Preparation and characterization of reduced graphene oxide supported nickel oxide nanoparticle-based platform for sensor applications

  • Appan Roychoudhury
  • Arneish Prateek
  • Suddhasatwa Basu
  • Sandeep Kumar Jha
Research Paper


A nanostructured composite film comprising reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles (NPs) has been prepared and utilized for development of a simple yet efficient sensor for detection of dopamine and epinephrine in a single run. The hybrid material rGO-NiO nanocomposite was synthesized chemically, and the formation of nanocomposite was confirmed via X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman, UV-Vis, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. The incorporation of NiO NPs on rGO support was found to provide improved sensing characteristics at electrode interface due to enhanced electron mobility on rGO sheet and high catalytic activity of NiO NPs. Subsequently, the synthesized rGO-NiO nanocomposite was deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate by simple drop-casting method, and the electrode was characterized through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies. After optimization of experimental conditions electrochemically for its high sensitivity, the fabricated rGO-NiO/ITO electrode was used for simultaneous detection of dopamine and epinephrine by square wave voltammetry (SWV) method. The results showed high sensitivity of 0.545 and 0.638 μA/μM for dopamine and epinephrine respectively in a broad linear range of 0.5–50 μM. Moreover, remarkable detection limits of 0.495 and 0.423 μM were found for dopamine and epinephrine, and the developed sensor exhibited a wide separation of 380 mV between the respective detection peaks of dopamine and epinephrine. Beside this, the proposed sensor was successfully applied in presence of high concentration of interfering agents, ascorbic acid and uric acid, and validated with real serum samples.


NiO nanoparticles Reduced graphene oxide Dopamine Epinephrine Simultaneous electrochemical detection 


Funding information

The authors acknowledge intramural financial support from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi; project funding form Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science & Technology, Government of India (Project no. EMR/2015/002354) and the characterization facilities at Nanoscale Research Facility (NRF) and Central Research Facility (CRF) of IIT Delhi. The author Appan Roychoudhury is a recipient of Senior Research Fellowship (SRF) from IIT Delhi.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11051_2018_4173_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.5 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 3614 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Appan Roychoudhury
    • 1
    • 2
  • Arneish Prateek
    • 3
  • Suddhasatwa Basu
    • 3
  • Sandeep Kumar Jha
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Biomedical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia

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