Highly zone-dependent synthesis of different carbon nanostructures using plasma-enhanced arc discharge technique

  • Rajesh Kumar
  • Rajesh Kumar Singh
  • Pawan Kumar Dubey
  • Ram Manohar Yadav
  • Dinesh Pratap Singh
  • R. S. Tiwari
  • O. N. Srivastava
Research Paper


Three kinds of carbon nanostructures, i.e., graphene nanoflakes (GNFs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and spherical carbon nanoparticles (SCNPs) were comparatively investigated in one run experiment. These carbon nanostructures are located at specific location inside the direct current plasma-assisted arc discharge chamber. These carbon nanomaterials have been successfully synthesized using graphite as arcing electrodes at 400 torr in helium (He) atmosphere. The SCNPs were found in the deposits formed on the cathode holder, in which highly curled graphitic structure are found in majority. The diameter varies from 20 to 60 nm and it also appears that these particles are self-assembled to each other. The MWCNTs with the diameter of 10–30 nm were obtained which were present inside the swelling portion of cathode deposited. These MWCNTs have 14–18 graphitic layers with 3.59 Å interlayer spacing. The GNFs have average lateral sizes of 1–5 μm and few of them are stacked layers and shows crumpled like structure. The GNFs are more stable at low temperature (low mass loss) but SCNPs have low mass loss at high temperature.


Graphene nanoflakes Zone dependent temperature Arc discharge Local defect 



We would like to gratefully acknowledge anonymous referees for useful comments and constructive suggestions. Two of the authors, RKS and PKD are grateful to UGC-New Delhi for providing Dr D. S. Kothari Postdoctoral fellowship.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajesh Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rajesh Kumar Singh
    • 3
  • Pawan Kumar Dubey
    • 4
  • Ram Manohar Yadav
    • 5
  • Dinesh Pratap Singh
    • 6
  • R. S. Tiwari
    • 2
  • O. N. Srivastava
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science & EngineeringYonsei UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Applied Physics, Indian Institute of TechnologyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  4. 4.Nanotechnology Application CentreUniversity of AllahabadAllahabadIndia
  5. 5.Department of Materials Science and Nano EngineeringRice UniversityHoustonUSA
  6. 6.Departamento de FísicaUniversidad de Santiago de ChileSantiagoChile

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