Advertisement

Inverse marking and Multiple Agree in Algonquin

Complementarity and variability
  • Will Oxford
Article
  • 82 Downloads

Abstract

This paper shows that inverse marking and portmanteau agreement are in complementary distribution in Algonquin: inverse marking is possible only in contexts where portmanteau agreement is not. This correlation holds despite intralanguage variation in both phenomena. The paper proposes that the two phenomena pattern together because both are determined by the outcome of the Agree operation on Infl. When Infl enters a Multiple Agree relation with both arguments, the realization of portmanteau agreement morphology is possible. When Infl agrees only with the object, it duplicates the result of an earlier object agreement operation on Voice. The presence of identical features on Infl and Voice triggers an impoverishment operation that deletes the features of Voice, resulting in its spellout as an underspecified elsewhere form—which is the exponent that we know descriptively as the inverse marker. This analysis explains why inverse marking and portmanteau agreement never co-occur in Algonquin: the two phenomena are determined by alternative outcomes of the Agree operation on Infl. The analysis also enables a simple account of the intralanguage variation in the patterning of the two phenomena, which is shown to follow from variation in the specification of the probe on Infl.

Keywords

Agreement Inverse marking Equidistance Portmanteaux Algonquin 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The material in this paper has benefited from the helpful comments of Jonathan Bobaljik, Phil Branigan, Brandon Fry, Michael Hamilton, Bethany Lochbihler, and four anonymous reviewers, as well as audiences at WCCFL 32 (USC), WSCLA 19 (Memorial), the 47th Algonquian Conference (Manitoba), WCCFL 34 (Utah), NELS 47 (UMass Amherst), and the University of Ottawa. The research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (Insight Development Grant 430-2016-00680).

