Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 569–574 | Cite as

Surface effects on the photoluminescence of Si quantum dots

  • Chiang-Jing Wang
  • Meng-Yen Tsai
  • Cheng Chung Chi
  • Tsong-Pyng Perng
Research Paper

Abstract

Si quantum dots (SiQDs) with sizes ranging from 5 to 20 nm were fabricated by vapor condensation. They showed red photoluminescence (PL) in vacuum with the peak located at around 750 nm. After the specimen was exposed to air, the PL intensity became higher, and continued to increase during the PL test with a cycling of vacuum-air-vacuum. In pure oxygen, the PL intensity exhibited an irreversible decrease, while in nitrogen a smaller amount of reversible increase of PL intensity was observed. Furthermore, the PL intensity exhibited a remarkable enhancement if the SiQDs were treated with water. With HF treatment, the PL peak position showed a blue-shift to 680 nm, and was recovered after subsequent exposure to air. Si–O–H complexes were suggested to be responsible for this red luminescence. The irreversible decrease of PL intensity due to oxygen adsorption was speculated to be caused by the modification of chemical bonds on the surface. In the case of nitrogen adsorption, the PL change was attributed to the surface charging during adsorption.

Keywords

Si Quantum dots Photoluminescence Si–O–H complexes Effects of ambient gases Synthesis Oxygen adsorption 

References

  1. Brandt MS, Fuchs HD, Stutzmann M, Weber J, Cardona M (1992) The origin of visible luminescence from “porous silicon”: a new interpretation. Solid State Comm 81(4):307–312CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Canham LT (1990) Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers. Appl Phys Lett 57(10):1046–1048CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Delley B, Steigmeter EF (1993) Quantum confinement in Si nanocrystals. Phys Rev B 47(3):1397–1400CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Dittrich T, Konstantinova EA, Timoshenko VYu (1995) Influence of molecule adsorption on porous silicon photoluminescence. Thin Solid Films 255:238–240CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Furukawa S, Miyasato T (1988) Three-dimensional quantum well effects in ultrafine silicon particles. Jpn J Appl Phys 27(11):L2207–L2209CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Kanemitsu Y, Uto H, Masumoto Y, Matsumoto T, Futagi T, Mimura H (1993) Microstructure and optical properties of free-standing porous silicon films: size dependence of absorption spectra in Si nanometer-sized crystallites. Phys Rev B 48(4):2827–2830CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Kanemitsu Y (1995) Light emission from porous silicon and related materials. Phys Rep 263:1–91CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Kanemitsu Y, Okamoto S (1997) Visible luminescence from silicon quantum dots and wells. Mater Sci Eng B 48:108–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kawaguchi T, Miyazima S (1993) Visible photoluminescence from Si microcrystalline particles. Jpn J Appl Phys 32:L215–L217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kiselev VF, Krylov OV (1985) Electronic phenomena in adsorption and catalysis on semiconductors and dielectrics, vol 7. Springer, Berlin, Springer SeriesGoogle Scholar
  11. Koch F, Petrova-Koch V, Muschik T (1993) The luminescence of porous Si: the case for the surface state mechanism. J Lumin 57:271–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Konstantinova EA, Dittrich T, Timoshenko Vyu, Kashkarov PK (1996) Adsorption-induced modification of spin and recombination centers in porous silicon. Thin Solid Films 276:265–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kontkiewicz AJ, Kontkiewicz AM, Siejka J, Sen S, Nowak G, Hoff AM, Sakthivel P, Ahmed K, Mukherjee P, Witanachchi S, Lagowski J (1994) Evidence that blue luminescence of oxidized porous silicon originates from SiO2. Appl Phys Lett 65(11):1436–1438CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Morisaki H (1992) Above-band-gap photoluminescence from Si fine particles. Nanotechnology 3:196–201CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Price KJ, McNeil LE, Suvkanov A, Irene EA, MacFarlane PJ, Zvanut ME (1999) Characterization of the luminescence center in photo- and electroluminescent amorphous silicon oxynitride films. J Appl Phys 86(5):2628–2637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Prokes SM, Glembocki OJ, Bermudez VM, Kaplan R, Friedersdorft LE, Searson PC (1992) SiHx excitation: an alternate mechanism for porous Si photoluminescence. Phys Rev B 45(23):13788–13791CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Rücksckloss M, Wirschem Th, Tamura H, Ruhl G, Oswald J, Veprek S (1995) Photoluminescence from OH-related radiative centres in silica, metal oxides and oxidized nanocrystalline and porous silicon. J Lumin 63:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sato S, Ono H, Nozaki S, Morisaki H (1995) Photoluminescence study on oxygen-containing silicon nanostructures. Nanostruct Mater 5(5):589–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tsai C, Li KH, Kinosky DS, Qian RZ, Hsu TC, Irby JT, Banerjee SK, Tasch AF, Campbell JC (1992) Correlation between silicon hydride species and the photoluminescence intensity of porous silicon. Appl Phys Lett 60:1700–1702CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Xie YH, Wilson WL, Ross FM, Mucha JA, Fitzgerald EA, Macaulay JM, Harris TD (1992) Luminescence and structural study of porous silicon films. J Appl Phys 71(5):2403–2407CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Yun F, Hinds BJ, Hatatani S, Oda S, Zhao QX, Willander M (2000) Study of structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline silicon embedded in SiO2. Thin Solid Films 375:137–141CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Zhu M, Chen G, Chen P (1997) Green/blue light emission and chemical feature of nanocrystalline silicon embedded in silicon-oxide thin film. Appl Phys A 65:195–198CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chiang-Jing Wang
    • 1
  • Meng-Yen Tsai
    • 1
  • Cheng Chung Chi
    • 2
  • Tsong-Pyng Perng
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNational Tsing Hua UniversityHsinchuTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsNational Tsing Hua UniversityHsinchuTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials ScienceYuan Ze UniversityChung-LiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations