Rose J. Gleason M. Atkinson T. Sabin (1991b) ArticleTitleGrading ponderosa pine seedlings for outplanting based on their root volume West. J. Appl. For. 6 11–15
M. Rüdinger S.W. Hallgren E. Steudle E.-D. Schulze (1994) ArticleTitleHydraulic and osmotic properties of spruce roots J. Exp. Bot. 45 1413–1425
S.W. Running C.P.P. Reid (1980) ArticleTitleSoil temperature influences on root resistance of Pinus contorta seedlings Plant Physiol. 65 635–640
A. Ryyppö S. Iivonen R. Rikala M.-L. Sutinen E. Vapaavuori (1998) ArticleTitleResponse of Scots pine seedlings to low root zone temperature in spring Physiol. Plant. 102 503–512 Occurrence Handle10.1034/j.1399-3054.1998.1020404.x
R. Sands (1984) ArticleTitleTransplanting stress in radiata pine Aust. For. Res. 14 67–72
R. Sands E.L. Fiscus C.P.P. Reid (1982) ArticleTitleHydraulic properties of pine and bean roots with varying degrees of suberization, vascular differentiation, and mycorrhizal infection Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 9 559–569
D.G. Simpson (1990) ArticleTitleFrost hardiness, root growth capacity, and field performance relationships in interior sprucelodgepole pineDouglas-firand western hemlock seedlings Can. J. For. Res. 20 566–572
D.G. Simpson G.A. Ritchie (1997) ArticleTitleDoes RGP predict field performance? A debate New For. 13 253–277
D.B. South W.L. Mason (1991) ArticleTitleUsing distribution-modifying functions to predict variation in frequency distributions of tree heights during plantation establishment Forestry 64 303–319
D.B. South C.T. Smith (2000) ArticleTitleHarvest treatments and fertilizer application affect transplanting stress index of Pinus Radiata New Zeal. J. For. Sci. 30 308–314
D.B. South J.B. Zwolinski (1997) ArticleTitleTransplanting stress index: a proposed method of quantifying planting check New For. 13 315–328
D.L. Spittlehouse R.J. Stathers (1990) Seedling microclimate Forestry Canada and BC, Ministry of Forests VictoriaBC
R.J. Stathers D.L. Spittlehouse (1990) Forest Soil Temperature Manual Forestry Canada and BC, Ministry of Forests VictoriaBC
R.E. Sterne M.R. Kaufmann G.A. Zentmyer (1977) ArticleTitleEnvironmental effects on transpiration and leaf water potential in avocado Physiol. Plant. 41 1–6
Stiell W.M. 1976. White spruce: artificial regeneration in Canada. Environ. Can., Can. For. Serv., For. Manage. Inst., Inf. Rep. FMR-X-85.
R.J. Stirzaker J.B. Passioura (1996) ArticleTitleThe water relations of the root soil interface Plant Cell Environ. 19 201–208
E.C. Stone (1955) ArticleTitlePoor survival and the physiological condition of planting stock For. Sci. 1 89–94
E.C. Stone J.L. Schubert (1959) ArticleTitleRoot regeneration of ponderosa pine seedlings lifted at different times of the year For. Sci. 5 322–332
J.A. Stupendick K.R. Shepherd (1980) ArticleTitleRoot regeneration of root-pruned Pinus radiata seedlings. II. Effects of root pruning on photosynthesis and translocation New Zeal. J. For. Sci. 10 148–158
R.F. Sutton (1975) ArticleTitleNutrition and growth of white spruce outplants: enhancement by herbicidal site preparation Can. J. For. Res. 5 217–223
Sutton R.F. 1991. Soil properties and root development in forest trees: a review. Forestry CanadaOnt. region, Sault Ste. MarieOnt. Inf. Rep. O-X-413.
R.F. Sutton (1992) ArticleTitleWhite spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss): stagnating boreal old-field plantations unresponsive to fertilization and weed control For. Chron. 68 249–258
R.F. Sutton R.W. Tinus (1983) ArticleTitleRoot and root system terminology For. Sci. Monogr 24 137
Thompson B.E. 1985. Seedling morphological evaluation:What you can tell by looking. In: Duryea M.L. (ed.), Evaluating Seedling Quality: Principles, Procedures, and Predictive Ability of Major Tests. Corvallis, OR, Oregon State University, Forestry Research Laboratory, pp. 59–72.
V.R. Timmer (1997) ArticleTitleExponential nutrient loading: a new fertilization technique to improve seedling performance on competitive sites New For. 13 279–299
P.R. Tryon F.S. Chapin SuffixIII (1983) ArticleTitleTemperature control over root growth and biomass in taiga forest trees Can. J. For. Res. 13 827–833
C.L. Tuttle D.B. South M.S. Golden R.S. Meldahl (1987) ArticleTitleRelationship between initial seedling height and survival and growth of loblolly pine planted during a droughty year South. J. Appl. For. 11 139–143
R. den Driessche (1991) Effects of nutrients on stock performance in the forest R. den Driessche (Eds) Mineral Nutrition of Conifer Seedlings CRC Press Boca Raton, USA 229–260
A. Vyse (1981) ArticleTitleGrowth of young spruce plantations in interior British Columbia For. Chron. 57 174–180
Wakeley P.C. 1954. Planting the Southern Pines. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agriculture monograph No. 18.
W.E. Waters C.J. DeMars SuffixJr. F.W. Cobb SuffixJr. (1991) ArticleTitleAnalysis of early mortality of Douglas-fir seedlings in postharvest plantings in Northwestern California For. Sci. 37 802–826
S.J. Wilson R.J. Clark (1998) ArticleTitleChanges in water relations of Eucalyptus nitens nursery stock during and after lifting and transplanting New For. 16 199–211
J.E. Wood F.W. von Althen (1993) ArticleTitleEstablishment of white spruce and black spruce in Boreal Ontario: effects of chemical site preparation and post-planting weed control For. Chron. 69 554–560
J.B. Zwolinski D.G.M. Donald A. van Laar W.H. Groenewald (1994) ArticleTitleRegeneration procedures for Pinus radiata in the Southern Cape Province Part V: post planting mortality and growth of trees in response to experimental treatments and planting site environment S. Afr. For. J. 168 7–12
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Grossnickle, S.C. Importance of root growth in overcoming planting stress. New Forest 30, 273–294 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-004-8303-2
- Forest regeneration
- Plant water relations
- Planting stress
- Root growth