A series of experiments was conducted on the rehabilitation of mine spoil in a dry tropical region of India for determining the suitability of tree species for plantation, growth performance of selected indigenous species in monoculture and impact of the plantations on the restoration of biological fertility of soil. All of the 17 indigenous species examined could grow in the mine spoil and the growth of a majority of them could be improved by amending the mine spoil with NPK fertilizer. Direct seeding showed greatest height of Zizyphus jujuba and Pongamia pinnata on flat surface, and of Azadirachta indica on slope. In terms of diameter, Syzygium cumini performed best on flat surface and Terminalia arjuna on slope. Total biomass in plantations of selected native tree species on mine spoil at 5-yr age varied from 7.2 to 74.7 t ha−1, being minimum for Shorea robusta and maximum for Dendrocalamus strictus. Total net production ranged from 3.5 (for Shorea robusta) to 32.0 t ha−1 yr−1 (for Dendrocalamus strictus), respectively. Microbial biomass in the redeveloping soil was lower compared to that in natural forest soil but immobilization of soil C in microbial biomass was greater in the mine spoil than in the natural forest. The study indicated that net primary production of the plantations was a function of the amount of foliage, soil C was a function of the amount of litter fall and biomass C was a function of soil C. Plantation of trees significantly accelerated the soil redevelopment process on the mine spoil.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
J.P.E. Anderson K.H. Domsch (1980) ArticleTitleQuantities of plant nutrients in the microbial biomass of selected soils Soil Sci. 130 211–216 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL3cXmtF2lu7s%3D
A.N. Banerjee (1990) Techno-economics of environmental management in mining B.B. Dhar (Eds) Environmental Management of Mining Operations Ashish Publishing House New Delhi 1–16
S.S. Bargali S.P. Singh R.P. Singh (1992) ArticleTitleStructure and function of an age series of Eucalyptus plantations in Central Himalaya. I. Dry matter dynamics Ann. Bot. 69 405–411
A.D. Bradshaw (1997) ArticleTitleRestoration of mined lands – using natural processes Ecol. Eng. 8 255–269 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0925-8574(97)00022-0
M. Diaz-Ravina T. Carballas M.J. Acea (1988) ArticleTitleMicrobial biomass and metabolic activity in four acid soils Soil Biol. Biochem. 20 817–823 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL1MXhtFels74%3D
A.P. Dobson A.D. Bradshaw A.G.M. Baker (1997) ArticleTitleHopes for the future: restoration ecology and conservation biology Science 277 515–522 Occurrence Handle10.1126/science.277.5325.515 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXkvVektbo%3D Occurrence HandleA1997XM86700034
R.K. Dutta M. Agrawal (2002) ArticleTitleEffect of tree plantations on the soil characteristics and microbial activity of coal mine spoil land Trop. Ecol. 43 315–324 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXkt1akt7g%3D
Faruqui O. 1972. Organic and mineral structure and productivity of plantation of Sal (Shorea robusta) and teak (Tectona grandis). Ph.D. thesis, BHU, Varanasi.
