Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology

, Volume 47, Issue 8, pp 941–947 | Cite as

Individual Features of Viewing Emotionally Significant Images

  • L. N. PodladchikovaEmail author
  • T. I. Koltunova
  • D. G. Shaposhnikov
  • O. V. Lomakina

Experimental data on the individual features of eye movements on viewing affective images from the IAPS database are presented. The results provide evidence that the viewing trajectory in each subject (n = 20) persisted on presentation of images with different emotional coloration. The whole cohort of subjects showed a significant correlation between the numbers of tests in which areas of interest were detected, in three combinations: between negative and positive images, between negative and neutral, and between positive and neutral (r = 0.84, 0.78, and 0.77, respectively). Analogous correlations were seen for the duration of gaze fixations (r = 0.90, 0.82, and 0.90). The number of fixation points in areas of interest, the size of the areas examined, and the duration of fixations were found to differ significantly between two groups of subjects (with dominance of focal or scanning gaze trajectories). The potential for using emotionally significant images for assessing the dominant type of visual attention in terms of eye movement parameters in individual humans is discussed.


emotionally significant images IAPS image database individual viewing features size of viewing area duration of fixations 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. Yu. Vasanov, O. P. Marchenko, and A. S. Mashanlo, “Verification of standard measures of emotionally colored photographic images from the IAPS in a Russian cohort,” Eksperim. Psikhol., 4, No. 3, 126–132 (2011).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. E. Grigor’ev and I. V. Vasil’ev, “Relationship between the effectiveness of predicting affective colored images and the satisfaction of basic needs,” Prostr. Vremya, 21, No. 3, 350–358 (2015).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. A. Osipov, L. N. Podladchikova, and D. G. Shaposhnikov, “Dynamics of the temporospatial characteristics of image viewing: model and experiment,” Neiroinformatika. Elektron. Retsenzir. Zh., 6, No. 1, 1–11 (2012).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. I. Rozovskaya, E. V. Pechenkova, E. A. Mershina, and R. I. Machinskaya, “fMRI studies of images with different emotional valences held in working memory. Psychology,” Psikhologiya. Zh. Vyssh. Shkoly Ekon., 11, No. 1, 27–48 (2014).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. L. Yarbus, The Role of Eye Movements in the Process of Vision, Nauka, Moscow (1965).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Barke, J. Stahl, and B. Kroner-Herwig, “Identifying a subset of fear-evoking pictures from the IAPS on the basis of dimensional and categorical ratings for a German sample,” J. Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiat., 43, 565–572 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. M. Bradley, P. Houbova, L. Miccoli, et al., “Scan patterns when viewing natural scenes: emotion, complexity, and repetition,” Psychophysiology, 48, 1543–1552 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. M. Bradley and P. J. Lang, “The international affective picture system (IAPS) in the study of emotion and attention,” in: Handbook of Emotion Elicitation and Assessment, J. A. Coan and J. J. B. Allen (eds.), Oxford University Press (2007), pp. 29–46.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. G. Calvo and P. J. Lang, “Parafoveal semantic processing of emotional visual scenes,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform., 31, No. 3, 502–512 (2005).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. Carniglia, M. Caputi, V. Manfredi, et al., “The influence of emotional picture thematic content on exploratory eye movements,” J. Eye Mov. Res., 5, No. 4, 1–9 (2012).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Carrasco, “Visual attention: the past 25 years,” Vision Res., 51, 1484–1525 (2011).CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Å. Christianson, E. F. Loftus, H. Hoffman, and G. R. Loftus, “Eye fixations and memory for emotional events,” J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn., 17, No. 4, 693–702 (1991).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. R. Gibboni III, P. E. Zimmerman, K. M. Gothard, “Individual differences in scanpaths correspond with serotonin transporter genotype and behavioral phenotype in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta),” Front. Behav. Neurosci., 3, No. 50, 1–11 (2009).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. C. Gur, J. Richard, P. Hughett, et al., “A cognitive neuroscience-based computerized battery for efficient measurement of individual differences: standardization and initial construct validation,” J. Neurosci. Meth., 187, 254–262 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Humphrey, G. Underwood, and P. Chapman, “Enhanced memory for emotional pictures: A product of increased attention to affective stimuli?” Europ. J. Cogn. Psychol., 22, No. 8, 1235–1247 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Humphrey, G. Underwood, and T. Lambert, “Salience of the lambs: a test of the saliency map hypothesis with pictures of emotive objects,” J. Vision, 12, No. 1, 1–15 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    T. I. Koltunova and L. N. Podladchikova, “Distractor effect at initial stages of recognition depends on visual image properties,” J. Integr. Neurosci., 12, No. 1, 91–101 (2013).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. J. Lang, M. M. Bradley, and B. N. Cuthbert, “International affective picture system (IAPS), affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual,” Techn. Report A-8, University of Florida (2008).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Ni, H. Jiang, Y. Jin, et al., “Dissociable modulation of overt visual attention in valence and arousal revealed by topology of scan path,” PLoS One, 6, No. 4, e18262 (2011).CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y. Niu, R. M. Todd, and A. K. Anderson, “Affective salience can reverse the effects of stimulus-driven salience on eye movements in complex scenes,” Front. Psychol., 3, No. 339, 1–11 (2012).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. Nummenmaa, J. Hyona, and M. G. Calvo, “Eye movement assessment of selective attentional capture by emotional pictures,”Emotion, 6, No. 2, 257–268 (2006).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Pilarczyk and M. Kuniecki, “Emotional content of an image attracts attention more than visually salient features in various signalto-noise ratio conditions,” J. Vision, 14, No. 12, 1–19 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    L. N. Podladchikova, D. G. Shaposhnikov, T. I. Koltunova, et al., “Temporal dynamics of fixation duration, saccade amplitude, and viewing trajectory,” J. Int. Neurosci., 8, No. 4, 487–501 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. N. Podladchikova, D. G. Shaposhnikov, A. V. Tikidgji-Hamburyan, et al., “Model-based approach to study the mechanisms of complex image viewing,” J. Opt. Mem. Neural Net. (Inf. Optics) , 18, No. 2, 114–121 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. M. Priviterra and L. M. Stark, “Scanpath theory, attention and image processing algorithms for prediction of human eye fixations,” in: Neurobiology of Attention, L. G. Itti, J. Rees, and J. K. Tsotsos (eds.), Elsevier, Academic (2005), pp. 296–299.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. Sabatinelli, P. J. Lang, A. Keil, and M. M. Bradley, “Emotional perception: correlation of functional MRI and event-related potentials,” Cereb. Cortex, 17, No. 5 1085–1091 (2007).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Samarin, T. Koltunova, V. Osinov, et al., “Scanpaths of complex image viewing: insights from experimental and modeling studies,” Perception, 44, No. 8–9, 1064–1076 (2015).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Simola, J. Torniainen, M. Moisala, et al., “Eye movement related brain responses to emotional scenes during free viewing,” Front. Sys. Neurosci., 7, No. 41, 1–16 (2013).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. P. Soares, A. P. Pinheiro, A. Costa, et al., “Adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese,” Behav. Res., 47,1159–1177 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. J. Traxler, D. L. Long, K. M. Tooley, et al., “Individual differences in eye movements during reading: working memory and speed-of-processing effects,” J. Eye Mov. Res., 5, No. 1, 1–16 (2012).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    P. J. Unema, S. Pannasch, M. Joos, and B. M. Velichkovsky, “Time course of information processing during scene perception: The relationship between saccade amplitude and fixation duration,” Vis. Cogn., 12, No. 3, 473–494 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    S. Yamaguchi and K. Onoda, “Interaction between emotion and attention systems,” Front. Neurosci., 6, No. 139, 1–2 (2012).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. N. Podladchikova
    • 1
    Email author
  • T. I. Koltunova
    • 1
  • D. G. Shaposhnikov
    • 1
  • O. V. Lomakina
    • 1
  1. 1.Kogan Research Institute of Neurocybernetics, Academy of Biology and BiotechnologySouthern Federal UniversityRostov-on-DonRussia

Personalised recommendations