Advertisement

Absolutive Promotion and the Condition on Clitic Hosts in Choctaw

  • Matthew Tyler
Article

Abstract

This article develops of an analysis of the clitic co-occurrence restrictions found on transitive unaccusative verbs in Choctaw, and how they are (or are not) repaired. It turns out that the repair strategy of Absolutive Promotion, by which a typically-absolutive argument becomes ergative, is sensitive to standard syntactic notions of intervention and locality, implying that it involves a syntactic Agree relation. Regarding the clitic co-occurrence restrictions, I show that they can be captured with the Condition on Clitic Hosts—a condition that syntactic heads can host at most one clitic, adapted from the condition of the same name developed by Arregi and Nevins (2012) for Basque. By detailed comparison with Basque, we see that the Condition on Clitic Hosts and Absolutive Promotion are found in both languages. However, they do not have entirely the same effect: Absolutive Promotion in Choctaw can repair a different set of structures from those it can repair in Basque, and clitics are hosted on a different set of heads in Choctaw from where they are hosted in Basque.

Keywords

Choctaw Basque Clitics PCC Case Agreement Repair 

Notes

Acknowledgements

My greatest thanks goes to Jim Wood for his insight, advice and encouragement at all stages of this project. I am extremely grateful to four anonymous reviewers and NLLT associate editor Daniel Harbour, who made this work immeasurably better. Thanks also to Stephen Anderson, Karlos Arregi, Claire Bowern, Aaron Broadwell, Bob Frank, Andrew Nevins, Michelle Yuan and Raffaella Zanuttini for comments, discussion and logistical help, as well as audiences at LSA 2017, CLS 53 and Yale University. This article would not have been possible without the Mississippi Choctaw speakers who took the time to share their language with me, always with patience, insight and good humor, and they have my deepest gratitude. They are: Elijah Ben, Patty Billie, Chris Chickaway, Shayla Chickaway, Zonie Isaac, Buck Willis and Darlene Willis. I am also grateful to the Language Program at the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians for generously hosting me during my visits to MBCI, and the Tribal Council and the Office of the Chief. This work was partly supported by a Pre-Dissertation Research Grant from the Yale MacMillan Center. All errors are my own.

References

  1. Adger, David, and Daniel Harbour. 2007. Syntax and syncretisms of the Person Case Constraint. Syntax 10: 2–37. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albizu, Pablo. 1997. Generalized Person-Case Constraint: A case for a syntax-driven inflectional morphology. In Theoretical issues on the morphology–syntax interface, eds. Myriam Uribe-Etxebarria and Amaya Mendikoetxea, 1–33. Donostia: Gipuzkoako Foru Aldundia/UPV/EHU. Google Scholar
  3. Alexiadou, Artemis, Elena Anagnostopoulou, and Christina Sevdali. 2014. Opaque and transparent datives, and how they behave in passives. The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 17: 1–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anagnostopoulou, Elena. 1999. On experiencers. In Studies in Greek syntax, eds. Artemis Alexiadou, Geoffrey Horrocks, and Melita Stavrou, 67–93. Dordrecht: Springer. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anagnostopoulou, Elena. 2003. The syntax of ditransitives: Evidence from clitics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  6. Anagnostopoulou, Elena. 2005. Strong and weak person restrictions: A feature checking analysis. In Clitic and affix combinations: Theoretical perspectives, eds. Lorie Heggie and Francisco Ordóñez, 199–235. Amsterdam: Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aramaio, Itziar. 2001. Berriatuako aditz laguntzailea. BA thesis, University of Deusto. Google Scholar
  8. Arregi, Karlos. 2004. The have/be alternation in Basque. Ms., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Google Scholar
  9. Arregi, Karlos, and Andrew Nevins. 2012. Morphotactics: Basque auxiliaries and the structure of spellout. Dordrecht: Springer. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Artiagoitia, Xabier. 2001. Seemingly ergative and ergatively seeming. In Features and interfaces in Romance: Essays in honor of Heles Contreras, eds. Julia Herschensohn, Enrique Mallén, and Karen Zagona, 1–22. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Google Scholar
  11. Artiagoitia, Xabier. 2003. Reciprocal and reflexive constructions. In A grammar of Basque, eds. José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina, 607–632. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  12. Baker, Mark. 2008. The syntax of agreement and concord. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baker, Mark. 2014. On dependent ergative case (in Shipibo) and its derivation by phase. Linguistic Inquiry 45: 341–379. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baker, Mark. 2015. Case: Its principles and parameters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bejar, Susana, and Diane Massam. 1999. Multiple case checking. Syntax 2 (2): 65–79. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Béjar, Susana, and Milan Rezac. 2003. Person licensing and the derivation of PCC effects. In Romance linguistics: Theory and Acquisition, eds. Ana-Teresa Pérez-Leroux and Yves Roberge, 49–62. Amsterdam: Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Béjar, Susana, and Milan Rezac. 2009. Cyclic Agree. Linguistic Inquiry 40 (1): 35–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Belletti, Adriana, and Luigi Rizzi. 1988. Psych-verbs and θ-theory. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 6 (3): 291–352. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bonet, Eulalia. 1991. Morphology after syntax: Pronominal clitics in Romance. PhD diss., MIT. Google Scholar
  20. Bonet, Eulalia. 1994. The Person-Case Constraint: A morphological approach. In The morphology–syntax connection, eds. Heidi Harley and Colin Phillips. Vol. 22 of MIT working papers in linguistics, 33–52. Cambridge: MITWPL. Google Scholar
  21. Broadwell, George Aaron. 1988. Multiple theta-role assignment in Choctaw. In Thematic relations, ed. Wendy Wilkins, Vol. 21 of Syntax and semantics, 113–127. San Diego: Academic Press. Google Scholar
  22. Broadwell, George Aaron. 1990. Extending the binding theory: A Muskogean case study. PhD diss., UCLA. Google Scholar
  23. Broadwell, George Aaron. 1997. Binding theory and switch-reference. In Atomism and binding, eds. Hans Bennis, Pierre Pica, and Johann Rooryck, 31–50. Dordrecht: Foris. Google Scholar
  24. Broadwell, George Aaron. 1998. Directionals as complex predicates in Choctaw. In 1998 Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) conference, eds. Miriam Butt and Tracy Holloway King. Google Scholar
  25. Broadwell, George Aaron. 2006. A Choctaw reference grammar. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Google Scholar
  26. Broadwell, George Aaron, and Jack Martin. 1993. The clitic/agreement split: Asymmetries in Choctaw person marking. In Annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (BLS) 19, 1–10. Google Scholar