References

  1. Aissen, Judith. 1999. Markedness and subject choice in Optimality Theory. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 17: 673–711. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anagnostopoulou, Elena. 2005. Strong and weak person restrictions: A feature checking analysis. In Clitic and affix combinations: Theoretical perspectives, eds. Lorie Heggie and Francisco Ordóñez, 199–235. Amsterdam: Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arregi, Karlos, and Andrew Nevins. 2007. Obliteration vs. impoverishment in the Basque g-/z- constraint. In Penn Linguistics Colloquium (PLC) 30, eds. Tatjana Scheffler, Joshua Tauberer, Aviad Eilam, and Laia Mayol, 1–14. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. Working Papers in Linguistics 10.1. Google Scholar
  4. Arregi, Karlos, and Andrew Nevins. 2008. Agreement and clitic restrictions in Basque. In Agreement Restrictions, eds. Roberta D’Alessandro, Susann Fischer, and Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson, 49–85. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  5. Baker, Mark C. 2008. The syntax of agreement and concord. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Béjar, Susana. 2003. Phi-syntax: A theory of agreement. PhD diss., University of Toronto. Google Scholar
  7. Béjar, Susana, and Milan Rezac. 2009. Cyclic Agree. Linguistic Inquiry 40: 35–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bliss, Heather. 2013. The Blackfoot configurationality conspiracy. PhD diss., University of British Columbia. Google Scholar
  9. Bliss, Heather, Elizabeth Ritter, and Martina Wiltschko. 2014. A comparative analysis of theme marking in Blackfoot and Nishnaabemwin. In Papers of the 42nd Algonquian conference, eds. J. Randolph Valentine and Monica Macaulay, 10–33. Albany: SUNY Press. Google Scholar
  10. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1946. Algonquian. In Linguistic structures of native America, ed. Harry Hoijer, 85–129. New York: Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology. Google Scholar
  11. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1962. The Menomini language. New Haven: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
  12. Bobaljik, Jonathan D., and Phil Branigan. 2006. Eccentric agreement and multiple case-checking. In Ergativity: Emerging issues, eds. Alana Johns, Dian Massam, and Ndayiragije Juvénal, 47–77. Dordrecht: Springer. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonet, Eulalia. 1991. Morphology after syntax: Pronominal clitics in Romance. PhD diss., MIT. Google Scholar
  14. Branigan, Phil, and Marguerite MacKenzie. 1999. Binding relations and the nature of pro in Innu-aimun. In North East Linguistic Society (NELS) 29, eds. Pius Tamanji, Masako Hirotani, and Nancy Hall, 475–485. Google Scholar
  15. Branigan, Phil, Julie Brittain, and Carrie Dyck. 2005. Balancing syntax and prosody in the Algonquian verb complex. In Papers of the 36th Algonquian conference, ed. H. C. Wolfart, 75–93. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. Google Scholar
  16. Brittain, Julie. 1999. A reanalysis of transitive animate theme signs as object agreement: Evidence from Western Naskapi. In Papers of the 30th Algonquian conference, ed. David H. Pentland, 34–46. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. Google Scholar
  17. Brittain, Julie. 2001a. The morphosyntax of the Algonquian conjunct verb: A Minimalist approach. New York: Garland. Google Scholar
  18. Brittain, Julie. 2001b. Obviation and coreference relations in Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi. Linguistica Atlantica 23: 69–91. Google Scholar
  19. Brittain, Julie. 2003. A Distributed Morphology account of the syntax of the Algonquian verb. In 2003 annual conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association, eds. Stanca Somesfalean and Sophie Burelle, 25–39. Google Scholar
  20. Bruening, Benjamin. 2001. Syntax at the edge: Cross-clausal phenomena and the syntax of Passamaquoddy. PhD diss., MIT. Google Scholar
  21. Bruening, Benjamin. 2005. The Algonquian inverse is syntactic: Binding in Passamaquoddy. Ms., University of Delaware. Google Scholar
  22. Bruening, Benjamin. 2008. Quantification in Passamaquoddy. In Quantification: A cross-linguistic perspective, ed. Lisa Matthewson, 67–103. Bingley: Emerald. Google Scholar
  23. Bruening, Benjamin. 2009. Algonquian languages have A-movement and A-agreement. Linguistic Inquiry 40: 427–445. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Campana, Mark. 1996. The conjunct order in Algonquian. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 41: 201–234. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Campbell, Amy M. 2012. The morphosyntax of discontinuous exponence. PhD diss., Berkeley. Google Scholar
  26. Chomsky, Noam. 2000. Minimalist inquiries: The framework. In Step by step: Essays on Minimalism in honor of Howard Lasnik, eds. Roger Martin, David Michaels, and Juan Uriagereka, 89–155. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  27. Chomsky, Noam. 2001. Derivation by phase. In Ken Hale: A life in language, ed. Michael Kenstowicz, 1–52. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  28. Cook, Clare. 2014. The clause-typing system of Plains Cree: Indexicality, anaphoricity, and contrast. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dahlstrom, Amy. 1989. Morphological change in Plains Cree verb inflection. Folia Linguistica Historica 22: 59–72. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dahlstrom, Amy. 1995. Topic, focus and other word order problems in Algonquian. The 1994 Belcourt Lecture. Winnipeg: Voices of Rupert’s Land. Google Scholar
  31. Fry, Brandon. 2015. The derivation of theme-signs in Algonquin Ojibwe: A multiple agree approach. Talk presented at the 2015 CLA Annual Conference, University of Ottawa. Google Scholar
  32. Georgi, Doreen. 2013a. Deriving the distribution of person portmanteaux by relativized probing. In North East Linguistic Society (NELS) 42, eds. Stefan Keine and Shayne Sloggett, 155–168. Google Scholar
