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Dissociation of magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles in physiologically relevant fluids

  • Cheyann Lee Wetteland
  • Jorge de Jesus Sanchez
  • Christine Allison Silken
  • Nhu-Y Thi Nguyen
  • Omar Mahmood
  • Huinan LiuEmail author
Research Paper
  • 135 Downloads

Abstract

Magnesium oxide (MgO) and hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] are conventionally considered insoluble in water and stable at high temperatures. However, in this study, we found significant dissociation of MgO and Mg(OH)2 into ions when they were immersed in different physiologically relevant solutions in the form of 20-nm and 10-nm nanoparticles respectively, under standard cell culture conditions in vitro, i.e., a 37 °C, 5% CO2/95% air, sterile, humidified environment. The change in Mg2+ ion concentrations and pH measured in the physiologically relevant solutions (e.g., Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM), simulated body fluid (SBF), relevant chloride solutions, and deionized water) confirmed their dissociation. Possible mechanisms and contributing factors for dissociation of MgO and Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles were discussed. The evidence suggests that nucleophilic substitution of OH by Cl in Mg(OH)2 is energetically unfavorable and it is more likely that Cl plays a role in the stabilization of intermediate forms of MgO and Mg(OH)2 as it dissociates. The pH and buffering capability of the immersion solutions might have played the most significant role in dissociation of these nanoparticles when compared with the roles of chloride (Cl), proteins, and different buffering agents. This article provided the first evidence on the dissociation of MgO and Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles in physiologically relevant conditions and elucidated possible factors contributing to the observed behaviors of these nanoparticles in vitro, which is important for their potential medical applications in vivo.

Graphical Abstract

Dissociation of magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles in physiologically relevant fluids

Keywords

Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles Magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] nanoparticles Biofluids Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) Simulated body fluid (SBF) HEPES buffer Chloride (Cl) solutions 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Central Facility for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis (CFAMM) for the use of SEM FEI XL30 at the University of California at Riverside. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Funding information

The authors appreciate the financial support from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF award 1512764, 1125801, 1545852), the Burroughs Wellcome Fund (1011235), the Hellman Faculty Fellowship (HL), and the University of California (UC) Regents Faculty Development Award (HL).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BioengineeringUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  2. 2.Microbiology ProgramUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  3. 3.Materials Science and Engineering ProgramUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

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