H.M. Helal D.R. Sauerbeck (1986) ArticleTitleEffect of plant roots on carbon metabolism of soil microbial biomass Z Pflanzenernahr. Bodenkd. 149 181–188 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL28Xit1CitLs%3D
M.L. Jackson (1958) Soil Chemical Analysis Prentice-Hall EnglewoodCliffs, NJ
D.S. Jenkinson J.M. Oades (1979) ArticleTitleA method for measuring adenosine triphosphate in soil Soil Biol. Biochem. 11 193–199 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaE1MXitVaksrk%3D
A.K. Jha (1992) ArticleTitleEvaluation of coalmine spoil as a medium of plant growth in a dry tropical environmentIndia Indian Forest 118 909–916
A.K. Jha J.S. Singh (1991) ArticleTitleSpoil characteristics and vegetation development of an age series of mine spoils in a dry tropical environment Vegetatio 97 63–76 Occurrence HandleA1991HE15700006
A.K. Jha J.S. Singh (1992) ArticleTitleInfluence of microsites on redevelopment of vegetation on coalmine spoils in a dry tropical environment J. Environ. Manage. 36 95–116
A.K. Jha J.S. Singh (1993) ArticleTitleGrowth performance of Growth performance of certain directly seeded plants on mine spoil in a dry tropical environmentIndia India Forest 119 920–927
G. Jung (1969) ArticleTitleCycles biogeochemiques dans un ecosysteme de region tropical seche Acacia albida (Del.) sol ferrugineux tropical peu lessiue (Dior). (Note preliminair) Oecol. Plant. 4 195–210 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaE38XksFSgtw%3D%3D
S.B. Karmacharya K.P. Singh (1992) ArticleTitleBiomass and net production of teak plantation in a dry tropical region in India For. Ecol. Manage. 55 233–247 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0378-1127(92)90103-G
R. Merckx J.K. Martin (1987) ArticleTitleExtraction of microbial biomass components from rhizoshere soils Soil Biol. Biochem. 19 371–376 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0038-0717(87)90025-3 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL2sXlsFegtLs%3D
Moore P.D. and Chapman S.B. 1986. Chemical analysis. In: Methods in Plant Ecology. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 315–317.
P.G. Murphy A.E. Lugo (1986) ArticleTitleStructure and biomass of a subtropical dry forest in Puerto Rico Biotropica 18 89–96 Occurrence HandleA1986F875200001
J.M. Oades D.S. Jenkinson (1979) ArticleTitleAdenosine triphosphate content of the soil microbial biomass Soil Biol. Biochem. 11 201–204 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaE1MXitVaksbk%3D
J.A. Parrotta (1999) ArticleTitleProductivity, nutrient cycling, and succession in single- and mixed-species plantations of Casuarina equisetifolia, Eucalyptus robusta and Leucaena leucocephala in Puerto Rico Forest Ecol. Manage. 124 45–77
J.A. Parrotta O.H. Knowles (2001) ArticleTitleRestoring tropical forests on lands mined for bauxite: Examples from the Brazilian Amazon Ecol. Eng. 17 219–239 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0925-8574(00)00141-5
Prasad A.S. 1995. Eco-friendly open pit mining - The NCL commitmentIn: Mining Environment. In: DharB.B. Dhar and Thakur D.N. (eds), Proceedings of the First World Mining Environment Congress, 1995. Oxford, New Delhi, IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltdpp. 307–327.
R.W. Ruess S.J. McNaughton (1987) ArticleTitleGrazing and the dynamics of nutrient and energy regulate microbial processes in the Serengeti grasslands Oikos 49 101–110 Occurrence HandleA1987H130000012
K.S. Singh (1987) Prospects of development of large opencast mines in Singrauli Souvenir National Workshop on Ecodevelopment of Singrauli Coal Mines Area Rural EPCO Bhopal 33–40
J.S. Singh A.K. Jha (1993) Restoration of degraded land: An overview J.S. Singh (Eds) Restoration of Degraded Land: Concepts and Strategies Rastogi Publications Meerut 1–9
A. Singh A.K. Jha J.S. Singh (2000) ArticleTitleEffect of nutrient enrichment on native tropical trees planted on Singrauli Coalfields, India Rest. Ecol. 8 80–86
A.N. Singh A.S. Raghubanshi J.S. Singh (2002) ArticleTitlePlantations as a tool for mine spoil restoration Curr. Sci. 82 1436–1441 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XlvFyru78%3D
A.N. Singh A.S. Raghubanshi J.S. Singh (2004) ArticleTitleImpact of native tree plantations on mine spoil in a dry tropical environment Forest Ecol. Manage. 187 49–60
Lalji Singh J.S. Singh (1991) ArticleTitleSpecies structuredry matter dynamics and carbon flux of a dry tropical forest in India Ann. Bot. 68 263–273
P.K. Singh K.P. Singh (1998) ArticleTitleBiomass production in selected tree species raised on coal mine spoil in a dry tropical region in India Trop. Ecol. 39 289–292
A.N. Singh J.S. Singh (1999) ArticleTitleBiomass, net primary production and impact of bamboo plantation on soil redevelopment in a dry tropical region For. Ecol. Manag. 119 195–207
A. Singh J.S. Singh (2001) ArticleTitleComparative growth behaviour and leaf nutrient status of native trees planted on mine spoil with and without nutrient amendment Ann. Bot. 87 777–787 Occurrence Handle10.1006/anbo.2001.1414 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXjslChur0%3D
Singh J.S., Singh K.P. and Jha A.K. (eds) 1995. An Integrated Ecological Study on Revegetation of Mine Spoil: Concepts and Research Highlights. Report of a S&T project sponsored by the Ministry of Coal, Govt. of India. Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, VaranasiIndia.