  27. Camacho, José. 2010. On case concord: The syntax of switch-reference clauses. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 28 (2): 239–274. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cardinaletti, Anna, and Ur Shlonsky. 2004. Clitic positions and restructuring in Italian. Linguistic Inquiry 35 (4): 519–557. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cecchetto, Carlo. 2000. Doubling structures and reconstruction. Probus 12: 93–126. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chomsky, Noam. 1995. The minimalist program. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  31. Chomsky, Noam. 2000. Minimalist inquiries: The framework. In Step by step: Essays on minimalist syntax in honor of Howard Lasnik, eds. Roger Martin, David Michaels, and Juan Uriagereka. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  32. Chomsky, Noam. 2008. On phases. In Foundational issues in linguistic theory. Essays in honor of Jean-Roger Vergnaud, eds. Robert Freidin, Carlos Otero, and Maria Luisa Zubizarreta, 133–166. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  33. Cuervo, María Cristina. 2003. Datives at large. PhD diss., MIT. Google Scholar
  34. Dahlstrom, Amy. 1983. Agent–patient languages and split case marking systems. In Annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (BLS) 9, 37–46. Google Scholar
  35. Davies, William. 1986. Choctaw verb agreement and universal grammar. Dordrecht: Reidel. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. De Cat, Cécile. 2000. Towards a unified analysis of French floating quantifiers. Journal of French Language Studies 10 (1): 1–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Deal, Amy Rose. to appear. Raising to ergative: Remarks on applicatives of unaccusatives. Linguistic Inquiry.  https://doi.org/10.1162/ling_a_00310.
  38. Dixon, Robert M. W. 1979. Ergativity. Language 55 (1): 59–138. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Doetjes, Jenny. 1997. Quantifiers and selection: On the distribution of quantifying expressions in French, Dutch and English. PhD diss., Leiden University. Google Scholar
  40. Elordieta, Arantzazu. 2001. Verb movement and constituent permutation in Basque. PhD diss., Leiden University. Google Scholar
  41. Fitzpatrick, Justin Michael. 2006. The syntactic and semantic roots of floating quantification. PhD diss., MIT. Google Scholar
  42. Franks, Steven, and Catherine Rudin. 2005. Bulgarian clitics as K0 heads. In Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics (FASL): The South Carolina meeting, 2004, eds. Steven Franks, Frank Gladney, and Mila Tasseva-Kurktchieva, 104–116. Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications. Google Scholar
  43. Gerdts, Donna, and Kaoru Kiyosawa. 2005. Halkomelem psych applicatives. Studies in Language 29 (2): 329–362. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harizanov, Boris. 2014. Clitic doubling at the syntax–morphophonology interface. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 32 (4): 1033–1088. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Heath, Jeffrey. 1977. Choctaw cases. In Annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (BLS) 3, 204–213. Google Scholar
  46. Holguín, Justin. 2007. The status of ergative case in Basque: A minimalist approach. B.A. thesis, Reed College. Google Scholar
  47. Holmberg, Anders, and Thorbjörg Hróarsdóttir. 2003. Agreement and movement in Icelandic raising constructions. Lingua 113 (10): 997–1019. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hualde, José Ignacio, Elordieta Gorka, and Elordieta Arantzazu. 1994. The Basque dialect of Lekeitio. Bilbao: UVP/EHU. Google Scholar
  49. Jelinek, Eloise. 1989. The case split and pronominal arguments in Choctaw. In Configurationality, eds. László Marácz and Pieter Muysken, 117–141. Dordrecht: Foris. Google Scholar
  50. Joppen, Sandra, and Dieter Wunderlich. 1995. Argument linking in Basque. Lingua 97 (2–3): 123–169. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kramer, Ruth. 2014. Clitic doubling or object agreement: The view from Amharic. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 32 (2): 593–634. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Laka, Itziar. 1993. The structure of inflection: A case study in X0 syntax. In Generative studies in Basque linguistics, eds. José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina, Vol. 105, 21–70. Amsterdam: Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Levin, Theodore. 2017. Successive-cyclic case assignment: Korean nominative–nominative case-stacking. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 35 (2): 447–498. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Linker, Wendy. 1987. On the coordinating status of the switch-reference markers -chah and -nah in Choctaw. In Muskogean linguistics, ed. Pamela Munro, 96–110. Los Angeles: UCLA. UCLA Occasional Papers in Linguistics. Google Scholar
  55. Marantz, Alec. 1997. No escape from syntax: Don’t try morphological analysis in the privacy of your own lexicon. In University of Pennsylvania working papers in linguistics 21, 201–225. Google Scholar
  56. Matushansky, Ora. 2006. Head movement in linguistic theory. Linguistic Inquiry 37 (1): 69–109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McFadden, Thomas. 2004. The position of morphological case in the derivation. PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania. Google Scholar
  58. McGinnis, Martha. 1998a. Locality and inert case. In North East Linguistic Society (NELS) 28, 267–281. Amherst: GLSA Publications. Google Scholar
  59. McGinnis, Martha. 1998b. Locality in A-movement. PhD diss., MIT. Google Scholar
  60. McGinnis, Martha. 2000. Event heads and the distribution of psych-roots. In University of Pennsylvania working papers in linguistics 6, 107–144. Google Scholar
  61. Mithun, Marianne. 1991. Active/agentive case marking and its motivations. Language 67: 510–546. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Munro, Pamela. 1999. Chickasaw subjecthood. In External possession, eds. Doris Payne and Immanuel Barshi, 251–289. Amsterdam: Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Munro, Pamela. 2016. Chickasaw switch-reference revisited. In Switch reference 2.0, eds. Rik van Gijn and Jeremy Hammond, 377–424. Amsterdam: Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Munro, Pamela, and Lynn Gordon. 1982. Syntactic relations in Western Muskogean: A typological perspective. Language 58: 81–115. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Myler, Neil. 2017. Cliticization feeds agreement: A view from Quechua. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 35: 751–800. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nevins, Andrew. 2007. The representation of third person and its consequences for person-case effects. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 25 (2): 273–313. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nevins, Andrew. 2011. Multiple agree with clitics: Person complementarity vs. omnivorous number. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 29 (4): 939–971. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nicklas, Thurston Dale. 1974. The elements of Choctaw. PhD diss., University of Michigan. Google Scholar
  69. Ormazabal, Javier, and Juan Romero. 2007. The Object Agreement Constraint. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 25 (2): 315–347. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ormazabal, Javier, and Juan Romero. 2013. Object clitics, agreement and dialectal variation. Probus 25: 301–344. Google Scholar
  71. de Urbina, Jon Ortiz. 2003. Causatives. In A grammar of Basque, eds. José Ignacio Hualde and Jon Ortiz de Urbina, 592–607. Berlin: de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  72. Oyharçabal, Beñat. 1992. Structural case and inherent case marking: Ergaccusativity in Basque. In Syntactic theory and Basque syntax, eds. Joseba Andoni Lakarra and Jon Ortiz de Urbina, 309–342. Bilbao: UPV/EHU. Google Scholar
  73. Oyharçabal, Beñat. 2003. Lexical causatives and causative alternation in Basque. In Inquiries into the syntax-lexicon relations in Basque, ed. Beñat Oyharçabal, 223–253. Bilbao: UPV/EHU. Google Scholar
  74. Payne, Doris. 1982. Chickasaw agreement morphology: A functional explanation. In Studies in transitivity, eds. Paul Hopper and Sandra Thompson. Vol. 15 of Syntax and semantics, 351–378. New York: Academic Press. Google Scholar
  75. Perlmutter, David M. 1971. Deep and surface structure constraints in syntax. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Google Scholar
  76. Pesetsky, David. 1995. Zero syntax: Experiencers and cascades. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  77. Pesetsky, David. 2013. Russian case morphology and the syntactic categories. Cambridge: MIT Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Poletto, Cecilia. 2000. The higher functional field: Evidence from Northern Italian dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  79. Preminger, Omer. 2009. Breaking agreements: Distinguishing agreement and clitic doubling by their failures. Linguistic Inquiry 40 (4): 619–666. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Preminger, Omer. 2011. Agreement as a fallible operation. PhD diss., MIT. Google Scholar
  81. Preminger, Omer. 2012. The absence of an implicit object in unergatives: New and old evidence from Basque. Lingua 122 (3): 278–288. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Preminger, Omer. 2014. Agreement and its failures. Cambridge: MIT Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Preminger, Omer. to appear. What the PCC tells us about ‘abstract’ agreement, head movement, and locality. Glossa. Google Scholar
