Advertisement

Risk of Fluoride-Rich Groundwater on Human Health: Remediation Through Managed Aquifer Recharge in a Hard Rock Terrain, South India

  • D. KarunanidhiEmail author
  • P. Aravinthasamy
  • T. Subramani
  • Priyadarsi D. Roy
  • K. Srinivasamoorthy
Original Paper
  • 70 Downloads

Abstract

The main objective of the present research was to examine the risk of fluoride-rich groundwater in the Shanmuganadhi River basin, south India on human health. The non-carcinogenic risks were estimated into two classes: (1) risks associated with oral intake of water and (2) risks associated with dermal contact. Hazard Quotient for oral intake and dermal contact was separately calculated for adult men, adult women and children from the geochemical results of 61 representative samples collected from the wells constructed in hard rock aquifers during the post- (January-2018) and pre-monsoon (May-2018) seasons. The collected samples were analyzed immediately after the field work for all the major ions and fluoride. Finally, total hazard index was calculated for adults (men and women) and children to evaluate the risk. It directed that 41%, 49% and 74% of post-monsoon samples and 30%, 43% and 62% of pre-monsoon samples possessed a non-carcinogenic risk for men, women and children, respectively. Because the basin falls in the drought-prone region, the water supply for drinking and cultivation are commonly based on groundwater resources. The study revealed that the minerals such as apatite, fluorite, biotite and pyroxene in the hornblende–biotite gneiss formation contribute fluoride ions to the groundwater system due to water–rock interaction mechanism. The Durov diagram depicted that dissolution of silicate minerals and cation exchange are the foremost hydrogeochemical activities, which decide the overall chemical composition of groundwater in this region. The ionic concentrations including fluoride increased with respect to depth of occurrence of groundwater. Escalation of the water table due to monsoon recharge and artificial recharge through a check dam decreased the total dissolved solids and fluoride ion concentration. The investigation conducted around the existing check dam at Kaldurai village highlighted that the fluoride concentration is below the allowable limit of 1.5 mg/l (WHO in World health statistics 2017: monitoring health for the SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2017) in the wells closer to the check dam toward the downstream side. The concentration increased with distance, which lead the groundwater unsuitable for consumption. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the managed aquifer recharge using check dams in the other parts of the basin to enrich the quantity and applicability of groundwater.

Keywords

Fluoride contamination Health risk evaluation Total Hazard Index (THI) Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) Hard rock terrain South India 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India (File No: ECR/2017/000132 dated. 18.07.2017) for releasing required funds to execute this research work.