  33. Georgi, Doreen. 2013b. A relativized probing approach to person encoding in local scenarios. Linguistic Variation 12: 153–210. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goddard, Ives. 1974. Remarks on the Algonquian Independent Indicative. International Journal of American Linguistics 40: 317–327. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goddard, Ives. 1979. Delaware verbal morphology: A descriptive and comparative study. New York: Garland. Google Scholar
  36. Goddard, Ives. 2000. The historical origins of Cheyenne inflections. In Papers of the 31st Algonquian conference, ed. John D. Nichols, 77–129. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. Google Scholar
  37. Goddard, Ives. 2007. Reconstruction and history of the independent indicative. In Papers of the 38th Algonquian conference, ed. H. C. Wolfart, 207–271. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. Google Scholar
  38. Goddard, Ives. 2015. Arapaho historical morphology. Anthropological Linguistics 57: 345–411. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Halle, Morris. 1997. Distributed morphology: Impoverishment and fission. In Papers at the interface, eds. Benjamin Bruening, Yoonjung Kang, and Martha McGinnis, 425–449. Cambridge: MITWPL. Google Scholar
  40. Halle, Morris, and Alec Marantz. 1993. Distributed Morphology and the pieces of inflection. In The view from Building 20, eds. Ken Hale and Samuel J. Keyser, 111–176. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  41. Harbour, Daniel. 2008. Discontinuous agreement and the syntax-morphology interface. In Phi-theory: Phi-features across modules and interfaces, eds. Daniel Harbour, David Adger, and Susana Béjar, 185–230. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  42. Harley, Heidi, and Elizabeth Ritter. 2002. Person and number in pronouns: A feature-geometric analysis. Language 78: 482–526. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Heath, Jeffrey. 1991. Pragmatic disguise in pronominal-affix paradigms. In Paradigms: The economy of inflection, ed. Frans Plank, 75–89. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  44. Heath, Jeffrey. 1998. Pragmatic skewing in 1 ↔ 2 pronominal combinations in native American languages. International Journal of American Linguistics 64: 83–104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hiraiwa, Ken. 2001. Multiple Agree and the defective intervention constraint in Japanese. In HUMIT 2000, eds. Ora Matushansky et al., 67–80. Cambridge: MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 40. Google Scholar
  46. Hirose, Tomio. 2003. Origins of predicates: Evidence from Plains Cree. New York: Routledge. Google Scholar
  47. Hockett, Charles F. 1966. What Algonquian is really like. International Journal of American Linguistics 32: 59–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hockett, Charles F. 1992. Direction in the Algonquian verb: A correction. Anthropological Linguistics 34: 311–315. Google Scholar
  49. Hornstein, Norbert. 2009. A theory of syntax: Minimal operations and Universal Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  50. Jones, David. 1977. A basic Algonquin grammar: For teachers of the language at Maniwaki, Quebec, Maniwaki: River Desert Band Council. Google Scholar
  51. Junker, Marie-Odile. 2004. Focus, obviation, and word order in East Cree. Lingua 114: 345–365. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. van Koppen, Marjo. 2005. One probe—two goals: Aspects of agreement in Dutch dialects. PhD diss., Leiden University. Google Scholar
  53. van Koppen, Marjo. 2006. One probe, multiple goals: The case of first conjunct agreement. In Leiden Papers in Linguistics 3.2, eds. Marjo van Koppen et al., 25–52. Google Scholar
  54. van Koppen, Marjo. 2008. Agreement with coordinated subjects. A comparative perspective. Linguistic Variation Yearbook 7: 121–161. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kramer, Ruth. 2014. Clitic doubling or object agreement: The view from Amharic. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 32: 593–634. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lochbihler, Bethany. 2012. Aspects of argument licensing. PhD diss., McGill University. Google Scholar
  57. Lochbihler, Bethany, and Eric Mathieu. 2016. Clause typing and feature inheritance of discourse features. Syntax 19: 354–391. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Macaulay, Monica. 2009. On prominence hierarchies: Evidence from Algonquian. Linguistic Typology 13: 357–389. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mathieu, Eric. 2007. Petite syntaxe des finales concrètes en ojibwe. In Papers of the 38th Algonquian conference, ed. H. C. Wolfart, 295–321. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. Google Scholar
  60. McGinnis, Martha. 1995. Word-internal syntax: Evidence from Ojibwa. In 1995 annual conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association, ed. Paivi Koskinen, 337–347. Google Scholar
  61. McGinnis, Martha. 1999. Is there syntactic inversion in Ojibwa? In Papers from the workshop on structure and constituency in native American languages, eds. Leora Bar-el, Rose-Marie Déchaine, and Charlotte Reinholtz, 101–118. MIT Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17. Google Scholar
  62. Nevins, Andrew. 2007. The representation of third person and its consequences for person-case effects. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 25: 273–313. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nevins, Andrew. 2011. Multiple agree with clitics: Person complementarity vs. omnivorous number. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 29: 939–971. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nichols, John D. 1980. Ojibwe morphology. PhD diss., Harvard. Google Scholar
  65. Oxford, Will. 2014. Microparameters of agreement: A diachronic perspective on Algonquian verb inflection. PhD diss., University of Toronto. Google Scholar
  66. Oxford, Will. 2017a. The Activity Condition as a microparameter. Linguistic Inquiry 48: 711–722. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Oxford, Will. 2017b. Inverse marking as impoverishment. In West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL) 34, eds. Aaron Kaplan et al., 413–422. Google Scholar
  68. Pentland, David H. 1999. The morphology of the Algonquian independent order. In Papers of the 30th Algonquian Conference, ed. David H. Pentland, 222–266. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. Google Scholar
  69. Perlmutter, David M. 1971. Deep and surface structure constraints in syntax. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Google Scholar
  70. Perlmutter, David M., and Richard A. Rhodes. 1988. Thematic-syntactic alignments in Ojibwa: Evidence for subject-object reversal. Paper presented at the 63rd annual meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, New Orleans. Google Scholar
  71. Preminger, Omer. 2009. Breaking agreements: Distinguishing agreement and clitic doubling by their failures. Linguistic Inquiry 40: 619–666. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Reinhart, Tanya. 1981. A second COMP position. In Theory of markedness in generative grammar: Proceedings of the 1979 GLOW conference, eds. Adriana Belletti, Luciana Brandi, and Luigi Rizzi, 517–551. Pisa: Scuola Normale Superiore. Google Scholar
  73. Rhodes, Richard A. 1976. The morphosyntax of the Central Ojibwa verb. PhD diss., University of Michigan. Google Scholar
  74. Rhodes, Richard A. 1990. Obviation, inversion, and topic rank in Ojibwa. In Berkeley Linguistics Society (BLS) 16: Special session on general topics in American Indian linguistics, ed. David Costa, 101–115. Google Scholar
  75. Rhodes, Richard A. 1994. Agency, inversion, and thematic alignment in Ojibwe. In Berkeley Linguistics Society (BLS) 20, ed. Susanne Gahl, Andy Dolbey, and Christopher Johnson, 431–446. Google Scholar
  76. Rhodes, Richard A. 2006. Ojibwe language shift: 1600–present. Paper presented at Historical Linguistics and Hunter-Gatherer Populations in Global Perspective, MPI-EVA Leipzig. Google Scholar
  77. Rhodes, Richard A., and Evelyn Todd. 1981. Subarctic Algonquian languages. In Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 6: Subarctic, ed. June Helm, 52–66. Washington: Smithsonian. Google Scholar
  78. Richards, Norvin. 2001. Movement in language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  79. Richards, Norvin. 2004. The syntax of the conjunct and independent orders in Wampanoag. International Journal of American Linguistics 70: 327–368. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Richards, Norvin. 2010. Uttering trees. Cambridge: MIT Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ritter, Elizabeth, and Martina Wiltschko. 2014. The composition of INFL: An exploration of tense, tenseless languages, and tenseless constructions. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 32: 1331–1386. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Russell, Kevin, and Charlotte Reinholtz. 1995. Hierarchical structure in a nonconfigurational language: Asymmetries in Swampy Cree. In West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL) 14, eds. Jose Camacho, Lina Choueiri, and Maki Watanabe, 431–445. Google Scholar
  83. Sandalo, Filomena. 2016. The relational morpheme of Brazilian languages as an impoverished agreement marker. In Workshop on Structure and Constituency in the Languages of the Americas (WSCLA) 20 (UBCWPL 43), eds. Emily Sadlier-Brown, Erin Guntly, and Natalie Weber, 82–88. Google Scholar
  84. Statistics Canada. 2013. Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg, Indian band area, Quebec (Code 630073). National Household Survey (NHS) Aboriginal Population Profile. 2011 National Household Survey. Catalogue no. 99-011-X2011007. Available at http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/aprof/index.cfm?Lang=E. Accessed December 20, 2016.
  85. Steriade, Donca. 1987. Redundant values. In Chicago Linguistic Society 23, Part 2, eds. Anna Bosch, Barbara Need, and Eric Schiller, 339–362. Google Scholar
  86. Tollan, Rebecca, and Will Oxford. 2018. Voice-less unergatives: Evidence from Algonquian. In West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL) 35, eds. William G. Bennett, Lindsay Hracs, and Dennis Ryan Storoshenko, 399–408. Google Scholar
  87. Tomlin, Russell, and Richard A. Rhodes. 1979. An introduction to information distribution in Ojibwa. Chicago Linguistic Society (CLS) 15: 307–320. Google Scholar
  88. Trommer, Jochen. 2003. Distributed optimality. PhD diss., Universität Potsdam. Google Scholar
  89. Trommer, Jochen. 2007. On portmanteau agreement. Talk presented at the Harvard-Leipzig Workshop on Morphology and Argument Encoding, Harvard. Google Scholar
  90. Trommer, Jochen. 2010. The typology of portmanteau agreement. Talk presented at the DGfS-CNRS Summer School on Linguistic Typology, Leipzig. Google Scholar
  91. Ura, Hiroyuki. 1996. Multiple feature-checking: A theory of grammatical function splitting. PhD diss., MIT. Google Scholar
  92. Valentine, J. Randolph. 1994. Ojibwe dialect relationships. PhD diss., University of Texas, Austin. Google Scholar
  93. Valentine, J. Randolph. 2001. Nishnaabemwin reference grammar. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Google Scholar
  94. Wolfart, H. C. 1973. Plains Cree: A grammatical study. Vol. 63 of Transactions of the American philosophical society, Part 5. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. Google Scholar
  95. Wolvengrey, Arok. 2011. Semantic and pragmatic functions in Plains Cree syntax. PhD diss., University of Amsterdam. Google Scholar
  96. Woolford, Ellen. 2008. Active-stative agreement in Lakota: Person and number alignment and portmanteau formation. Ms., University of Massachusetts. Google Scholar
  97. Woolford, Ellen. 2010. Active-stative agreement in Choctaw and Lakota. Revista Virtual de Estudos da Linguagem 8: 6–46. Google Scholar
  98. Wunderlich, Dieter. 2005. The challenge by inverse morphology. Lingue e Linguaggio 4: 195–214. Google Scholar
  99. Zúñiga, Fernando. 2006. Deixis and alignment: Inverse systems in Indigenous languages of the Americas. Amsterdam: Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zúñiga, Fernando. 2008. How many hierarchies, really? Evidence from several Algonquian languages. In Scales, eds. Marc Richards and Andrej L. Malchukov. Vol. 86 of Linguistische Arbeits Berichte, 277–294. Leipzig: Universität. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.545 Fletcher Argue BuildingUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

Personalised recommendations