Skip to main content
Log in

Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles by natural precursor clove and their functionalization with amine group

  • Research Paper
  • Published:
Journal of Nanoparticle Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript


We report a simple and cost effective way for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (Au and Ag) using natural precursor clove. Au and Ag nanoparticles have been synthesized by reducing the aqueous solution of AuCl4 and AgNO3 with clove extract. One interesting aspect here is that reduction time is quite small (few minutes instead of hours as compared to other natural precursors). We synthesized gold and silver nanoparticles of different shape and size by varying the ratio of AuCl4 and AgNO3 with respect to clove extract, where the dominant component is eugenol. The evolution of Au and Ag nanoparticles from the reduction of different ratios of AuCl4 and AgNO3 with optimised concentration of the clove extract has been evaluated through monitoring of surface plasmon behaviour as a function of time. The reduction of AuCl4 and AgNO3 by eugenol is because of the inductive effect of methoxy and allyl groups which are present at ortho and para positions of proton releasing –OH group as two electrons are released from one molecule of eugenol. This is followed by the formation of resonating structure of the anionic form of eugenol. The presence of methoxy and allyl groups has been confirmed by FTIR. To the best of our knowledge, use of clove as reducing agent, the consequent very short time (minutes instead of hours and without any scavenger) and the elucidation of mechanism of reduction based on FTIR analysis has not been attempted earlier.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Ahmad A, Mukherjee P, Senapati S, Mandal D, Khan MI, Kumar R, Sastry M (2003) Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Colloids Surf B 28:313–318

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad A, Mukherjee P, Senapati S, Khan MI, Kumar R, Sastry M (2005) Extra-/intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by an alkalotolerant fungus Trichothecium sp. J Biomed Nanotech 1:47–53

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chandran SP, Chaudhary M, Pasricha R, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2008) Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using aloevera plant extract. Biotech Progress 22:577–583

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gardea-Torresdey JL, Parsons JG, Gomez E, Peralta-Videa J, Troiani HE, Santiago P, Yacaman MJ (2002) Formation and growth of Au nanoparticles inside live Alfalfa plants. Nano Lett 2:397–401

    Article  CAS  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Jain PK, El-Sayed IH, El-Sayed MA (2007) Au nanoparticles target cancer. Nano Today 2:18–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Stoilova I, Stoyanova A, Krastanov A, Schmidt E (2006) Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of clove leaf essential oil. J Agric Food Chem 54:6303–6307

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mandal D, Bolander ME, Mukhopadhyay D, Sarkar G, Mukherjee P (2006) The use of microorganisms for the formation of metal nanoparticles and their application. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 69:485–492

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mukherjee P, Ahmad D, Mandal A, Senapati S, Sainkar SR, Khan MI, Parishcha R, Ajaykumar PV, Alam M, Kumar R, Sastry M (2002) Extracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Chem BioChem 3:461–463

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Richardson HH (2006) Thermo optical properties of gold nanoparticles embedded in ice: characterization of heat generation and melting. Nano Lett 4:783–788

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Shankar SS, Ahmad A, Pasricha R, Sastry M (2003) Bioreduction of chloroaurate ions by geranium leaves and its endophytic fungus yields gold nanoparticles of different shapes. J Mater Chem 13:1822–1826

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shankar SS, Rai A, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2004) Rapid synthesis of Au, Ag, and bimetallic Au core–Ag shell nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:496–502

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Willets KA, Van Duyne RP (2007) Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing. Annu Rev Phys Chem 58:267–297

    Article  CAS  PubMed  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao J, Zhang XY, Yonzon CR, Haes AJ, Van Duyne RP (2006) Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors. Nanomedicine 1:219–228

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are extremely grateful to Prof. C. N. R. Rao, Prof. A. S. K. Sinha (Chemical Engineering, IT-BHU), Ashish Singh (Department of Chemistry, BHU), Kumari Bhoomika and Samantha Pyngrope (Department of Bio-Chemistry, BHU) for their encouragements and fruitful discussions. The authors acknowledge with gratitude the financial support from DST: UNANST, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), University Grant Commission (UGC) and Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, New Delhi, India.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to O. N. Srivastava.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Singh, A.K., Talat, M., Singh, D.P. et al. Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles by natural precursor clove and their functionalization with amine group. J Nanopart Res 12, 1667–1675 (2010).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: