Crumpling of graphene oxide through evaporative confinement in nanodroplets produced by electrohydrodynamic aerosolization

  • Shalinee Kavadiya
  • Ramesh Raliya
  • Michael Schrock
  • Pratim BiswasEmail author
Research Paper


Restacking of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets results in loss of surface area and creates limitations in its widespread use for applications. Previously, two-dimensional (2D) GO sheets have been crumpled into 3D structures to prevent restacking using different techniques. However, synthesis of nanometer size crumpled graphene particles and their direct deposition onto a substrate have not been demonstrated under room temperature condition so far. In this work, the evaporative crumpling of GO sheets into very small size (<100 nm) crumpled structures using an electrohydrodynamic atomization technique is described. Systematic study of the effect of different electrohydrodynamic atomization parameters, such as (1) substrate-to-needle distance, (2) GO concentration in the precursor solution, and (3) flow rate (droplet size) on the GO crumpling, is explored. Crumpled GO (CGO) particles are characterized online using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and off-line using electron microscopy. The relation between the confinement force and the factors affecting the crumpled structure is established. Furthermore, to expand the application horizons of the structure, crumpled GO–TiO2 nanocomposites are synthesized. The method described here allows a simple and controlled production of graphene-based particles/composites with direct deposition onto any kind of substrate for a variety of applications.


Crumpling Crumpling force Crumpled graphene oxide Electrospray Graphene oxide Synthesis 



This research is based upon work supported by the Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the USA (SERIIUS) funded jointly by the US Department of Energy subcontract DE AC36-08G028308 (Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Solar Energy Technology Program, with support from the Office of International Affairs) and the Government of India subcontract IUSSTF/JCERDC-SERIIUS/2012 dated 22 Nov. 2012. Electron microscopy work was performed at the Nano Research Facility (NRF), Department of Energy, Environmental, and Chemical Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shalinee Kavadiya
    • 1
  • Ramesh Raliya
    • 1
  • Michael Schrock
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pratim Biswas
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical EngineeringWashington University in St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.University of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

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