Neurobiological Markers for the Early Stages of Autism Spectrum Disorders
- 136 Downloads
This article presents a review of current studies addressing the early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Autism spectrum disorder is a group of developmental impairments whose main signs are qualitative impairments to communication and social interactions. However, studies in recent years indicate that the earliest specific signs of the condition are impairments to the switching of attention and orientation to novel stimuli, with impairments to the processing of stimuli to which cells in the magnocellular visual pathway are sensitive, as well as deficient executive control. This article assesses the role of impaired attention in forming the clinical picture of social impairment in autism. Deficient development of executive control may be an early indicator of hyperactivity symptoms.
Keywordsautism spectrum disorders attention executive control visual system
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Atkinson, J. and Hood, B., “Development of visual attention,” in: Attention, Development, and Psychopathology, J. A. Burack and J. T. Enns (eds.), New York (1997), pp. 31–54.Google Scholar
- Bahrick, L. E. and Todd, J. T., “Multisensory processing in autism spectrum disorders: Intersensory processing disturbance as a basis for atypical development,” in: The New Handbook of Multisensory Processes, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (2012), pp. 657–674.Google Scholar
- Bahrick, L. E. and Todd, J. T., “Relations among speed of attention shifting, background noise, and symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorders,” Present. at IMFAR 2013, San Sebastián, Spain.Google Scholar
- Bashina, V. M., Autism in Childhood, Meditsina, Moscow (1999).Google Scholar
- Brothers, L., “The social brain: a project for integrating primate behavior and neurophysiology in a new domain,” Concepts Neurosci., No. 1, 27–51 (1990).Google Scholar
- Eysenck, M. and Keane, M., Cognitive Psychology: A Student’s Handbook, Psychology Print (2000), 4th ed.Google Scholar
- Farzin, F. and Rivera, S. M., “Dynamic object representations in infants with and without fragile X syndrome,” Front. Hum. Neurosci. (2010), doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/neuro.09.012.2010.
- Fitzgerald, J., Johnson, K., Kehoe, E., et al., “Disrupted functional connectivity in dorsal and ventral attention networks during attention orienting in autism spectrum disorders,” Autism Res., 2015, No. 2, 136–52 (2015), doi: 10.1002/aur.1430.Epub 2014 Nov 26Google Scholar
- Flanagan, J. E. and Landa, R., “Longitudinal study of motor development in infants at high and low risk for autism,” Present. at Amer. Occupational Therapy Association Annual Conf., St Louis, MO, USA (2007), pp. 20–23.Google Scholar
- Frith, U. and Happé, F., “Autism: beyond ‘theory of mind,’” Cognition, 50, No. 1–3, 15–132 (1994).Google Scholar
- Goldberg, M. C., Lasker, A. G., Zee, and D. S., “Deficits in the initiation of eye movements in the absence of a visual target in adolescents with high-functioning autism,” Neuropsychologia, 40, No. 12, 2039–2049 (2000).Google Scholar
- Kim, S. H. and Lord, C., “The behavioral manifestations of autism spectrum disorders,” in: The Neuroscience of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Elsevier (2013), pp. 25–34.Google Scholar
- Lord, C. and Corsello, C., “Diagnostic instruments in autism spectrum disorders,” in: Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, F. Volkmar et al. (eds.) Wiley, Hoboken NJ (2005).Google Scholar
- Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P., et al., Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles (2012), 2nd ed. (ADOS-2).Google Scholar
- Machinskaya, R. I., “The control systems of the brain,” Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deyat., 65, No. 1, 33–60 (2015).Google Scholar
- Manelis, N. G., Comparative Neuropsychological Analysis of the Formation of Higher Mental Functions in Healthy Children and Children with Autistic Disorders: Auth. Abstr. Mast. Thesis in Psy chological Sci., Moscow (2000).Google Scholar
- Orekhova, E. V., Tsetlin, M. M., Butorina, A. V., et al., “Auditory cortex responses to clicks and sensory modulation difficulties in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD),” PLoS One, 7, No. 6, (2012).Google Scholar
- Pliszka, S. R., Liotti, M., and Woldorff, M. G., “Inhibitory control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: event-related potentials identify the processing component and timing of an impaired right-frontal response-inhibition mechanism,” Biol. Psychiatry, 48, 238–246 (2000).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Volkner, F. R. and Vaizner, A. V., Autism: Practical Guidelines for Parents, Family Members, and Readers, Rama Publ., Ekaterinburg, pp. 214–224.Google Scholar
- Xiao, T., Xiao, Z., Ke, K., et al., “Response inhibition impairment in high functioning autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: evidence from near-infrared spectroscopy data,” PLoS One, doi.org/ https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046569.