A simple polyol-free synthesis route to Gd2O3 nanoparticles for MRI applications: an experimental and theoretical study

Abstract

Chelated gadolinium ions, e.g., Gd-DTPA, are today used clinically as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An attractive alternative contrast agent is composed of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles as they have shown to provide enhanced contrast and, in principle, more straightforward molecular capping possibilities. In this study, we report a new, simple, and polyol-free way of synthesizing 4–5-nm-sized Gd2O3 nanoparticles at room temperature, with high stability and water solubility. The nanoparticles induce high-proton relaxivity compared to Gd-DTPA showing r 1 and r 2 values almost as high as those for free Gd3+ ions in water. The Gd2O3 nanoparticles are capped with acetate and carbonate groups, as shown with infrared spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and combined thermogravimetric and mass spectroscopy analysis. Interpretation of infrared spectroscopy data is corroborated by extensive quantum chemical calculations. This nanomaterial is easily prepared and has promising properties to function as a core in a future contrast agent for MRI.

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Acknowledgments

The present work is financed by grants from VINNOVA within the program Innovations for future health, Multifunctional Nanoprobes for Biomedical Visualization Dnr: 2008-03011, the Centre in Nanoscience and Technology at LiTH (CeNano) and Swedish research council (Grant No. 621-2010-5014). M.L. thanks SERC (Swedish e–Science Research Center) for funding and SNIC for providing computer resources. We also thank A. Preobrajenski, manager for Beamline D1011 at MaxLab in Lund, for the assistance during our NEXAFS measurements.

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Ahrén, M., Selegård, L., Söderlind, F. et al. A simple polyol-free synthesis route to Gd2O3 nanoparticles for MRI applications: an experimental and theoretical study. J Nanopart Res 14, 1006 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-012-1006-2

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Keywords

  • Gadolinium oxide
  • Synthesis
  • Relaxivity
  • XPS
  • IR
  • Toxicity