Growth of raspberry-, prism- and flower-like ZnO particles using template-free low-temperature hydrothermal method and their application as humidity sensors
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Zinc oxide particles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal method at 60–90 °C. The structure formation was controlled by the addition rate and temperature of hydrolyzing agent, while the particles size (10 nm–2.5 μm) was influenced by the preparation (hydrothermal) temperature. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that raspberry-, prism- and flower-like ZnO particles were prepared, whose average size decreased with increasing reaction temperature. X-ray diffraction investigations confirmed that ZnO particles with hexagonal crystal structure formed in all syntheses. The raspberry-, prism- and flower-like ZnO particles showed a weak UV-emission in the range of 390–395 nm and strong visible emission with a maximum at 586, 593 and 598 nm, respectively. Morphology effect on electrical and water vapour sensing properties of ZnO samples was investigated by impedance spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance, respectively. The absolute impedance of raspberry-, prism- and flower-like ZnO particles was found to be strong dependent on the morphology. Space-charge-limited conductivity transport mechanism was proved by the oscillatory behaviour of impedance. Humidity sensor tests also revealed morphology and specific surface area dependency on the sensitivity and water vapour adsorption property.
KeywordsZnO particles Hydrothermal method Photoluminescence Impedance spectroscopy Space-charge-limited current QCM
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