Singh J.S., Singh K.P. and Jha A.K. 1996. An Integrated Ecological Study on Revegetation of Mine Spoil. Final Technical Report submitted to the Ministry of Coal. Government of IndiaNew Delhi.
V. Singh O.P. Toky (1995) ArticleTitleBiomass and net primary productivity in Leucaena, Acacia and Eucalyptusshort rotation, high density (‘energy’) plantations in arid India J. Arid Env. 31 301–309 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0140-1963(05)80034-5
E.J. Singh P.S. Yadava (1994) ArticleTitleStructure and function of oak forest ecosystem of north-eastern India. I. Biomass dynamics and net primary production Oecol. Montana 3 1–9
S.C. Srivastava A.K. Jha J.S. Singh (1989) ArticleTitleChanges with time in soil biomass C, N and P of mine spoils in a dry tropical environment Can. J. Soil Sci. 69 849–855 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK3cXpslCruw%3D%3D Occurrence Handle10.4141/cjss89-085
Srivastava S.C. and Singh J.S. 1989. Effect of cultivation on microbial biomass C and N of dry tropical forest soil. Biol. Fert. Soil, pp. 343–348.
A.H. Taylor Q. Zisheng (1987) ArticleTitleCulm dynamics and dry matter production of bamboo in the Wolong and Tangjiahe giant Panda reserves, Sichuan, China J. Appl. Ecol. 24 419–433
S.K. Tripathi K.P. Singh (1996) ArticleTitleCulm recruitmentdry matter dynamics and carbon flux in recently harvested and mature bamboo savannas in the Indian dry tropics Ecol. Res. 11 149–164
E.D. Vance P.C. Brookes D.S. Jenkinson (1987) ArticleTitleAn extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C Soil Biol. Biochem. 19 703–707 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL1cXjs1KqsA%3D%3D
T.T. Veblen F.M. Schlegel R. Escobar (1980) ArticleTitleDry matter production of two species of bamboo (Chusquea culeou and C. tenuiflora) in south central Chile J. Ecol. 68 397–404
L.N. Vyas R.K. Garh L.N. Vyas (1977) ArticleTitleStand structure and aboveground biomass in dry deciduous forests of Aravalli Hills at Udaipur (Rajasthan), India Biologia (Bratislava) 32 265–270
W.L. Webb W.K. Lauenroth S.R. Szarek R.S. Kinerson (1983) ArticleTitlePrimary production and abiotic controls in forests, grasslands and desert ecosystem in the United States Ecology 64 134–151 Occurrence HandleA1983QA56800015
About this article
Cite this article
Singh, A.N., Singh, J.S. Experiments on Ecological Restoration of Coal Mine Spoil using Native Trees in a Dry Tropical Environment, India: A Synthesis. New Forest 31, 25–39 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-004-6795-4
- Direct seeding
- Microbial biomass
- Mine spoil
- Soil redevelopment