  84. Pylkkänen, Liina. 2008. Introducing arguments. Cambridge: MIT Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rezac, Milan. 2008a. Phi-agree and theta-related case. In Phi theory: Phi-features across interfaces and modules, eds. Daniel Harbour, David Adger, and Susana Bejar, 83–129. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  86. Rezac, Milan. 2008b. The syntax of eccentric agreement: The Person Case Constraint and absolutive displacement in Basque. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 26 (1): 61–106. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rezac, Milan. 2009. Person restrictions in Basque intransitives. Lapurdum 13: 305–322. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rezac, Milan. 2010a. On the unifiability of repairs of the Person Case Constraint: French, Basque, Georgian, and Chinook. In Festschrift for Beñat Oyharçabal, eds. Ricardo Etxepare, Ricardo Gómez, and Joseba Lakarra, 769–789. Bilbao: UPV/EHU. Google Scholar
  89. Rezac, Milan. 2010b. ϕ-agree versus ϕ-feature movement: Evidence from floating quantifiers. Linguistic Inquiry 41 (3): 496–508. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rezac, Milan. 2011. Phi-features and the modular architecture of language. Berlin: Springer. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rezac, Milan, Pablo Albizu, and Ricardo Etxepare. 2014. The structural ergative of Basque and the theory of Case. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 32 (4): 1273–1330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rivero, María Luisa. 2004. Spanish quirky subjects, person restrictions, and the person-case constraint. Linguistic Inquiry 35 (3): 494–502. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rizzi, Luigi. 1990. Relativized minimality. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  94. Roberts, Ian. 2010. Agreement and head movement: Clitics, incorporation, and defective goals. Cambridge: MIT Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. San Martin, Itziar. 1999. Control in Basque. Ms., University of Maryland. Google Scholar
  96. Schütze, Carson. 1995. Case, verb morphology and argument structure in Choctaw: A minimalist account. In North East Linguistic Society (NELS) 25, 441–456. Google Scholar
  97. Sigurðsson, Halldór Ármann. 1996. Icelandic finite verb agreement. In Working papers in Scandinavian syntax, Vol. 57, 1–46. Google Scholar
  98. Silverstein, Michael. 1985. Hierarchy of features and ergativity. In Features and projections, eds. Pieter Muysken and Henk van Riemsdijk, 163–232. Dordrecht: Foris. Google Scholar
  99. Sportiche, Dominique. 1996. Clitic constructions. In Phrase structure and the lexicon, eds. Johan Rooryck and Laurie Zaring, 213–276. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stegovec, Adrian. 2017. Personality disorders: The PCC and two kinds of clitic reordering in Slovenian. In Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics (FASL) 24: The New York meeting, eds. Yohei Oseki, Maria Esipova, and Stephanie Harves, 342–362. Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications. Google Scholar
  101. Travis, Lisa. 1984. Parameters and effects of word order variation. PhD diss., MIT. Google Scholar
  102. Tsakali, Vina. 2008. “Double” floating quantifiers in Modern Greek and Pontic. In Microvariation in syntactic doubling, eds. Sjef Barbiers, Olaf Koeneman, Marika Lekakou, and Margreet van der Ham, Vol. 36 of Syntax and semantics, 189–203. Bingley: Emerald. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tyler, Matthew. to appear-a. In Choctaw, everyone’s a clitic. In Annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (BLS) 43. Google Scholar
  104. Tyler, Matthew. to appear-b. Choctaw as a window into the clitic/agreement split. Studia Linguistica. Google Scholar
  105. Tyler, Matthew. 2017. PCC repair in Basque and Choctaw transitive unaccusatives. In Annual meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society (CLS) 53. Google Scholar
  106. Ulrich, Charles. 1986. Choctaw morphophonology. PhD diss., UCLA. Google Scholar
  107. Uriagereka, Juan. 1995. Aspects of the syntax of clitic placement in Western Romance. Linguistic Inquiry 26 (1): 79–123. Google Scholar
  108. Wood, Jim. 2015. Icelandic morphosyntax and argument structure. Dordrecht: Springer. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Woolford, Ellen. 2006. Lexical case, inherent case, and argument structure. Linguistic Inquiry 37 (1): 111–130. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Woolford, Ellen. 2008. Is agreement really independent of case in Choctaw? Ms., University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Google Scholar
  111. Woolford, Ellen. 2010. Active-stative agreement in Choctaw and Lakota. Revista Virtual de Estudos da Linguagem 8: 6–46. Google Scholar
  112. Yoon, H.-S. James. 2004. Non-nominative (major) subjects and case stacking in Korean. In Non-nominative subjects, eds. Peri Bhaskararao and Karumuri Venkata Subbarao, Vol. 2, 265–314. Amsterdam: Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yuan, Michelle. 2017. Diagnosing object agreement vs. clitic doubling: Evidence from Inuktitut. Ms., MIT. Google Scholar
  114. Zwicky, Arnold M., and Geoffrey K. Pullum. 1983. Cliticization vs. inflection: English n’t. Language 59: 502–513. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of LinguisticsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations