Facile synthesis of highly efficient mpg-C3N4/TiO2 visible-light-induced photocatalyst and its formaldehyde removal performance in coating application

  • Shuang Wang
  • Xin Hua
  • Junchao Ji
  • Zaisheng Cai
  • Yaping ZhaoEmail author
Research Paper


A facile method was developed to prepare mesoporous graphic C3N4 (MGCN)/TiO2 composites by synthesizing MGCN through a chemical template method and combining it with TiO2 by a solvothermal route. The as-prepared nanocomposites were respectively characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy (DR-UV-Vis). The specific surface areas and pore sizes of the samples were obtained by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and the photocatalytic performance of MGCN/TiO2 was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB) aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation, with the result that the composite prepared at the MGCN/TiO2 mass ratio of 1:1 displayed a higher photodegradation, 1.85 folds and 6.72 folds of that of pure MGCN and commercial TiO2. As-prepared MGCN/TiO2 composites were utilized as coatings on the carpet tile for removing indoor HCHO and the purification efficiency of formaldehyde can reach 39.69% (24 h˙0.25 m2)−1, which was higher than that of the blank carpet with − 16.20% (24 h˙0.25 m2)−1 for self-releasing, indicating their potential application prospect in functional coatings.

Graphical abstract


C3N4 TiO2 Visible-light photocatalyst Coating Carpet Formaldehyde removal Nanostructured catalyst 



The authors gratefully acknowledge Gao Rong Novel Decoration Materials Shanghai Co. Ltd. to provide the carpet tile samples and Jiangsu i-Tsings Environment Laboratory Co. Ltd. to complete the HCHO removal performance evaluations of as-prepared carpet tiles.

Funding information

This research was funded by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2232015D3-17), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51303022), and Industry-University-Institute Project (Booster Plan) of the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (15cxy55).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Amadio TM, Hotza D, Rodrigues N et al (2017) Bentonites functionalized by impregnation with TiO2, Ag, Pd and Au nanoparticles. Appl Clay Sci 146(1–6):1–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boonserm A, Kruehong C, Seithtanabutara V, Artnaseaw A, Kwakhong P (2017) Photoelectrochemical response and corrosion behavior of CdS/TiO2 nanocomposite films in an aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution. Appl Surf Sci 419:933–941. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chang C, Fu Y, Hu M et al (2013) Photodegradation of bisphenol A by highly stable palladium-doped mesoporous graphite carbon nitride (Pd/mpg-C3N4) under simulated solar light irradiation. Appl Catal B Environ 142:553–560. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen D, Wang K, Xiang D, Zong R, Yao W, Zhu Y (2014) Significantly enhancement of photocatalytic performances via core-shell structure of ZnO/mpg-C3N4. Appl Catal B Environ 147:554–561. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen X, Wei J, Hou R, Liang Y, Xie Z, Zhu Y, Zhang X, Wang H (2016) Growth of g-C3N4 on mesoporous TiO2 spheres with high photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. Appl Catal B Environ 188:342–350. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ding Z, Chen X, Antonietti M, Wang X (2011) Synthesis of transition metal-modified carbon nitride polymers for selective hydrocarbon oxidation. Chemsuschem 4:274–281. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dong F, Zhao W, Wu Z (2008) Characterization and photocatalytic activities of C, N and S co-doped TiO2 with 1D nanostructure prepared by the nano-confinement effect. Nanotech 19:365607. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dong F, Wu L, Sun Y, Fu M, Wu Z, Lee SC (2011) Efficient synthesis of polymeric g-C3N4 layered materials as novel efficient visible light driven photocatalysts. J Mater Chem 21:15171–15174. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Erdogan DA, Sevim M, Kısa E, Emiroglu DB, Karatok M, Vovk EI, Bjerring M, Akbey Ü, Metin Ö, Ozensoy E (2016) Photocatalytic activity of mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (mpg-C3N4) towards organic chromophores under UV and VIS light illumination. Top Catal 59:1–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Feng J, Li Y, Gao Z, Lv H, Zhang X, Fan D, Wei Q (2017) Visible-light driven label-free photoelectrochemical immunosensor based on TiO2/S-BiVO4@Ag2S nanocomposites for sensitive detection OTA. Biosens Bioelectron 99:14–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goettmann F, Fischer A, Antonietti M, Thomas A (2006) Chemical synthesis of mesoporous carbon nitrides using hard templates and their use as a metal-free catalyst for Friedel-Crafts reaction of benzene. Angew Chem 45:4467–4471. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hu X, Zhao H, Tian J, Gao J, Li Y, Cui H (2017) Synthesis of few-layer MoS2 nanosheets-coated TiO2 nanosheets on graphite fibers for enhanced photocatalytic properties. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 172:108–116. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Le S, Jiang T, Li Y et al (2017) Highly efficient visible-light-driven mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride/ZnO nanocomposite photocatalysts. Appl Catal B Environ 200:601–610. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lei XF, Xue XX, Yang H (2014) Preparation and characterization of Ag-doped TiO2 nanomaterials and their photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under visible light. Appl Surf Sci 321:396–403. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li K, Zeng Z, Yan L, Luo S, Luo X, Huo M, Guo Y (2015) Fabrication of platinum-deposited carbon nitride nanotubes by a one-step solvothermal treatment strategy and their efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity. Appl Catal B Environ 165:428–437. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liang Q, Jin J, Zhang M, Liu C, Xu S, Yao C, Li Z (2017) Construction of mesoporous carbon nitride/binary metal sulfide heterojunction photocatalysts for enhanced degradation of pollution under visible light. Appl Catal B Environ 218:545–554. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lin F, Jiang D, Ma X (2009) The effect of milling atmospheres on photocatalytic property of Fe-doped TiO2 synthesized by mechanical alloying. J Alloys Compd 470:375–378. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu W, Xu Y, Zhou W, Zhang X, Cheng X, Zhao H, Gao S, Huo L (2017) A facile synthesis of hierarchically porous TiO2 microspheres with carbonaceous species for visible-light photocatalysis. J Mater Sci Technol 33:39–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ma S, Xue J, Zhou Y, Zhang Z, Cai Z, Zhu D, Liang S (2015) Facile fabrication of a mpg-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalyst with enhanced visible light photoactivity toward organic pollutant degradation. RSC Adv 5:64976–64982. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mazinani B, Beitollahi A, Masrom AK, Samiee L, Ahmadi Z (2017) Synthesis and photocatalytic performance of hollow sphere particles of SiO2-TiO2 composite of mesocellular foam walls. Ceram Int 43:11786–11791. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mirzaei A, Chen Z, Haghighat F, Yerushalmi L (2019) Magnetic fluorinated mesoporous g-C3N4 for photocatalytic degradation of amoxicillin: transformation mechanism and toxicity assessment. Appl Catal B Environ 242:337–348. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Qiu J, Feng Y, Zhang X, Zhang X, Jia M, Yao J (2017) Facile stir-dried preparation of g-C3N4/TiO2 homogeneous composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity. RSC Adv 7:10668–10674. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shen GD, Pu YP, Cui YF, Jing PP (2017) Easy synthesis of TiO2/g-C3N4 heterostructure photocatalyst with large surface area and excellent photocatalytic activity. Ceram Int 43:S664–S670. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sing KSW, Everett D, Haul R (1985) Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity (recommendations 1984). Pure Appl Chem 57:603–619. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sun S, Liang S (2017) Recent advances in functional mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (mpg-C3N4) polymers. Nanoscale 9:10544–10578. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sun P, Liu L, Cui SC, Liu JG (2014) Synthesis, characterization of Ce-doped TiO2 nanotubes with high visible light photocatalytic activity. Catal Lett 144:2107–2113. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sun D, Yang W, Long Z et al (2016) The selective deposition of silver nanoparticles onto {1 0 1} facets of TiO2 nanocrystals with co-exposed {0 0 1}/{1 0 1} facets, and their enhanced photocatalytic reduction of aqueous nitrate under simulated solar illumination. Appl Catal B Environ 182:85–93. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tan G, She L, Liu T, Xu C, Ren H, Xia A (2017) Ultrasonic chemical synthesis of hybrid mpg-C3N4/BiPO4 heterostructured photocatalysts with improved visible light photocatalytic activity. Appl Catal B Environ 207:120–133. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vaiano V, Sacco O, Sannino D, Ciambelli P (2015) Nanostructured N-doped TiO2 coated on glass spheres for the photocatalytic removal of organic dyes under UV or visible light irradiation. Appl Catal B Environ 170:153–161. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang Y, Ding X, Chen X, Chen Z, Zheng K, Chen L, Ding J, Tian X, Zhang X (2017a) Layer-by-layer self-assembly photocatalytic nanocoating on cotton fabrics as easily recycled photocatalyst for degrading gas and liquid pollutants. Cellulose 24:4569–4580. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang T, Li W, Xu D et al (2017b) Strong visible absorption and excellent photocatalytic performance of brown TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized using one-step low-temperature process. Chin J Catal 38:1184–1195. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang X, Xiong W, Li X, Zhao Q, Fan S, Zhang M, Mu J, Chen A (2018) Fabrication of MoS2@g-C3N4 core-shell nanospheres for visible light photocatalytic degradation of toluene. J Nanopart Res 20:243. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yang M, Liu W, Jiang C, Liu C, He S, Xie Y, Wang Z (2019) Robust fabrication of superhydrophobic and photocatalytic self-cleaning cotton textile based on TiO2 and fluoroalkylsilane. J Mater Sci 54(3):2079–2092. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhou N, Huang XL, Zhang YY, He J, Zhang X (2018) High performances of mesoporous g-C3N4 for adsorptive desulfurization in model gasoline (iso-octane) solutions. Appl Surf Sci 448:636–641. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Lab of Science & Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and BiotechnologyDonghua UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Fundamental Experimental Chemistry CenterDonghua UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations