Natural Language & Linguistic Theory

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 1395–1437 | Cite as

Non-canonical objects as event kind-classifying elements

  • Niina Ning ZhangEmail author


Non-canonical objects in Mandarin Chinese denote instrument, time, manner, and so on, instead of theme. The predicates that contain such objects show properties of unergative predicates. The paper thus claims that the syntactic position of such objects is the complement of a verb in the unergative use. The semantic function of such objects parallels that of classificatory adjectives in the nominal domain, and that of pseudo-incorporated nominals in the verbal domain. Such objects denote properties, and restrict, rather than saturate, predicates. Non-canonical objects are thus identified as event kind-classifying elements. Four properties of such objects motivate this analysis. They are never in the form of a pronoun, and never admit comparison; their hosting predicate encodes a subclass of an event kind, and the event is subject to an institutionalization constraint. Such objects are thus not arguments or adverbials. The paper further claims that since these properties are also found in cognate objects and weak definites in English, these two types of nominals are also event kind-classifying elements. These different types of nominal event kind-classifying elements are all complements of their associated verbs.


Non-canonical object Kind-classifying element Unergative Classificatory adjective Incorporation Weak definite Cognate object 



I would like to thank Daniel Hole for important feedback on the first version of this paper, the members of the NLLT editorial team and three anonymous reviewers for helpful advice, as well as Jo-Wang Lin, Hsuan-Hsiang Wang, Greg Carlson, Paolo Acquaviva, Antonio Fábregas, Marie-Claude Paris, Vithong Nguyen, Trang Phan, Liching Livy Chiu, Adam Zheng, Ljudmila Geist, the participants of my 2016 classes, the audiences of my talks at National Taiwan University in October 2016, and the International Conference on Asian Linguistics, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City, in December 2016, for providing references, discussing examples and some other issues of the paper, and James Myers for helping with my English. All remaining errors are mine. This research has been supported by CCU grant No. 105-00907-01.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Institute of LinguisticsNational Chung Cheng UniversityChia-YiTaiwan

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