Ex vivo assessment of polyol coated-iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI diagnosis applications: toxicological and MRI contrast enhancement effects
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Polyol synthesis is a promising method to obtain directly pharmaceutical grade colloidal dispersion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Here, we study the biocompatibility and performance as T2-MRI contrast agents (CAs) of high quality magnetic colloidal dispersions (average hydrodynamic aggregate diameter of 16-27 nm) consisting of polyol-synthesized SPIONs (5 nm in mean particle size) coated with triethylene glycol (TEG) chains (TEG-SPIONs), which were subsequently functionalized to carboxyl-terminated meso-2-3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) coated-iron oxide nanoparticles (DMSA-SPIONs). Standard MTT assays on HeLa, U87MG, and HepG2 cells revealed that colloidal dispersions of TEG-coated iron oxide nanoparticles did not induce any loss of cell viability after 3 days incubation with dose concentrations below 50 μg Fe/ml. However, after these nanoparticles were functionalized with DMSA molecules, an increase on their cytotoxicity was observed, so that particles bearing free terminal carboxyl groups on their surface were not cytotoxic only at low concentrations (<10 μg Fe/ml). Moreover, cell uptake assays on HeLa and U87MG and hemolysis tests have demonstrated that TEG-SPIONs and DMSA-SPIONs were well internalized by the cells and did not induce any adverse effect on the red blood cells at the tested concentrations. Finally, in vitro relaxivity measurements and post mortem MRI studies in mice indicated that both types of coated-iron oxide nanoparticles produced higher negative T2-MRI contrast enhancement than that measured for a similar commercial T2-MRI CAs consisting in dextran-coated ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles (Ferumoxtran-10). In conclusion, the above attributes make both types of as synthesized coated-iron oxide nanoparticles, but especially DMSA-SPIONs, promising candidates as T2-MRI CAs for nanoparticle-enhanced MRI diagnosis applications.
KeywordsPolyol-mediated synthesis Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles In vitro cytotoxicity Hemolysis tests Contrast agents for nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging Nanomedicine
This research was supported by ARAID Foundation (Regional Government of Aragon), and “Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red—Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina” (CIBER-BBN), through the intramural research projects IMAFEN (2008–2009) NANOMAG (2008–2009), PROGLIO (2010–2011), and PROGLIO2 (2012–2013). OBM thanks the financial support from the “Ramón y Cajal Program” of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO). AGR would like to thank the funding of Spanish Ministerio de Educación, through Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos 2011.
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