Certain food additives may contain a sizeable fraction of particles in the nanoscale. However, little is known about the fate, behaviour and toxicological effects of orally-ingested nanoparticles. This study investigated the uptake and biodistribution of nano- and larger-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) using an in vitro model of gut epithelium and in vivo in rat. The results of the in vivo study showed that oral administration of 5 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 nano- or larger particles did not lead to any significant translocation of TiO2 (measured as titanium) either to blood, urine or to various organs in rat at any of the time intervals studied over a 96 h post-administration period. Different methods used for dispersing particles did not affect the uptake, and orally administered TiO2 was found excreted in the faeces over a period of time. The in vitro study provided further evidence for the lack of translocation of TiO2 across the gut epithelium model. The overall evidence from both in vivo and in vitro studies did not support that oral ingestion of nano- or larger particles of TiO2 via food would result in any significant internal exposure of the consumer to the nanoparticles. The dietary TiO2 nanoparticles are likely to be excreted in the faeces.
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The authors gratefully acknowledge funding for this research from the Food Standards Agency. Acknowledgments are also due to Roy McArthur for statistical analysis and Malcolm Baxter and Michael Walls for analysis of samples using ICP-MS.
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MacNicoll, A., Kelly, M., Aksoy, H. et al. A study of the uptake and biodistribution of nano-titanium dioxide using in vitro and in vivo models of oral intake. J Nanopart Res 17, 66 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-015-2862-3
- Titanium dioxide