References

  1. Adimalla, N., & Li, P. (2018). Occurrence, health risks, and geochemical mechanisms of fluoride and nitrate in groundwater of the rock-dominant semi-arid region, Telangana State, India. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2018.1480353.Google Scholar
  2. Adimalla, N., Vasa, S. K., & Li, P. (2018). Evaluation of groundwater quality, Peddavagu in Central Telangana (PCT), South India: An insight of controlling factors of fluoride enrichment. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment,4(2), 841–852.Google Scholar
  3. Adimalla, N., Venkatayogi, S., & Das, S. V. G. (2019). Assessment of fluoride contamination and distribution: A case study from a rural part of Andhra Pradesh. India. Applied Water Science.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-0968-y.Google Scholar
  4. Ahada, C. P. S., & Suthar, S. (2017). Assessment of human health risk associated with high groundwater fluoride intake in southern districts of Punjab, India. Exposure and Health.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-017-0268-4.Google Scholar
  5. Ali, S. A., & Ali, U. (2018). Hydrochemical characteristics and spatial analysis of groundwater quality in parts of Bundelkhand Massif, India. Applied Water Science.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-018-0678-x.Google Scholar
  6. Anand, B., Karunanidhi, D., Subramani, T., Srinivasamoorthy, K., & Raneesh, K. Y. (2017). Prioritization of subwatersheds based on quantitative morphometric analysis in lower Bhavani basin, Tamil Nadu, India using DEM and GIS techniques. Arabian Journal of Geosciences,24(10), 1–18.Google Scholar
  7. Anand, B., Karunanidhi, D., Subramani, T., Srinivasamoorthy, K., & Suresh, M. (2019). Long-term trend detection and spatiotemporal analysis of groundwater levels using GIS techniques in Lower Bhavani River basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Environment, Development and Sustainability.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00318-3.Google Scholar
  8. Anandakumar, S., Subramani, T., & Elango, L. (2008). Spatial variation and seasonal behaviour of rainfall pattern in Lower Bhavani River basin, Tamil Nadu, India. The Ecoscan,2(1), 17–24.Google Scholar
  9. APHA. (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (21st ed.). Washington: American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation.Google Scholar
  10. Aravinthasamy, P., Karunanidhi, D., Subramani, T., Srinivasamoorthy, K., & Anand, B. (2019). Geochemical evaluation of fluoride contamination in groundwater from Shanmuganadhi River basin, South India: Implication on human health. Environmental Geochemistry and Health.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-019-00452-x.Google Scholar
  11. Batabyal, A. K. (2017). Hydrogeochemical processes and contaminants enrichment with special emphasis on fluoride in groundwater of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. Environmental Earth Sciences.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-6584-y.Google Scholar
  12. Bhakar, P., & Singh, A. P. (2019). Groundwater quality assessment in a hyper-arid region of Rajasthan, India. Natural Resources Research,28(2), 505–522.Google Scholar
  13. Brindha, K., Jagadeshan, G., Kalpana, L., & Elango, L. (2016). Fluoride in weathered rock aquifers of southern India: Managed Aquifer Recharge for mitigation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,23(9), 8302–8316.Google Scholar
  14. CGWB. (2013). Groundwater Brochure, Dindigul district, Tamilnadu, India. New Delhi: Central Ground Water Board, Ministry of Water resources, Government of India.Google Scholar
  15. Chidambaram, S., Anandhan, P., Prasanna, M. V., Ramanathan, A., Srinivasamoorthy, K., & Senthil Kumar, G. (2012a). Hydrogeochemical modelling for groundwater in Neyveli Aquifer, Tamil Nadu, India, using PHREEQC: A case study. Natural Resources Research,21(3), 311–324.Google Scholar
  16. Chidambaram, S., Bala Krishna Prasad, M., Manivannan, R., Karmegam, U., Singaraja, C., Anandhan, P., et al. (2012b). Environmental hydrogeochemistry and genesis of fluoride in groundwaters of Dindigul district, Tamilnadu (India). Environmental Earth Sciences,68(2), 333–342.Google Scholar
  17. Dehbandi, R. (2017). Geological origin and environmental impacts of fluoride in soil and water resources of Bahabad (Southeast of the Yazd Province), Zarand and Koohbanan (North of the Kerman Province). Ph.D. thesis. Shiraz University, p. 324.Google Scholar
  18. Dehbandi, R., Moore, F., & Keshavarzi, B. (2018). Geochemical sources, hydrogeochemical behavior, and health risk assessment of fluoride in an endemic fluorosis area, central Iran. Chemosphere,193, 763–776.Google Scholar
  19. Dillon, P., Stuyfzand, P., Grischek, T., Lluria, M., Pyne, R. D. G., Jain, R. C., et al. (2018). Sixty years of global progress in managed aquifer recharge. Hydrogeology Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-018-1841-z.Google Scholar
  20. Duraisamy, S., Govindhaswamy, V., Duraisamy, K., Krishinaraj, S., Balasubramanian, A., & Thirumalaisamy, S. (2018). Hydrogeochemical characterization and evaluation of groundwater quality in Kangayam taluk, Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu, India, using GIS techniques. Environmental Geochemistry and Health,41(2), 851–873.Google Scholar
  21. Durov, S. A. (1948). Natural waters and graphic representation of their composition. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR,59, 87–90.Google Scholar
  22. Emenike, C. P., Tenebe, I. T., & Jarvis, P. (2018). Fluoride contamination in groundwater sources in Southwestern Nigeria: Assessment using multivariate statistical approach and human health risk. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety,156, 391–402.Google Scholar
  23. Ewusi, A., & Kuma, J. S. Y. (2014). Groundwater assessment for current and future water demand in the Daka Catchment, Northern Region, Ghana. Natural Resources Research,23(4), 355–365.Google Scholar
  24. Ghaderpoori, M., Kamarehie, B., & Jafari, A. (2017). Heavy metals analysis and quality assessment in drinking water-Khorramabad city, Iran. Data in Brief.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.10.057.Google Scholar
  25. Ghaderpoori, M., Paydar, M., Zarei, A., Alidadi, H., Najafpoor, A. A., Gohary, A. H., et al. (2018). Health risk assessment of fluoride in water distribution network of Mashhad, Iran. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2018.1453297.Google Scholar
  26. Gowrisankar, G., Jagadeshan, G., & Elango, L. (2017). Managed aquifer recharge by a check dam to improve the quality of fluoride-rich groundwater: A case study from southern India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-5910-x.Google Scholar
  27. GSI. (1995). Geological and mineral map of Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry. Published by the Director General Geological Survey of India on 1: 500,000 scale.Google Scholar
  28. Guissouma, W., Hakami, O., Al-Rajab, A. J., & Tarhouni, J. (2017). Risk assessment of fluoride exposure in drinking water of Tunisia. Chemosphere,177, 102–108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.03.011.Google Scholar
  29. Haji, M., Wang, D., Li, L., Qin, D., & Guo, Y. (2018). Geochemical evolution of fluoride and implication for F enrichment in groundwater: Example from the Bilate River Basin of Southern Main Ethiopian Rift. Water,10(12), 1799.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121799.Google Scholar
  30. He, X., Ma, T., Wang, Y., Shan, H., & Deng, Y. (2013). Hydrogeochemistry of high fluoride groundwater in shallow aquifers, Hangjinhouqi, Hetao Plain. Journal of Geochemical Exploration,135, 63–70.Google Scholar
  31. Hema, S., Subramani, T., & Elango, L. (2010). GIS study on vulnerability assessment of water quality in a part of Cauvery River”. International Journal of Environmental Sciences,1(1), 1–17.Google Scholar
  32. Jacks, G. (2016). Chapter 15 in four decades of groundwater research in India. In M. Thangarajan (Ed.), Fluoride in groundwater—Mobilization, trends and remediation. London: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  33. Jagadeshan, G., Kalpana, L., & Elango, L. (2015). Major ion signatures for identification of geochemical reactions responsible for release of fluoride from geogenic sources to groundwater and associated risk in Vaniyar River basin, Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Earth Sciences,74(3), 2439–2450.Google Scholar
  34. Jain, C. K., & Vaid, U. (2018). Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes using hydrochemical studies in Nalbari district of Assam, India. Environmental Earth Sciences.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7422-6.Google Scholar
  35. Kalpana, L., Brindha, K., & Elango, L. (2019). FIMAR: A new Fluoride Index for identification of sites to mitigate geogenic contamination by managed aquifer recharge. Chemosphere.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.12.084.Google Scholar
  36. Karunanidhi, D., Aravinthasamy, P., Subramani, T., Wu, J., & Srinivasamoorthy, K. (2019). Potential health risk assessment for fluoride and nitrate contamination in hard rock aquifers of Shanmuganadhi River basin, South India. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2019.1568859.Google Scholar
  37. Karunanidhi, D., Vennila, G., & Suresh, M. (2012). GIS approach for rainfall fluctuation study in Omalur Taluk, Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India. Pollution Research,31(3), 493–497.Google Scholar
  38. Karunanidhi, D., Vennila, G., Suresh, M., & Subramanian, S. K. (2013). Evaluation of the groundwater quality feasibility zones for irrigational purposes through GIS in Omalur Taluk, Salem District, South India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,20(10), 7320–7333.Google Scholar
  39. Keesari, T., Roy, A., Mohokar, H., Pant, D., & Sinha, U. K. (2019). Characterization of mechanisms and processes controlling groundwater recharge and its quality in drought-prone region of central India (Buldhana, Maharashtra) using isotope hydrochemical and end-member mixing modeling. Natural Resources Research.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11053-019-09550-0.Google Scholar
  40. Kisku, G. C., & Sahu, P. (2019). Fluoride contamination and health effects: An Indian scenario. Environmental Concerns and Sustainable Development.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-5889-0_11.Google Scholar
  41. Li, P., Wu, J., & Qian, H. (2016). Preliminary assessment of hydraulic connectivity between river water and shallow groundwater and estimation of their transfer rate during dry season in the Shidi River, China. Environmental Earth Sciences.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-4949-7.Google Scholar
  42. Luo, W., Gao, X., & Zhang, X. (2018). Geochemical processes controlling the groundwater chemistry and fluoride contamination in the Yuncheng Basin, China—An area with complex hydrogeochemical conditions. PLoS ONE,13(7), e0199082.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199082.Google Scholar
  43. Manjula, P., & Unnikrishnan Warrier, C. (2019). Evaluation of water quality of Thuthapuzha Sub-basin of Bharathapuzha, Kerala, India. Applied water Sciences,9, 70.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-0937-5.Google Scholar
  44. Marghade, D., Malpe, D. B., Subba Rao, N., & Sunitha, B. (2019). Geochemical assessment of fluoride enriched groundwater and health implications from a part of Yavtmal District, India. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2018.1528862.Google Scholar
  45. Mukherjee, I., & Singh, U. K. (2018). Groundwater fluoride contamination, probable release, and containment mechanisms: A review on Indian context. Environmental Geochemistry and Health.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-018-0096-x.Google Scholar
  46. Narsimha, A., & Rajitha, S. (2018). Spatial distribution and seasonal variation in fluoride enrichment in groundwater and its associated human health risk assessment in Telangana State, South India. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2018.1438176.Google Scholar
  47. Narsimha, A., & Sudarshan, V. (2016). Contamination of fluoride in groundwater and its effect on human health: A case study in hard rock aquifers of Siddipet, Telangana State, India. Applied Water Science,2017(7), 2501–2512.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-016-0441-0.Google Scholar
  48. Parimala Renganayaki, S., & Elango, L. (2013). Impact of recharge from a check dam on groundwater quality and assessment of suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. Arabian Journal of Geosciences,7(8), 3119–3129.Google Scholar
  49. Patolia, P., & Sinha, A. (2017). Fluoride contamination in Gharbar Village of Dhanbad District, Jharkhand, India: Source identification and management. Arabian Journal of Geosciences.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-017-3164-0.Google Scholar
  50. Pettenati, M., Picot-Colbeaux, G., Thiéry, D., Boisson, A., Alazard, M., Perrin, J., et al. (2014). Water quality evolution during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in Indian crystalline basement aquifers: Reactive transport modeling in the critical zone. Geochemistry of the earth’s surface meeting, GES-10. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science,10, 82–87.Google Scholar
  51. Raj, D., & Shaji, E. (2017). Fluoride contamination in groundwater resources of Alleppey, southern India. Geoscience Frontiers,8(1), 117–124.Google Scholar
  52. Rajaveni, S. P., Brindha, K., & Elango, L. (2015). Geological and geomorphological controls on groundwater occurrence in a hard rock region. Applied Water Science,7(3), 1377–1389.Google Scholar
  53. Sahu, P., Kisku, G. C., Singh, P. K., Kumar, V., Kumar, P., & Shukla, N. (2018). Multivariate statistical interpretation on seasonal variations of fluoride-contaminated groundwater quality of Lalganj Tehsil, Raebareli District (UP), India. Environmental Earth Sciences.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7658-1.Google Scholar
  54. Sajil Kumar, P. J. (2016). Influence of water level fluctuation on groundwater solute content in a tropical south Indian region: A geochemical modelling approach. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment,2(4), 1–9.Google Scholar
  55. Sallwey, J., Bonilla Valverde, J. P., Vásquez López, F., Junghanns, R., & Stefan, C. (2018). Suitability maps for managed aquifer recharge: A review of multi-criteria decision analysis studies. Environmental Reviews.  https://doi.org/10.1139/er-2018-0069.Google Scholar
  56. Shanmugasundharam, A., Kalpana, G., Mahapatra, S. R., Sudharson, E. R., & Jayaprakash, M. (2015). Assessment of groundwater quality in Krishnagiri and Vellore Districts in Tamil Nadu, India. Applied Water Science,7(4), 1869–1879.Google Scholar
  57. Singh, P., Asthana, H., Rena, V., Kumar, P., Kushawaha, J., & Mukherjee, S. (2018). Hydrogeochemical processes controlling fluoride enrichment within alluvial and hard rock aquifers in a part of a semi-arid region of Northern India. Environmental Earth Sciences.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7656-3.Google Scholar
  58. Srinivasamoorthy, K., Chidambaram, S., Prasanna, M. V., Vasanthavihar, M., Peter, J., & Anandhan, P. (2008). Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry from a hard rock terrain: A case study from Mettur taluk, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Earth System Science,117(1), 49–58.Google Scholar
  59. Subba Rao, N. (2017). Controlling factors of fluoride in groundwater in a part of South India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences,10(23), 524.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-017-3291-7.Google Scholar
  60. Subba Rao, N., Marghade, D., Dinakar, A., Chandana, I., Sunitha, B., Ravindra, B., et al. (2017a). Geochemical characteristics and controlling factors of chemical composition of groundwater in a part of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ Earth Sci,76, 747.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-7093-8.Google Scholar
  61. Subba Rao, N., Sunitha, B., Adimalla, N., & Chaudhary, M. (2019). Quality criteria for groundwater use from a rural part of Wanaparthy District, Telangana State, India, through ionic spatial distribution (ISD), entropy water quality index (EWQI) and principal component analysis (PCA). Environmental Geochemistry and Health.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-019-00393-5.Google Scholar
  62. Subba Rao, N., Surya Rao, P., Dinakar, A., Nageswara Rao, P. V., & Marghade, Deepali. (2017b). Fluoride occurrence in the groundwater in a coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Applied Water Science,7, 1467–1478.Google Scholar
  63. Subramani, T., Babu, S., & Elango, L. (2012). Computation of groundwater resources and recharge in Chithar River Basin, South India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,185(1), 983–994.Google Scholar
  64. Subramani, T., Elango, L., & Damodarasamy, S. R. (2005). Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in Chithar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Geology,47(8), 1099–1110.Google Scholar
  65. Subramani, T., Rajmohan, N., & Elango, L. (2010). Groundwater geochemistry and identification of hydrogeochemical processes in a hard rock region, Southern India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,162(1–4), 123–137.Google Scholar
  66. Thilagavathi, N., Subramani, T., Suresh, M., & Karunanidhi, D. (2015). Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4376-y.Google Scholar
  67. U.S. EPA. (2014). Human health evaluation manual, supplemental guidance: Update of standard default exposure factors-OSWER directive 9200.1-120, p. 6.Google Scholar
  68. Vennila, G., Subramani, T., & Elango, L. (2008). GIS based study on groundwater quality assessment of Vattamalaikarai Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Nature Environment and Pollution Technology,7(4), 585–592.Google Scholar
  69. WHO. (2017). World health statistics 2017: Monitoring health for the SDGs, sustainable development goals. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.Google Scholar
  70. Wu, J., Zhou, H., He, S., & Zhang, Y. (2019). Comprehensive understanding of groundwater quality for domestic and agricultural purposes in terms of health risks in a coal mine area of the Ordos basin, north of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Environmental Earth Sciences,78, 446.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-019-8471-1.Google Scholar
  71. Yousefi, M., Ghoochani, M., & Hossein Mahvi, A. (2018). Health risk assessment to fluoride in drinking water of rural residents living in the Poldasht city, Northwest of Iran. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety,148, 426–430.Google Scholar
  72. Zhang, L., Huang, D., Yang, J., Wei, X., Qin, J., Ou, S., & Zou, Y. (2017). Probabilistic risk assessment of Chinese residents’ exposure to fluoride in improved drinking water in endemic fluorosis areas. Environmental Pollution, 222, 118–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.12.074.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Association for Mathematical Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Karunanidhi
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. Aravinthasamy
    • 1
  • T. Subramani
    • 2
  • Priyadarsi D. Roy
    • 3
  • K. Srinivasamoorthy
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringSri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology (Autonomous)CoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Geology, CEG CampusAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  3. 3.Instituto de GeologíaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)Mexico CityMexico
  4. 4.Department of Earth SciencesPondicherry UniversityPondicherryIndia

Personalised recommendations